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world, there would be no need of an ethical system; because there would be no other being to whom he could have any relations. Nei. ther would there be any need of it, if the inhabitants were few and were so scattered over the earth that no one of them, in securing for himself the necessities of life, would ever come into contact with any one of all the others. But just as soon as any one place on the earth becomes the common abode of two, so soon relations are established between them and there is need of principles of conduct governing each in his acts which in any way affect the other. An ethical system to control the actions of these two men alone would be very simple. But when, from increase of population or from motives of common interest, individuals unite and form a tribe, there comes to be tribal ethics. When two tribes come into contact, inter-tribal relations are formed; and when tribes grow into nations, national and inter-national ethics arise. And as the life of the individual becomes more complex within itself, and more involved in its relations to other members of the same tribe or nation, and as the nations increase in size and number, the rules governing this increased complexity must become more and still more complex, until we have the most possible complex system of ethics governing the most highly developed society. It is here, in this fact of human relations, we find a basis for human ethics. It is instruction of our children and youth in these relations for which we plead, as a remedy for social disorders. Some recent modifications of school work point toward such instruction; but, in our judgment, none of them are calculated to satisfy the demand of our day. The moral results of the work in the kindergarten, where the little ones are unconsciously instructed in their relations to each other, cannot be overestimated. Similar results ought to be produced all along the line of educational work, but these cannot be secured through kindergarten methods with children beyond kindergarten age. Other methods must be invented.
If the study of human relations is so important, how can our children and youth be instructed in them? We venture to reply that this end can be attained by the introduction, in undeveloped and elementary forms, of the new science of sociology, which, if not scientifically defined as the science of human relations, certainly treats of the whole realm of these relations, and no other science does. There is evidence that “the education of the future will be sociological; that the supremacy which has been accorded to the classics, and which is now accorded to the physical sciences, will be transferred to sociological study.”* The tendency is certainly in this direction. It is seen in the methods employed and in the character of the work done in the kindergarten; in the comparatively fruitless effort to extract moral lessons from subjects already taught; in the use now being made of the story and myth in literature; in the making of text-books with a view to moral impression; in the provision made for manual training; and in the preference shown by the committee of fifteen for "an objective and practical basis of selection of topics for the course of study, rather than the subjective basis so long favored by educational writers." All this is in response to a demand that the schools must do something more than to cultivate brain power. They must also guide it. This demand, however, can be more fully met through the medium of sociological studies, which can be made the vehicle for effective moral impression.
* Professor Fulcomer, lecturer in Chicago University.
Aside from the ethical character of this new science, which renders it superior to all other subjects for ethical purposes, it possesses two very important advantages which disarm two classes of objectors to ethical instruction. One class is composed of those who say we cannot teach ethics because that means religious instruction. This objection falls to the ground through that separation of ethics and religion which this new science establishes. Since this is so, and since the ethical codes of all parties interested in the schools are substantially the same, and since there is no hope that the state will ever provide for religious instruction, may we not hope, that, on this ethical ground which sociological studies furnish, a compromise may be effected through which something may be accomplished in the schools of vastly greater importance to humanity than any degree of manual training, or even of purely intellectual development. Those who are opposed to religious instruction would not be losing their case, since ethics is not religion. All who desire religious instruction would, from their point of view, be gaining their object in part, since they include ethics in religion. To no party would this be a sacrifice of principle.
The second class of objectors to ethical instruction declare that direct moral instruction would be abortive; that all moral impression must be made indirectly. This is an assumption to which the facts of experience are opposed. However, without stopping to argue the point, we present to this class of objectors this same sub. ject, which can be so handled, if it is desired, as to slyly insinuate moral lessons into the boys and girls when they are off guard-sidetlank them. With this notion we have no sympathy. Moral training must be known as moral training. An importance of its own must be attached to it by placing it on the same level with, or even above, every other branch. On the other hand, sociological studies can be so employed as to openly, frankly, teach matters of right and
wrong, and stamp such an importance upon the right as to make profound impression.
The ways and means for teaching this new science must be discovered by trial. Whatever is here said in reference to it is purely suggestive and tentative. The present undeveloped condition of the science requires that first effort shall be made with the most mature pupils; hence, in the high schools. Later, without doubt, what may be called elementary sociology will be developed and adapted to the other grades. - Child sociology is already taught in a practical way in the kindergartens. The primary aim ought not to be to acquaint high school pupils with the theory of sociology, desirable as that may be, but to make them as familiar as possible with the multifarious relations of life before they enter upon them as individuals independent of parental protection and guidance.
Perhaps I can indicate most clearly the line of work as it lies in my own mind by venturing a few thoughts upon the character of a text-book suitable for this work. I would devote the introductory chapters to the establishment upon a philosophic basis of some universally accepted ethical principles with which actions are to be compared and adjudged as right or wrong. The best, the simplest, the most easily understood, and the most generally accepted, is, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” In our judgment, this is entirely sufficient. Nothing better is known; and I would make a text-book sing the spirit of this beautiful principle of social life upon every page. It is the condensed epitome of all the ethical teachings of the Great Master of ethics, as they are recorded in the New Testament; hence, acceptable at least to all Christian peoples and institutions. This principle can be based upon a philosophic induction from social data. This, perhaps, would clothe it with renewed authority, which, because it is heard so often and is so universally ignored, it unfortunately does not now possess. A similar induction might be made to result in some other general principle, if that is desired; like that of Bentham, which, without philosophic verbiage, is, that that is right for this world which aims at the greatest degree of true happiness to the largest number of persons. These and other like generally accepted principles are sufficient guides for all in all ordinary situations in life.
