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the changes in each experiment. Such a line of work will thoroughly fix in the mind of the child the essential difference between physics and chemistry. This may be followed with definitions, discussion, and illustrations of the general properties of matter. Take, for example, indestructibility. This was well illustrated in a class as follows: Three test tubes containing a solution of silver nitrate, hydrochloric acid, and ammonia water were balanced by a weight on an equal arm balance. Silver chloride was then precipitated by pouring a portion of the acid into the silver solution. The same weights would still counterbalance the two with their contents, thus showing the increase of matter to be an apparent one only. Again, the precipitate was dissolved in the ammonia water and again no change was observed.

Impenetrability may be shown by placing a bell jar over a float in a battery jar. By pushing the former into the water the water is seen to rise in the battery jar, not in the bell jar, showing con. clusively to the pupil that air and water cannot occupy the same space at the same time. So through all the general properties. Experiments may be given in class and others suggested to the pupils that will fix the clearly understood principles in their minds. The properties of liquids may be treated in a like manner; the level of water in connecting vessels, the downward pressure, the upward pressure, Archimedes' principle, specific gravity.

Ocean Currents.—Without some external force acting on the water of the sea there would be no disturbances, no such phenomena as waves, tides, currents. What an opportunity there is, then, to bring forward and illustrate such terms as motion, velocity, acceleration, momentum, force. Right here may follow Newton's remaining two laws of motion, stated, tested, applied in such a manner that there may be no doubt as to their proofs, in the mind of the child. Naturally the parallelogram of forces follows; not the simple statement but the demonstration. The pupil will now understand why the polar currents do not move in a direct line but are left a little behind the meridian on which they started. It will be apparent to him why the gulf stream takes 1 northeasterly direction. Again is the second object gained—the introduction to the natural science, physics. The pupil will find friendly terms greeting him as he enters that subject the third year. I would better say that he would never know when he enters, being at all times surrounded by friends.

The Atmosphere.--In a text at my command I find this analysis of the first section on the subject of atmosphere: (1) Its relation to other elements. (2) Its composition and elasticity. (3) Its weight and pressure. (4) Its density. (5) Its height.

Notice the terms used: Element, composition, weight, density. All properly used, and used as if thoroughly understood by the reader. What possibilities here await the live teacher, to interest, to educate, to introduce. The law of gravitation will easily follow the supplementary work in force. Then follows the definition and illustration of weight; the demonstration of the weight of the atmosphere by weighing a hollow sphere, first with stop-cock open and then with air exhausted; the further illustration of the pressure of the atmosphere by the Magdeburg hemispheres. The child is ready to understand the action of the force pump and lifting pump as well. He should sketch and explain them fully. Here and not in physics is the place to study the barometer; not to study about the barometer, that it is "from two Greek words,” etc. The instrument should be made in the presence of the pupils, and perhaps by the pupils themselves afterwards. It takes only a glass tube, a flame, a measuring rod, some clamps, some mercury and a teacher with a little mechanical ability and common sense. After this experiment the pupil will understand the barometer in its various uses.

IIeat.—In discussing the sources or causes of heat, it will be shown that motion causes heat and that heat causes motion; that friction causes heat; that chemical action produces heat and that heat produces chemical action. The mixture of sulphuric acid and water, the striking of a match, will illustrate this. Here, again, are possibilities realized by cutting away from the dry text and by showing the eager mind a glimpse of a broader field. Here is the subject of energy; the different kinds; the conservation of energy; the sun as the source of all energy, sending forth that energy in light and heat, which, as potential, is stored up in the plant and imprisoned in coal, to be transformed again by the animal into the powerful energy of motion.

