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a less elevated institution, do, if, after coming from one of those institutions, which sought to lift him upon a higher planewhat would such a student do, if, taken from the slums, he were returned to the slums, and had no chance to get out of the slums? What good would it do to impress these higher ideals upon him, if, day after day, back among his old associates in the slums, he was constantly being ridiculed? Is it any wonder that the Indian sometimes relapses? What does he need in many cases? Why, he absolutely needs that you people, leaders of the people, should bring the nation to see that the Indian can never prosper so long as he remains upon the reservation. Remove that trouble by legislation, and leave the Indian free to go. The reservation must go, and it can go only through you, and unless the reservation does go we shall always have with us the serious white man's question about the Indiannot the Indian's question. The specific Indian school must go; must yield to ordinary common school education. There must be one law for all; the Indian must be made one of us. There must be one education for him and for us. He must be educated by the side of our children. He must be assimilated.

For the older Indians, however, the transition is too sudden, and a great number of them find themselves unable to succeed and therefore turn with feelings of hostility against the new institutions and cling stubbornly to their old ways of living. They learn to look with distrust upon education, and labor in many ways, by fear, cajolement, and ridicule, to regain the young educated Indian for the old ways of Indian life. Much wretchedness, therefore, comes to these young people who find among their own folk little or no opportunity to cultivate their new tastes and to hold fast their new ideals. With the breaking down of the tribal relations the leadership of the older Indians will have passed away, and a new order of things will follow upon this education of the Indian. There, of course, will at first be constantly the old Indian on the one side, exerting his influence; and on the other will be the comforts of civilized life—the new life free to him. But when an Indian student returns from one of our Eastern schools to the reservation, he is distrusted; and without help and encouragement, it is a wonder if he succeeds. At one time there was a young Indian educated at one of our schools. He returned to the reservation, and there he sickened and died, and they have a story that after his death his soul went to heaven, and there he applied for admission to the white man's heaven. Heaven seemed to have, in the minds of these Indians, departments. But the poor Indian was refused admission to the white man's heaven, because he was an Indian. He applied afterwards to the red man's heaven, and there also he was refused admission, because he was an educated Indian. And so you see the unfortunate soul had no place to which it could go. That illustrates, very often, the future of the educated Indian who does not die. There is no place for admission into the white man's life. Let the Indian knock at the white man's door for work, or something to do, and he will be told, "You are an Indian; we don't want you.” Then he goes back to his red people, and he says, “I have come back to you; let me be one of you again.” But there he is not trusted, because he is educated, and they are afraid that he might in some way break up the tribe.

It is needful that we should look these things squarely in the face. Frequently it is not the best white men that come in contact with the Indians upon the reservation. They speculate in the blankets, and shoes, and coats, and other things which the government so lavishly bestows upon the Indians. It is a profitable piece of business, you know, buying articles of clothing and other supplies which the government has issued to the Indians. Out of all this, of course, the Indian has come to distrust the white man, and this, you see, must be so just so long as there is this relation between the two races, and so long as the Indian reservation is maintained.

This condition of affairs is complicated by the attitude of the white population near the Indian reservations and settlements and in the states inhabited by the Indians. While with many good people this attitude is one of helpfulness, confidence, and respect, it is possibly with the greater number one of hostility, distrust, contempt, and, in many cases, one of direct abuse and overreaching cupidity.

In Wisconsin there is a tribe of Indians, traveling from place to place, who have no regular marital relations, among whom a sort of polygamy prevails, with whom the woman is still the slave; but yet the cultured people of Wisconsin look on indifferently, and say, "It is not our business." It is a disgrace to a civilized community to have that condition of things, which is poisoning our youth and bringing demoralization to our community, and bringing shame upon us, but still the people say, “It is none of our business; it is the government's business."

I go through the beautiful State of Iowa as I come here to this convention, and right in the center of that beautiful state I find 400 Indians who have purchased from the white people 3,000 acres of land, and who are permitted to live there in a state of bigamy and polygamy, in all sorts of relations which are absolutely unlawful for the white man, giving an abominable example of the indifference with which we regard these important things and our relations and duties to the Indians. And yet the good people of the State of Iowa say, “It is not our business; it is the government's business.” And so we American people go on and continue in a state of indifference and lethargy. Are we going to allow this condition to continue? Is Iowa never going to be stirred to realization of her sense of duty, and to ask the government to give her the right to educate and care for these Indians? It is the duty of those states to ask the government to let them assume the great responsibility of the care and development of these wards of the nation. Will not Wisconsin, and Iowa, and New York follow the example which has been tried in a helpless sort of a way by the government for some time past? Will not the other states where Indians are being held back take this same step? That is also a necessary next step in the work of civilizing the Indians.

This condition of affairs is further complicated by the fact that these states, as states, are relieved by the general government of all responsibility concerning the care and civilization of Indians. These are therefore apt to be looked upon as burdensome foreigners, and are practically excluded from the benefits of state institutions accorded to actual and prospective citizens. The necessary next step in the work of civilizing the Indians is, therefore, to remove these obstacles and to bring about conditions which may afford the Indians opportunities to engage in the pursuits of civilized life and to reap the fruits of their efforts as full citizens of the states which they inhabit.

