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This appropriation is for the purpose of enforcing compliance with sections 20, 313, and 412 of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended, in respect to uni

forin systems of accounts of carriers (exclusive of motor carriers), freight forord of e' warders

, and persons wnicn furnish cars or protective service against heat or cold to or on behalt of any carrier by railroad or express company subject to the act, and policing the accounts of such carriers, freight forwarders, and persons. To that end the Commission is given the right of access to the accounts, records and memoranda of the carriers, and freight forwarders and persons, and is empowered to employ special agents, accountants, or examiners to inspect and examine such accounts, records, and memoranda.

The functions of the Bureau of Accounts are the preparation for promulgation

by the Commission of uniform accounting systems for the several classes of typcarriers, freight forwarders, and persons subject to the act; the policing of their

accounts by periodical examinations for the purpose of insuring compliance with the Commission's accounting regulations, and detecting and reporting for appropriate action discriminatory practices and other violations of the act; the administration of the Commission's regulations with respect to depreciation of property of the several classes of carriers specially covered in sections 20 and 313 of the act; accounting examinations necessary in connection with the regulation of security issues of railroads under section 20 (a); special accounting examinations to develop information for the Commission's use in connection with matters on hearings before it or with respect to other matters which seem to the Commission to require investigation; accounting examinations of railroads deemed necessary in the performance of its duties under section 77, chapter VIII of the Bankruptcy Act of 1898, as amended March 3, 1933, and investigations requested of the Commission by the Congress or committees thereof.

The estimate for 1944 is $40,247 less than the appropriation for the current fiscal.

We estimate a saving during the current fiscal year of $27,645. This saving will result principally from leaving unfilled vacancies caused by separation of employees from the service, and from curtailment of travel. This amount would have been somewhat greater had there not been an unavoidable increase in rents resulting from loss of branch office space formerly occupied in federally owned buildings in St. Paul, Minn., and San Francisco, Calif., necessitating the lease of corresponding space in privately owned buildings.

The amount of the Budget estimate for 1944 is $12,602 less than the estimated total obligations for 1943, due principally to decreases of $11,256 for personal services and $2,000 for equipment. It is expected that the saving of $11,256 can be effected by leaving open for the duration of the emergency vacancies created by separations from the service, despite the increase in duties previously mentioned, which we expect to curtail to some extent. The item of $2,000 will be saved by rigid economy in the purchase of equipment.

The only increase is $1,721 for travel expenses, and is necessary to permit the performance of field work that could not be done under the allowance available in 1943.

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SAFETY OF EMPLOYEES Mr. WOODRUM. The next item is for safety of employees, as follows:

Safety of employees: To enable the Interstate Commerce Commission to keep informed regarding and to enforce compliance with Acts to promote the safety of employees and travelers upon railroads; the Act requiring common carriers to make reports of accidents and authorizing investigations thereof: and to enable the Interstate Commerce Commission to investigate and test appliances intended to promote the safety of railway operation, as authorized by the joint resolution approved June 30, 1906 (45 U. S. C. 35), and the provision of the Sundry Civil Act approved May 27, 1908 (45 U. S. C. 36, 37), to investigate, test experimentally, 'and report on the use and need of any appliances or systems intended to promote the safety of railway operation, inspectors, and for traveling expenses, $520,000, of which amount not to exceed $92,000 may be expended for personal services in the District of Columbia.

Mr. WOODRUM. Your estimate for 1944 is $520,000 as against an appropriation for the current year of $510,955; is that correct?

Mr. BARTEL. Yes, sir,

Mr. WOODRUM. I imagine that is on account of the additional load carried by the railroads and the necessity for safety devices and inspection, and so forth?

1

JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATE

Mr. BARTEL. Increase in cost of travel primarily, Mr. Chairman. the following is our justification of that item.

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The primary functions of this Bureau are the enforcement of safety laws, and orders issued thereunder, enacted for the purpose of promoting safety of employees and travelers upon railroads.

The safety-appliance laws require the equipment of cars and locomotives with couplers, ladders, running boards, handholds and other appliances used by employees in operating trains and switching cars, as well as brake equipment for the control of cars and trains; orders of the Commission prescribe standards and specifications for equipment of this character. Safety appliance inspectors are constantly engaged in inspections of safety appliance equipment and tests of train brakes for the purpose of keeping the Commission informed concerning the condition of this equipment and ascertain whether inspection and maintenance provided by the carriers are adequate to provide for the proper degree of safety, or whether other enforcement measures are required.

