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teacher has seen her pupils come up through the different grades, and has a knowledge of their peculiarities and individual traits of character that can only come by long acquaintance. Character is a plant of slow growth, and the opportunities for its development are far better when the teacher has the same pupil for several successive terins, even though it be for only an hour a day, than when she receives him as a stranger, keeps him for one short term, and then loses sight of him again.

It is claimed that the special teacher will get an exaggerated idea of the importance of her subject; that she will lead the pupils into details and difficulties beyond their comprehension; that she will not properly harmonize her work with that done in the other subjects; that there will be conflicting claims upon the time of the pupils, etc. These fears seem to proceed from the assumption that there is no head to the system and no co-operation among the teachers; for I do not see how such a state of affairs could exist under the right kind of a principal. I should not expect the plan to succeed without close organization and competent direction. Among my teachers in this department there is the most perfect harmony. All work together for one common end. Frequent conferences are held, at which are discussed questions of general interest, such as, individual pupils and how best to deal with them; the kind and amount of home work that should be assigned; how the work in each subject may be made to fit in with and re-enforce that done in the other studies, etc. Certain it is, that we have reached better results in these grades under this system than when one teacher taught all the subjects. It may be that the success of our work is as much due to this warm spirit of co-operation among the teachers as to any inherent virtue in the plan itself; but I believe that the plan of specialization which I have described is founded on sound principles, and that its introduction into upper grammar grades would be a long step toward securing better teaching in our schools.

DEPARTMENT OF SECONDARY EDUCATION.

SECRETARY'S MINUTES.

FIRST SESSION.-WEDNESDAY, JULY 10, 1895, 3 P. M.

The department met in the assembly room of the high school, District No. 1, W. H. Smiley, President, in the chair.

President Smiley delivered an original and suggestive opening address.

Principal 0. D. Robinson of the high school, Albany, N. Y., read a paper on the topic, “Should Electives in High Schools Be in Courses or Subjects?"

Principal Isaac T. Johnson, Friends' School, Wilmington, Del., presented a paper, discussing the same topic.

Prof. William Carey Jones of the University of California, Berkeley, Cal., read a paper on the subject, "What Action Ought to Be Taken by Universities and Secondary Schools to Promote the Introduction of the Programs Recommended by the Committee of Ten?”

Discussion of the paper was led by Dr. B. A. Hinsdale of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

The discussion was continued by A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; W. F. Hall, Vacaville, Cal.; C. M. Lacey Sites, Washington, D. C.; J. R. Bishop, Cincinnati, Ohio; Prof. E. E. Brown, Berkeley, Cal.; Mr. Dickinson of California; T. 0. Baker, Yonkers, N. Y.

The chair appointed the following Committee on Nominations:

A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; 0. D. Robinson, Albany, N. Y.; Principal Brown, Columbus, Ohio; Miss F. A. Adams, Cleveland, Ohio; Principal Barber, North Platte, Neb.

On motion of the Secretary, the following committee was appointed to report a plan of action on the basis of Professor Jones' paper:

Wm. Carey Jones, Berkeley, Cal.; C. H. Thurber, Hamilton, N. Y.; A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; J. R. Bishop, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Department adjourned.

SECOND SESSION.—THURSDAY, JULY 11, 1895.

The department was called to order by the President at 3:15 p. m.
The following report was presented:

The committee appointed at the close of yesterday's session to report a plan of action on the basis of Professor Jones' paper recommended to the department the adoption of the following resolution:

Whereas, The most pressing need for higher education in this country is a better understanding between the secondary schools and the colleges and universities in regard to requirements for admission; therefore,

Resolved, Tbat the Department of Secondary Education appoint a committee of five, of which the present President shall be one, and requests the appointment of a similar committee by the Department of Higher Education, the two to compose a Committee of Conference, whose duty it shall be to report at the next annual meeting a plan for the accomplishment of this end, so urgently demanded by the interests of higher education,

WM. CARY JONES,
A. F. NIGHTINGALE,
J. REMSEN BISHOP,
C. H. THURBER,

Committee.

This resolution was unanimously adopted, and the result communicated to the Department of Higher Education, from which the following reply was presently received:

Secretary Thurber,

DEAR Sir: The Department of Higher Education has arranged to have a committee appointed to co-operate with the Committee on Secondary Education in regard to requirements for admission to colleges and universities.

Very truly,

JOSEPH SWAIN,

Secretary. The President announced the appointment of the following committee in accordance with the above action:

Wm. Carey Jones, Berkeley, Cal.; A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; C. H.
Thurber, Hamilton, N. Y.; J. R. Bishop, Cincinnati, Ohio; in addition to the
President, W. H. Smiley, Denver, Colo.
The program was then taken up as follows:

"First Year Science in High Schools-Its Possibilities and Difliculties."
(a) On biology.

0. S. Wescott, Principal of the North Division High School, Chicago. Ill. (b) On physical geography.

Edward L. Harris, Principal of the Central High School, Cleveland, Ohio.

These papers were discussed by A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; W. F. Hall, Vacaville, Cal.; E. W. Coy, Cincinnati, Ohio; F. Y. Moseley, Boulder, Colo.; A. V. Storm, Storm Lake, Iowa; J. T. Buchanan, Kansas City, Mo.; and Principal Wood, Cleveland, Ohio.