Much may be done in this direction by missionary and other philanthropic associations interested in the welfare of the Indian; by efforts to secure for young educated Indians employment in families and communities, on the farms, and in the workshops of the states in which these Indians have their homes; and possibly, also, by the establishing of suitable industrial enterprises at or near Indian reservations and settlements.

Permanent good, however, will come only when the respective states shall realize their responsibility with reference to the Indians within their borders, and will claim from the general government the right to assume this responsibility, and with it, possibly under the supervision of the general government, the burden of carrying out the various treaty stipulations by which the consent of the Indians to become American citizens has been purchased.

And again, how much wretchedness comes to the Indian girls, if they are compelled to return to the reservation. After having learned some of the refinements of civilized life, and after having admired the beauties of life among the white people, they are thrown back upon the reservation, to be treated as chattels and to be sold to be some man's wife, or rather, some one's slave; to be, perhaps, an Indian's glave in the household.


For all of these reasons I would appeal to you to do something to arouse an intelligent interest in this great problem.

I have nothing to say for the Indian as such. For him I do not plead. But I honor and respect the man in him the possible American citizen. With this downtrodden part of him I sympathize deeply. To this and to the child of God in him I would ask you to extend the helping hand. In head and heart possibilities he is in no way inferior to his more favored white brother, who has learned to turn his face away from the past and to seek the better, higher future. Like his white brother, he loves freedom and his children, respects truth and integrity, unselfish devotion and forceful achievement. He sees as clearly, interprets as accurately, and reasons as cogently as his white brother. His soul is stirred by gratitude and good-will, is lifted by worshipful faith in the Father, as is the soul of his white brother. What he needs for fuller fellowship is but to turn away his face from the traditions of a past that has become barren and dead, and, like his white brother, to look upward to brighter and better things.

A superficial criticism sees in the Indian only his failures, and these, because of a false policy pursued by his white brother in mutual dealings, are sadly numerous and painfully wretched. But a kindlier wisdom and truer justice looks for the true Indian, not in his failures but in his successes. Indians have attained respectable skill as physicians and lawyers, as preachers and teachers, as farmers and artisans, as nurses of the sick, as philanthropic dispensers of material and spiritual good. It is these successes that reveal to us the true Indian. One such success teaches more real, fundamental truth than a thousand failures; and it is because such successes are many that I appeal to you.

You are the teachers of dawning public opinion. You, as instructors of the nation's youth, are the fountain-head of the nation's progress towards a broader humanity and a deeper Christianity. To you the future looks for whatever of patriotism, truth, justice, and higher benevolence may be its portion. To you, therefore, I appeal, , that you give this matter earnest thought in order that you may direct rising generations aright.

The Indian reservation must be abolished, kindly but firmly; specific Indian education must yield te equal patriotic public education; from our Indian brother the Indian must be eliminated, that the brother may be seen and loved. The several states, as the strongest and most compact political organizations of our land, must see their duty and responsibility in this weighty work, and yours it is to reveal this to them.




If of old it was considered unwise to put new wine into old bottles, so to-day must it be pronounced difficult to adjust old words to new ideas. Co-ordination, correlation, concentration of studies—who has defined their likeness or distinction? They are used almost interchangeably for an idea whose vagueness is evinced by the etymological diversity of its symbols. During the debate at Cleveland over the report on the correlation of studies, we have Dr. Harris declaring that the term has no right to the meaning ascribed to it by his critics, while they, in turn, charged that he had borrowed the term correlation for his report on the time-worn subject of educational values. From this fact we are at liberty to conclude, not that one party was right and the other wrong but only that there was world-wide diversity of meaning ascribed to the word correlation.

To determine clearly the significance of this new idea would, therefore, appear to be the first duty of a paper that presumes to discuss the principles upon which a co-ordination of studies should proceed.

There is little or no help for us in etymology antecedent to an examination of the scope of the idea itself. To co-ordinate is to place in the same rank, to establish in the relation of equality; to correlate is to bring into relation, perhaps of equality, perhaps of inequality; to concentrate is to bring to a focus at a center, but how, to what end, or to what center in the case of the studies does not appear in the etymology. The symbol failing us, we must turn perforce to the thing symbolized.

The condition that confronts us is slow evolution of race-ability and rapid evolution in knowledge. The boy of to-day is probably but little, if any, abler than his prototype of a thousand years ago, but even within the memory of the youngest person here to-day knowledge has advanced so rapidly and in so many directions that not even the ablest man in the longest life could hope to master even this margin of advance. How shall this new condition of things be reflected in the school? Will the antique course of study suitable to primitive civilization suffice to fit the child for his new environment? Nobody believes it; yet we are overwhelmed when we contemplate the demands that may be made upon us if we admit the need of fitting for life as it is. Our only hope lies in such a unifying organization of studies as shall, with the greatest economy of time

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