After they have been established, they must be so stamped upon -so burnt into—the mental fiber of every pupil that he must, by necessity, carry them through life; that he cannot, by any possible line of conduct, cause them to fade out, or by logical process silence their voice. This result I would make the aim of the remainder of the book, which should embrace civies in all its branches, business and industrial relations in all their ramifications; natural rights and duties of the individual; the object, rights, and obligations of society, and all kindred subjects.
Civics embrace duties to country and whatever contributes to best citizenship. Under this topic I would direct attention to political abuses of all sorts, and impress the importance of living by the same moral code in politics as in religion. I would discuss whatsoever would bring plainly to view the individual's ethical duties and obligations to country and government. In the treatment of business relations I would go into the details of the various branches. It seems entirely practicable, for a man familiar with business life and methods, to conduct students, equipped with their code of universally accepted moral principles, according to which human acts are to be classified as right or wrong, into and through the ten thousand ramifications of all kinds of business,-behind the counter, into the bank, into the boards of trade, into the business and professional office, into the exchanges, into the council chambers of great corporations, into every corner of the business world, and study the relations which exist among all who are occupied there, as well as between these branches of business and the great world outside. Here the like relations of the industrial world should be considered; the relations between those who possess capital and those who labor; between those who employ and those who are employed: the rights and duties of each to the other.
In treating of the natural rights and duties of the individual, i would attempt to impress the ethical relations between individuals which arise from the fact of birth. All are in the world through no fault or merit of their own; hence, no blame or credit attaches to the fact of being here in any case. No man brought anything with him which every other man did not bring; hence, all by nature are endowed with equal rights and entitled to equal opportunities. This opens up an immense field of thought in the direction of modifying the existing conditions of unequal rights and unequal opportunities, which all students of social questions recognize with serious misgivings.
Closely allied with this subject are the objects of social organization, the relations which exist between society and the individual, the rights of each, and the duties of each to the other. Society is a necessity. Being a necessity, it ought to be so organized as to continue and perform its functions with the least possible friction and with the greatest possible comfort and happiness to all who compose it. Hence, the immeasurable importance of investigating, and of establishing in the minds of the rising generation an ethical ad. justment of the parts of the social organism.
SUPT. A. F. NIGHTINGALE Chicago, Ill.-I should like to inquire when the supremacy of the classics was trapsferred to the physical sciences. I have always thought that the perfection of scientific study depended upon the study of the classics, and I believe, that, in the future as in the past, language study will always be the basis of educational work. So long as the truth remains, that out of tbe heart are the issues of life, the best book for the teaching of ethics will always be the open book of a great teacher, whose example and influence shall be powerfully felt by the pupils with whom he comes in contact.
PRINCIPAL C. M. L. SITES, Washington, D. C.-It seems to me that I should wrong myself, and it would be a wrong for us, to allow the possibility of misinterpretation of a paper in respect to a certain tone that might be understood from it of under-estimating religion. The gentleman says that faith and hope are elements of uncertainty upon which we must not hang something of which we know positively. He does not say that the basis of ethics is the third element in the great trinity, love. What is the world to do without faith, and where would we get our ethical relations without the love that was taught by the Great Teacher? Materialistic science, self-centered and self-sufficient, tends to carry the moral world out of its normal orbit. Faith and love are the centripetal and coherent forces that hold society in right relations to the source of light and life.
MR. SOUTHWORTH Denver, Colo.- This admirable paper shows that society alone makes your work as teachers of any value. Since the application of the inductive theory of Bacon, the world has been gradually drawn toward giving the first place to natural sciences and the second place to linguistic study. We want a thinker behind the language. The supremacy of the natural sciences needs no discussion.
ADDRESS OF THE COMMITTEE OF TWELVE OF THE
AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION.
To Teachers of the Classics and To All Friends of Sound Leurning in the United States:
The American Philological Association, at a large meeting held in Philadelphia, Dec. 28, 1894, unanimously adopted the following resolution, proposed by Professor Hale of Chicago:
Resolred, That, in the opinion of the American Philological Association, in any program designed to prepare students for the classical course, not less than three years of instruction in Greek should be required.
The resolution expresses the opinion of the association, that every school which prepares pupils for what is known as "the classical course" in many colleges, or pupils who intend to study the classics in any college, should provide a course of at least three years' instruction in Greek, which all such pupils are expected to follow. In the judgment of the most experienced teachers, three years is the shortest time in which the preparatory course now offered by our best schools in the reading of simple Attic prose and of Homer or Herodotus (or both), in the es. sentials of Greek grammar, and in the elements of Greek composition, can be