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ment. A girl of seven did a bit of mending, while a pencil, rescued from the depths of the basket, was given to a boy from the transition class that he might write a simple letter to a teacher in another room. The value of this work as a means of developing the power of adaptability, of enabling a girl to turn everything to use and make it serve her purpose, cannot be overestimated. It is in these groups that Freebel's mother-plays are worked out in material form. In connection with the goat, we saw the picture of the grass-mowing. The first step was to arrange a table and cover it with sod. Then tiny horses and the parts of a wagon were cut from paper by the little ones and joined together by the older children, who also covered the blades of the scythes with silver paper. The youngest of all-for, remember, the essential feature in the group work is, that the children shall be of different ages-sat on the floor making a dandelion stem chain, as suggested in the picture, while at another table the whole number took turns in churning the cream from the goat's milk referred to before. Such is the group work, and I think in this, as well as in the out-of-door work, we see the difference between the German and American work. We are so apt to interpret Freebel's command as meaning "Come, let us play with our children." The Germans in. terpret it more truly, and really live with their children. Instead of trying to give a typical experience through gift work, or picture, they give the real experience. No distance is too great, no day too warm, no material too difficult to find, no conditions too hard to master, if there is anything which the lesson requires, anything which the well being of the child demands. These German girls accept as a part of their duty to the child duties which American girls would consider it impossible to do; and, on the other hand, they have the power of making the children work. Elaborate work is done, for it consists of parts, and the kindergartner takes advantage of differing ages, dealing out the work according to varying ability. And do not take it for granted that all this work is more easily accomplished in Germany than here. The school is in the midst of a large city. The soil for the garden has been brought there. Blueberry bushes brought from the woods, together with wild flowers of all kinds, while currants, gooseberries, strawberries, and other fruits are raised in small quantities. Beautiful roses bloom here, and bloom so freely in spite of the brick walls that tower on all sides that one is led to think that something more than rain and sunshine is vouchsafed by heaven.

But the rest of my time I must devote to telling you about the home life of the training-class; for herein lies the secret of the home atmosphere which pervades the whole work. The fifth floor of the building constitutes the Victoria Home, the abode of the trainingclass. I fear the accommodations would hardly suit American girls; for the tiny rooms, instead of opening on a hall-way, open one into another, so that it is sometimes necessary to pass through several rooms to reach the stairs leading to the classrooms below. Here, too, there is the utmost simplicity of furnishings, the charm of the rooms being due to the daintiness of expression of individual taste in books and photographs and to the flowers which seemed to breathe forth happiness and peace. In such a place the spirit of Freebel might well love to linger, and the very atmosphere seemed a proof that these girls had interpreted his messages aright. The class is cosmopolitan, some of them poor girls fitting themselves for positions as nursery governesses; others who have enjoyed greater advantages previous to the training, hoping to go out as kindergartners; while one, a highly cultured English girl, a graduate of Girton Col. lege, was studying the system with reference to London philanthropic work. While the girls may live outside the home if they choose, the greater number prefer to live in it, and subject themselves to a rigid course in domestic science. All the work in the building, excepting the scrubbing, is done by these girls. On one sultry morning I sat in the kitchen, watching them as they worked under the direction of a teacher. Closet shelves were put in order, the fire kept in good condition, and dishes systematically washed. Here, again, simplicity of material was noticeable, wisps of hay serving as dish cloths, newspapers as covering for shelves. In all this work the children have their part. In preparing dinner, they pared the potatoes; and as they worked learned of a potato's growth. Perhaps you will wonder when these girls found time for study, but they had already attended an early morning lecture, the house-work being left till the arrival of the children.

Passing into the general sittingroom, we came upon another group of girls busy with the week's mending; patching and darning their own clothes, and caring for the table and bed linen. At the same time another group were receiving instruction in the bathing of children in the bathrooms, children being brought from the kindergarten for the purpose. Thus domestic science in all its branches is made a part of the training.

. Later in the day we saw the class mounting their occupation work in books. This work, while more elaborate than is generally done in America, is not as artistic, owing to the crude colors used, for the influence of the Bradley and Prang systems is not yet felt in Germany.

And now I anticipate the question generally asked, How does the work in Germany compare with the American work? It seems to me the two can hardly be compared, because of the difference in environments and aim. In the work with the children, I think we have much to learn from each other. If we could give them a little of the sunshine which emanates from light walls with their pictures, from the snowy white apron, which is so prominent a feature in the American kindergarten; if we could imbue them with the lightness of our singing, the grace and alertness of our motions, the real play-spirit of our games; if we could give them some of the sentiment (of which we could spare a goodly amount), and have breathed in upon us in return their whole-souled interest, their practical common sense, their devotion in meeting all the needs of the child, we should both come nearer the ideal.