This Bureau also enforces the "hours of service law” which prescribes maximum periods of "on duty” and minimum periods of “off duty” to provide necessary rest for train service employees, operators, dispatchers and other employees engaged in or connected with the movement of trains. The carriers are required to report instances of excess service and to keep records from which check can be made to determine whether the requirements of law are being observed. Hours of service inspectors are constantly checking these records and investigating complaints and reported instances of excess service.

Evidence collected by safety appliance and hours of service inspectors is used as the basis for institution of suits in the Federal courts. Attorneys attached to the Bureau have charge of the preparation and prosecution of these cases, and the inspectors appear as witnesses in the courts on behalf of the Commission.

Serious train accidents are investigated, and reports prepared and distributed for the information and benefit of the Commission, railroad officials and employees, and the public. This function of the Bureau and the publicity given its findings has resulted not only in the correction of numerous dangerous conditions which have been directly responsible for accidents, but also in the adoption of similar improvements and corrective measures in many other locations.

The forces of this Bureau also conduct field investigations in connection with the award of medals of honor by the President for the saving of life on railroads, and other matters assigned to them from time to time.

The increase in the estimates for 1944 over the appropriation for 1943 is $9,045. Of this amount $2,966 is for personnel and is the result of the 1943 administrative promotions under the Ramspeck bill projected into 1944, and $6,909 for increased travel and subsistence. This is brought about by increase in passenger and Pullman fares and increase in per diem rate. There is reduction of $830 in the item for equipment.

SIGNAL SAFETY SYSTEMS Mr. WOODRUM. The next item is signal safety systems, as follows:

Signal safety systems: For all authorized expenditures under section 25 of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended by the Transportation Act, 1920, the Act of August 26, 1937 (49 U.S. C. 26), and the Transportation Act of 1940, with respect to the provision thereof under which carriers by railroad subject to the Act may be required to install automatic train-stop or train-control devices which comply with specifications and requirements prescribed by the Commission, including investigations and tests pertaining to block-signal and train-control systems, as authorized by the joint resolution approved June 30, 1906 (45 U. S. C. 35), and including the employment of the necessary engineers, and for traveling expenses, $155,000, of which amount not to exceed $35,000 may be expended for personal services in the District of Columbia.

Mr. WOODRUM. Your estimate for 1944 is $155,000 as against a current appropriation of $133,780.

Mr. BARTEL. Yes, sir.

Mr. WOODRUM. You are providing for three additional inspectors and one clerk?

Mr. BARTEL. That is right.
Mr. WOODRUM. And an additional amount for travel.

JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATE

Mr. BARTEL. That is correct. Our justification of that item is as follows:

Signal safety systems

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This appropriation covers the Commission's activities under section 25 of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended by the Transportation Acts of 1920 and 1940, and a joint resolution approved June 20, 1906, insofar as it provides for the installation, testing, and investigation of block signal systems, automatic train control devices and other safety devices. It is necessary that the systems already installed be inspected from time to time and that new installations be inspected and approved.

The work of the bureau in connection with signal systems, interlocking, automatic train control and similar devices is for the most part new work under section 25 of the Interstate Commerce Act as amended in 1937. Under this section of the law, four distinct duties are placed upon the Commission, as follows:

1. The Commission is authorized, if found necessary in the public interest, to require installation of block signal systems, interlocking, automatic train stop, train control and cab signal devices, and other similar appliances, methods, and systems intended to promote the safety of railroad operation, and to prescribe specifications therefor. Action is now pending in a considerable number of cases under this provision.

2. The carriers are not permitted to discontinue or materially modify existing installations without approval of the Commission. Under this provision, a total of 4,731 applications for approval have been filed, as of November 30, 1942. In 4,479 cases investigations have been completed and the applications have been acted upon by the Commission; 80 applications have been withdrawn or canceled, and the remaining 172 applications were pending.

3. The Commission is required to approve or to prescribe rules, standards and instructions for installation, inspection, maintenance and repair of the systems, devices and appliances covered by the amended section. Such rules, standards and instructions were prescribed effective September 1, 1939, and thereafter the Commission was required by the terms of the law to inspect and test such systems, devices and appliances. Under this section 203 applications for approval of modifications of these rules, standards and instructions as applied to specific conditions or locations have been filed, 187 have been acted upon by the Commission, and 16 have been withdrawn or canceled.

4. Signal failures and accidents resulting therefrom are required to be reported to and may be investigated by the Commission Forms for reporting signal failures have been prescribed and monthly reports of signal failures are being received and tabulated. Field investigations of signal failures ars being made in connection with inspections referred to in paragraph 3, but there investigations are also greatly imited due to the small number of inspectors employed.