I cannot dwell here upon the subject of the diffusion of heat. In this generation it is not sufficient to have the terms conduction, convection, radiation, given and defined. Each should be thor. oughly shown. The pupils' attention should be called to the different methods of diffusion by the many illustrations in everyday life. There will be pupils in the class who can furnish examples of the effect of heat in expanding solids, liquids, and even gases. All will have seen the thermometer, but few will have heretofore understood it. A thorough explanation should be made with the thermometer in the hands of the child. Afterwards let him test the boiling point, blood heat, and the freezing point. Evaporation, distillation, condensation, the dew point and all other terms may be clearly shown by experiment in the classroom. The mind of the child may be called to many methods of experimental work at home. There is

the weather report, the daily reading and recording of the barome. ter, of the thermometer, and numerous other things that the active mind of the teacher who is so inclined will suggest. As before indi. cated, my purpose has been to show the possibilities in this fertile subject, keeping in mind the two objects, first, the philosophical explanations of the causes of the phenomena, and, second, the introduction to other natural sciences.


I have little time to speak of the difficulties; they are few, indeed. The first that will naturally arise is the lack of suitable apparatus. In this age of manual training schools there is little trouble in this respect in the cities. In any place, if the second difficulty is overcome the first entirely disappears. That second difficulty is the procuring of a suitable teacher. He must be thoroughly informed on his subject; full of it; a specialist in each division; not only capable of making the experiments but of originating them and of making what simple apparatus is necessary. He should have a special training in a school where modern experimental science work is part of the curriculum. There is no excuse in the principal's handing the class over to inexperienced hands, or to one who chances to have a vacant period. Experienced teachers are to be had. It has been my pleasure to have had just such a teacher during the past year. There is still one other difficulty: The lack of an enlightened public opinion in some localities; an opinion that will cause suitable teachers and proper equipment to be furnished. This kind of practical work naturally appeals to the average business man or woman. Under a superintendent or a principal who favors the work and himself understands the object to be attained, I firmly believe all other difficulties will disappear and the great possibilities be realized.


SUPT. A. F. NIGHTINGALE, Chicago, Ill.-It may be trite for me to say to a company that I suppose is composed largely of scientists that we are able to obtain our alcohol in bond free of duty and also to import our microscope free of duty at a cost of fifteen dollars each, less two per cent discount for cash. I believe that no wise board of education (and we know that most boards of education are full of wisdom) will be onwilling to furnish a live teacher with the apparatus and material necessary for proper instruction in this department. I believe that none of us should hesitate about establishing a laboratory in biology for fear that we may not be able to obtain proper apparatus. The greatest advances along educational lines in the past ten years have been in science-biology, physics, and chemistry—and I think we owe very much to the enthusiastic scientists of this country for pushing the laboratory teaching of sciences to the front. They set the high schools of the country a magnificent example which we ought to more fully follow in teaching of English, mathematics, and history. I hope the time will come when all subjects will be inore largely taught in laboratory form. The advance in the teaching of science in the last few years has been most marvelous, and so marrelous that it seems strange to me that we should ever have taught natural history by the use of text-book alone, measuring out the lessons by the foot and yard for our pupils to commit and reproduce to a lazy teacher the next day. Yet such was the method in use only within the last few years. We should abandon this antiquated method of teaching in other departments as well as in science. Biology has been a first year study in the Chicago high schools for four years. Pupils have not only obtained very valuable knowledge of this subject, but their powers of observation have been greatly awakened and their love for investigation, and research, and discrimination has been greatly developed, so that they have been splendidly prepared for the after study of physics, chemistry, and geology, and I believe that the great value of biology as a first year study in the high schools is in this fact. Many a boy has been kept in our high schools because of the study of biology in the first year. This study has been mainly in the hands of men, while, perhaps, algebra and English have been inainly in the hands of women; and while I value an equal balance of men and women, I do feel that it is a great necessity that the children should be under some male influence in the teaching of the first year, and I believe, that, by giving biology very largely into the hands of men, boys are retained in the schools and their love for study is greatly increased. I hope no lady will consider I am discounting her ability as a teacher of biology, for I am proud to say that two or three of the best teachers of biology in Chicago are women, and we are looking for more. But it is important that there should be this admixture of woman's influence and man's influence in the first year of the high school. There is no study that is more attractive to the boys in the first year of the high schools than the study of biology, and I know it is equally attractive to the girls. Principal Westcott has gone so well over this subject that he leaves very little to say. I agree most heartily with his paper.