The recommendations of the Head Masters' Association were read by Principal J. T. Buchanan, and on his motion referred to the Conference Committee.

RECOMMENDATIONS OF HEAD MASTERS' ASSOCIATION OF BOSTON,

1. It is desirable that such colleges as prescribe the reading of certain books in Latin, as a condition of admission, should introduce more variety of reading into their requirements. For example, some part of Nepos might be required as an equivalent for one or more books of Caesar's “Gallic War;" some part of Ovid as an equivalent for a portion of Virgil; selections from Cicero's "Letters," or other writings, as an equivalent for one or more orations.

2. It is desirable, both as a guide for teachers and for the sake of uniformity in the reading preparation for college, that colleges admitting candidates by certificate, and others admitting mainly on examinations in reading “at sight," should recommend a course of reading in Latin for preparatory schools. If, moreover, such colleges would unite with those having definite requirements, in a recommended course of reading, the gain to preparatory schools would be great.

3. Both in the case of prescribed and recommended reading, it is desirable that changes be made from time to time after due notice, as is now done by the Associated New England Colleges in regard to English, French, and German.

4. It is desirable that the colleges should recommend that some months be spent in reading easy Latin, both modern and classic, before authors of the difficulty of Nepos and Caesar are taken up. Such a recommendation from the colleges would have great

weight with secondary schools; would, if followed, diminish difficulties and discourage. ments in the earlier part of the Latin course, and tend to the improvement of elementary teaching

5. The writing of Latin, based on certain prescribed and limited portions of Latin text, to be changed from time to time, ought to be made a part of college entrance examinations wherever Latin is prescribed for admission.

6. The foregoing five recommendations ought to be made in regard to Greek, so far as they are applicable.

7. The requirement that parts of Homer be read, in preparation for college, ought to be maintained, but the examination ought not to be confined to books of the “Iliad."

8. It is desirable that the colleges designate the more important subjects of grammar, both Greek and Latin, in which students come up to college poorly grounded.

9. It is the opinion of this association that passages set for sight translation, particularly in Cicero's "Orations," are often too difficult, considering the circumstances of the entrance examinations.

Principal B. C. Matthews of the High School, Newark, N. J., presented a paper on "Ethical Instruction Through Sociology.”

This paper was discussed by A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Ill.; C. M. Lacey Sites, Washington, D. C.; Mr. Southworth, Denver, Colo.

The chair called attention to the reception tendered by the Woman's Cluh.
The Committee on Nominations made the following report:
For President - E. L. Harris, Principal Cleveland (Ohio) High School.
For Vice President - F. L. Bliss, Principal Detroit (Mich.) High School.
For Secretary-C. H. Thurber, Principal Colgate Academy, Hamilton, N. Y.

The Secretary was unanimously instructed to cast the ballot of the department in favor uf these officers, who were duly declared elected.

On motion of C. M. L. Sites of Washington, D. C., the address of the Conmittee of Twelve of the American Philological Association was referred for consideration to the Conference Committee.

A. F. Nightingale, Chicago, Di., and the chair both urged upon the department the importance of signing this address.

Mr. Nightingale moved that a vote of thanks be extended to the President for his admirable administration.

The motion unanimously prevailed, as also a similar motion in regard to the Secretary.

The retiring President expressed his appreciation of the assistance rendered by the department in carrying on the meeting, and presented to the department the President-elect. On motion, the department adjourned.

C. H. THURBER,

Secretary

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS.

PRESIDENT'S OPENING ADDRESS.

BY PRINCIPAL WM. H. SMILEY, DENVER, COLO.

The pleasure one feels in welcoming any portion of the throng that has gathered here, near the crest of the continent, to partici. pate in the discussion of questions, the issues of which are identical whether they arise on the Pacific or the Atlantic, on the Lakes or the Gulf, is equaled only by one's wonder at the extraordinary growth of this national spirit in education. Examine the programs of our state teachers' associations, so many of which occur at the same time each year. You will find ninety per cent of the subjects identical in spirit and probably in form. Does the Schoolmasters' Club of Boston discuss the elective system for high schools, then will the Schoolmasters' Club of San Francisco probably be found doing the same.

So the tide of educational reform sets in much the same direction, rises to equal height, and ebbs at about the same time, the country over.

Therefore, we are glad to welcome you; glad to feel the pulsing of this tide of common interest; glad to share with this representative throng in the inspiration and enthusiasm that comes from clasping hands and looking in each other's eyes with faith in the promise of mutual helpfulness.

There is no need to review at length the problems of the hour. The educational press, with singular activity, chronicles every move. ment and experiment. Your personal interest and professional spirit keep you in touch and make you familiar with them. At the recent classical conference at Ann Arbor, Dr. Nightingale, superintendent of Chicago High Schools, referred to the report of the committee of ten as the New Testament of secondary education. Colorado teachers may be allowed a pardonable pride in this now famous document, because the meeting and movement out of which its conception came was called by the former principal of this high school, and doubtless from the vigorous sermons preached from its texts in teachers' gatherings everywhere has come, in large measure, this energized national interest.

I am aware that a chairman's privilege and duty is to do no talking himself, but to introduce his speakers and to direct discussion; yet I would call your attention for the few minutes I shall take from

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