The work of this section of the bureau has been directed for the most part to action upon applications for approval of proposed changes in existing signal installations, covered by paragraph 2 above. War traffic conditions have required prompt action upon many of these applications in order to secure the benefits of the improvements required by present emergency conditions. The work in this section is increasing and the pre:ent force of inspectors is not adequate for the work required, even under normal conditions; under present emergency conditions serious delays have resulted and it has been impossible to carry out in full the duties imposed upon the Commission by this section of the law.

Under section 25 (d) of the Interstate Commerce Act, we are authorized to inspect and test block-signal systems, interlocking, automatic train-stop, traincontrol, and cab-signal devices, and other similar appliances, methods, and systems intended to promote safety of railroad operation. Pursuant to these provisions, inspections were made during the year as follows: Block-signal systems.

380 Interlockings

683 Automatic train-control and cab-signal devices.

146 Centralized traffic-control systems.

33 Other similar appliances, methods and systems.

23 Total.--

1, 265 This relatively small number of inspections is inadequate to secure in full the intended benefits of this provision of the law, and estimates have been submitted to provide for the employment of additional inspectors in this section of our organization.

The amount included in the Budget estimates for 1944 is $21,220 in excess of the appropriation for the fiscal year 1943. Of this amount $11,400 is to provide for three additional inspectors at $3,800 per annum and one additional CAF-3

310-23 Supplies and materials

vities under st clerk at $1,620 and $6,140 for increased travel. The number of P-5 positions risporiatina 4 has been reduced from two to one and the P-4 positions increased from three to 6, insofar as four. The balance is for increase in salaries made under the Ramspeck Act ki signal sy in 1943 projected into 1944.

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LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION ststems, inte

Mr. WOODRUM. The next item is for locomotive inspection, as. Dart news 137. Under

follows: mission

, as le Locomotive inspection: For all authorized expenditures under the provisions 1 in the pots of the Act of February 17, 1911, entitled “An Act to promote the safety of employing, autoina sees and travelers upon railroads by compelling common carriers engaged in interapplianeta

, u state commerce to equip their locomotives with safe and suitable boilers and beration

, and appurtenances thereto” (45 U. S. C. 22), as amended by the Act of March 4, 1915, siderable IL - extending the same powers and duties with respect to all parts and appurtenances

of the locomotive and tender" (45 U. S. C. 30), and amendment of June 7, 1924 laterialy D< (45 U. S. C. 27), providing for the appointment from time to time by the InterCuder this state Commerce Commission of not more than fifteen inspectors in addition to the s of Novent number authorized in the first paragraph of section 4 of the Act of 1911 (45 u applicatieU. S. C. 26), and the amendment of June 27, 1930 (45 U. S. C. 24, 26), including withdraw such legal, technical, stenographic, and clerical help as the business of the offices

of the director of locomotive inspection and his two assistants may require and he rules

, it for traveling expenses, $493,000, of which amount not to exceed $72,500 may be repair of expended for personal services in the District of Columbia. such rikes

Mr. WOODRUM. Your estimate for 1944 is $493,000 as against an and test sa appropriation for the current fiscal year of $475,000, an increase of ions for s $18,000 for 1944.

JUSTIFICATION OF ESTIMATE d upon by

Mr. BARTEL. Yes, sir. Our justification of this item is as follows: for repair

Locomotive inspection

1942 1943 estiactual ob mate of exligations penditures

1 condita Personal services

$357, 932 $361, 400 Trarel expenses

$303, 020

110, 753 1 112, 003 Transportation of things.

128, 040 268 15

15 er proof Communication service.

203
275

350 Stenographic services, etc.

Repairs and alterations.
e gutt" Special and miscellaneous current expenses.

Equipment.
Total obligations or estimates.

470, 505

475,000 493, 000

39, and the

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Under Second Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1913, we were authorized to expend not to exceed $122,400, but no additional money was appropriated.' The amount shown herein is felt to be the maximum amount that will be available under the present appropriation.

The Budget estimate for 1944 is $18,000 in excess of the amount appropriated for the fiscal year 1943.

Of this amount $1,560 is to project into the fiscal year 1944 the administrative promotions under the Ramspeck Act made during the

fiscal year 1943. Travel expenses are increased to $128,040. The 1943 Approin priation Act contained a limitation on the amount that could be expended for sys that purpose of $110,653. However, in the Second Supplemental Appropriation oft Act for 1943, the amount that could be expended for travel was increased to

$122,400 so as to enable us to increase the per diem rate to the same basis as paid eres under the other appropriations; i. e., $6 for the first 6 days and a sliding scale

beyond that period. No additional money, however, was appropriated. The

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