PRINCIPAL W. F. Hall, of California.-It has always seemed to me necessary in science, as in other things, to begin with the child along the lines of his previous experience, and to take him from where he is to where he ought to be. Now, the lines of the child's previous experience have been the gross plant forms and the gross animal forms; so I should say, that, unless the children have had this work in gross forms, they ought to have it in the high school before they have any work with the microscope, and I beliere it is a mistake to take children fresh from the grammar school and put them at once to microscopical work. That ought to be led up to through a study of the gross forms. With regard to the other paper, some of you may be interested in an experiment I have been trying the past year in the line of physical geography. Instead of using a text-book, and illustrating various points by experiments, as suggested in the paper, I have dropped the text-book work entirely and devoted an hour or two each evening during the past year to writing out experiments and questions upon these experiments which would lead the students of my high school to get for themselves very largely the facts of physical geography, leaving out of consideration the general matters that they should have previously learned. The first exercise was to develop the idea of mass and density in a simple way. I told them nothing. I tried to plan so that the questions following the experiments would lead them to see what I wanted them to see. I was surprised myself to find how many of the facts of practical astronomy, geology, physics, and chemistry I could bring into these experiments, and I was also surprised at the amount of interest I was able to develop in this way.

PRINCIPAL E. W. Coy, Cincinnati, Ohio.-I sympathize largely with the views of the gentleman who has just spoken. But on one point my experience is different. At the beginning of this year we thought we would try commencing with microscopic work. One trial is not sufficient to establish the advantages of it. Yet I was very agreeably disappointed in the results, especially in the interest & wakened. I had not believed it was practicable to introduce the study of the cell with the microscope in a class of young pupils, but I am trying it this year. I find an amount of interest that has greatly surprised me. If it should continue in this way I should be entirely converted to a view that the microscope is the thing with which to begin. While we have had considerable interest before, yet it has seemed to me that there has been a lack of scientific value in the work. It has not proceeded on the lines it should. By beginning with the microscope I think we shall get better scientific results.

F. Y. MOSELY, Boulder, Colo.-In regard to text-books, I should like to give this advice: Take that one which tells the student the least about the plants and animals he is going to study. I have tried both of the methods that have been mentioned. First, beginning with the frog as a type; and, in the second, beginning with the amoeba, and then working up in logical order of evolution. The second method is greatly superior. There is no special difficulty in looking through a microscope. It would be well to caution students when using the microscope to keep both eyes open. The strain of closing one eye has a very considerable effect upon the sight in the course of time.

PROF. A. V. STORM, Storm Lake, Iowa.- I want to say a word about physical geography. The remarks that have been made simply indicate that physical geog. raphy as usually taught is practically hash. If we take away from physical geography, astronomy, geology, biology, meteorology, physics, chemistry, and a few other auxiliary sciences, what would we have left? The question arises in my mind whether or not it is better for the child to take the elements of each of these sciences which concern physical geography, or whether it would be better for him to take these sciences in their fullness-by laboratory methods, of course--and then have a brief course (I should say three or four months would suffice) to apply all of these to the earth. While the suggestions made are most excellent, this work will not be work in physical geography, but will be simply work in the various sciences. I see one objection to this plan; that is, that the pupils who do not complete the high school course fully will not get this application of the sciences to the earth. Whether or not that objection is sufficient to overbalance the advantages that would come from studying these various subjects in the logical order and at the proper time, is a question for us to consider. I believe that when these studies are pursued by laboratory methods three months' time would be sufficient to cover all the work in physical geography. I know of no text-book that would permit us to follow that plan. Perhaps there is an opening for some enterprising publisher to supply a need in that line.

PRINCIPAL J. T. BUCHANAN, Kansas City, Mo.-I regret that I did not hear the papers that are under discussion. Some things that I have heard in the discussion make me think that I am laboring under a mistake. I had supposed that in a little high school somewhere in the western part of the Mississippi Valley was found the only biological department that was taught on purely laboratory plans.

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