There is still less ground for comparison when we consider the training-classes. Our requirements for admission to the training- . class are much greater than theirs; our standard higher. Many of the girls received there without detriment to the class as a whole would be a most dangerous element in an American training-class, because of that sense of “free and equal" in our atmosphere which would lead them to expect positions for which they were unfit. Here special classes with special aims are needed, and I hope the day is not far distant when our college and kindergarten settlements may open their doors to these girls of fifteen or sixteen years, whose advantages have been few, and give them a special training which shall fit them to go out as children's nurses, in place of the ignorant women so generally employed to-day, who are not only ignorant of every law of child-nature, of any need beyond those of food and clothing, but of the English language.

The chief beauty of the Pestalozzi-Freebel Haus work to me is what it does for these girls. Coming from homes devoid of luxuries, they are not unfitted to return to them. No luxuries are offered them here, no hours of ease, no spacious room, no expensive pleasures. On the other hand, they learn perseverance, patience, thriftiness; to make the most out of what is at hand; to find the beautiful in life; to make life worth living in whatever circumstances they may find themselves. Considering the class as a whole and the practical training given to all, are we not led to look joyfully into the future for a glimpse of the homes, the mothers, and the children of the next generation? Surely a good woman will be found in many a German village living the life of the good Gertrude whom Pestalozzi gave us in fiction.

THE KINDERGARTEN AND THE HOME.

BY MRS. JAMES L. HUGHES, TORONTO, CANADA.

[AN ABSTRACT.)

The educational reforins of the next generation must be worked out in the home. The kindergarten and the school cannot secure the best results, however sound their theories or good their methods, without the co-operative work of the home in securing from the first of life harmonious connectedness in the unfolding process. The essential principle of the kindergarten demands that this first period shall be intelligently and sacredly fostered in the home. Freebel set the child in the midst and turned thought toward the divinely created and organized soul waiting to unfold, and seemed to say to us, "Wait and watch, and you shall see the glory of the divine purpose unfold itself and come forth from within." Shelter it and shine on it without anxiety or haste, and do not meddle; childhood is holy ground. We hear many speak of the kindergarten as the embodiment of Fræbel's educational principles, but the student of the kindergarten period soon finds herself a student of the life principles and the kindergarten only a part of the organic whole, inter-related and interdependent with all that goes before and all that follows after. Frobel shows to both teacher and parent the sacred nature of the creation; helpless now, but holding within itself the potential strength of a creative and self-creating being, made to develop through self-action, set going by a divine power, for a divine purpose.

Teachers are slowly learning the weakness of methods which were planned to mold and shape the character from the external according to a human pattern; methods which emphasize the value of knowledge rather than the value of the unfolding soul of the child. Old traditions cling to us and set methods are hard to soften and change. We sin so often against the insight we have already gained, through the force of habit and the pressure of undeveloped public opinion, and most of all through the pressure of the teaching spirit. The change must be gradual if it is safe. True reform is growth, not revolution.

Frobel's view of child-nature has revealed more than the needs of the school or the value of the kindergarten in child-growth. The influence of the mother and the home are seen to be divine factors in the sum of life. They have already given bias to the character, and will continue to modify the work of the kindergarten and the school and determine the spirit of contact with social life. There comes with ever-growing strength the conviction that educational reform must not only include but be based upon clearer insight in the home life. We look for a more conscious motherhood-for a universal mother-spirit--among all women; for deeper and more loving insight into child-nature among both men and women.

The traditional theory of an instinctive wisdom accompanying maternity, which would prove all-sufficient to guide the young mother into ways of pleasantness and paths of peace, has been fairly proved false by its results. In our complex state of society, instinct alone is utterly inadequate to meet the necessities of both mother and child. Emotional love, which fills the mother's soul when she looks into the face of her first-born, like the emotional joy of all other physical relations, must be spiritualized by reason, by insight into the veritable truth which the physical emotion only shadows, or it cannot enter into the eternity of our lives. Consecrated, enlightened motherhood says with that first wave of joy in possession, "My child; our child; God's child;" and like the mother of old, she hides the growing mani. festation of life in action and word in her heart and ponders over the strangeness of it, but does not try to mold and fashion this responsive soul according to her own pattern, but, with hands off, watches to see what shall be revealed. Mother's love stands for God's love to the babe. This is the root from which the religious influence springs. The mother-love must have in it the elements of divine love, or it cannot support true life and growth. Wise unselfishness is that which can endure the pain of watching the struggles of the growing life and not seize its burdens, and so weaken its effort and lessen the strength it would gain in carrying them. It takes a brave heart and unclouded faith to consecrate any child to any great purpose; to know that the struggle will be long and often the life bitter, and yet smile and encourage the effort. The poet, the saint, and all strong souls are born through the struggle which comes. There is a loneliness in all great lives; a holy of holies where none can enter, not even the mother. In the home the child meets freedom and material to work out vague ideas. The mother needs patience and insight, or she will cramp the freedom or starve the life.

In the kindergarten the child's experiences are organized for him, and the many impressions which crowd upon his consciousness are made to move in order and singleness before him. In the home he is his own organizer, and there should be no cramping through interference and lack of sympathy.

To secure such motherhood, we must turn again to the school and university and train the coming men and women with this in view. Not to love childhood is to be an incomplete being, either man or woman. An all-around growth demands the cultivation of the parental spirit in every individual. It may never be realized as physical

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