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struction by a proper standard until he has been obliged to officiate at that most interesting and quite remarkable performance which is expected to eventuate in the ability to recognize a word or make a computation.

It is granted that this method of preparing teachers for the charge of a school is defective. In the first place, the classes are usually quite small, many of the reports indicating from “five to ten” as the ordinary number. Such classes give small opportunity for acquiring skill in discipline and general management. That is a result which comes ordinarily with experience. A day in charge of a school may present more problems than a month with a small class. Moreover, the single recitation plan leaves each teacher quite in the dark as to the child's occupation in other subjects; hence, the importance of regular teachers for a portion of the day. Doubtless the frequent change in instructors has its evil effects upon the children, who need to have, so far as possible, a steady and persistent system of influ- . ences at work upon them, to the end that genuine stability and firmness of character may result.

Many of these evil tendencies may be counteracted by judicious supervision, but enough of them will remain to prevent the practiceschool from becoming ideal.

It is the opinion of your committee that each person should have an opportunity before graduation to take charge of a room until he shall have demonstrated his ability to manage it successfully alone, or shall have shown that he has made a serious mistake in selecting teaching for his vocation.

At this suggestion difficulties present themselves in great numbers. With schools of any considerable size a system including several hundred children and a large number of rooms becomes necessary. A combination of the first and second plan is possible only under such favorable conditions. A practice-school of good size, supplemented by the schools of a town or part of a city, would seem to be quite essential to such an arrangement of the practice-work. A mod. ification of this plan, by which two are assigned to each school, one serving alone for two and a half hours, the two working together for an hour, and the second finishing the day, will realize good results, and permit the theoretical work to run parallel with the practice.

As to the third point under discussion, the amount of practicework, your committee would recommend that there shall be at least enough to reveal the significance of the educational theories taught, to show their entire practicability, and also to give the pupil-teacher a clear sense of freedom in dealing with children.

Superior skill cannot be expected, since that is the result of longcontinued practice; but that course must be considered seriously de

fective which does not leave the pupil-teacher well stocked with ideas in which he thoroughly believes, an awakened sense of power, faith in his ability to put his ideas into practice, an ardent love for the schoolroom and for childhood, and an earnest desire to find a place in the noblest guild of teachers.

Realizing the imperfections of the normal school, and the difficulties attending the organization and administration of this indispensable department of its work, your committee submits this report, with the hope that it may be supplemented by the more valuable experience of the Council.

John W. Cook, Chairman.
R. G. BOONE,
W. R. GARRETT,
IRWIN SHEPARD,

JAMES M. GREEN,
Committee on Normal Education.

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT.

SECRETARY'S MINUTES.

FIRST SESSION.

DENVER, COLO., WEDNESDAY, July 10, 1895. The department met in the auditorium of Trinity church, a large audience being present. The platform was adorned with flowers and palms, placed there by the local reception committee.

Mrs. Hill opened the meeting with a few words of welcome. She presented to Miss Wheelock, as President, a gavel made of wild cherry cut at Mount Vernon, Washington's home, and tipped with Colorado silver.

Miss Wheelock accepted the gavel, saying she appreciated the honor which was hers in wielding a gavel made of materials which were the product of two such far separated states as Virginia and Colorado. She thought it typified the widespread influence of kindergarten schools and the national character of the movement.

Mrs. Ione T. Hanna was then introduced. She welcomed the audience on behall of the Kindergarten Association of Denver and of the East Denver School Board. which had taken an early interest in kindergarten work, having already established ten kindergartens and being about to open ten more in the fall.

The kindergarten hymn, "Now Before We Work To-day," was then sung, the audience being led by Prof. W. J. Whiteman, Musical Instructor in the West Denrer Schools.

Miss Wheelock, the President of the department, in turn thanked the people of Denver for their cordial welcome and numerous courtesies, and then delivered a brief opening address.

Henry W. Blake of Massachusetts was chosen to act as Secretary, in the absence of Miss Agnes Mackenzie, who was unable to be present.

Miss Amalie Hofer of Chicago, editor of the “Kindergarten Magazine," read a paper on "The Social Settlement and the Kindergarten."

Mrs. S. W. Harriman of Providence, R. I., read a paper on the “Pestalozzi Froebel Haus."

"The Kindergarten and the Home," was the subject of the paper read by Mrs. James L. Hughes of Toronto.

Discussed by Henry W. Blake of Springfield, Mass., editor of the "Kindergarten News."

Mr. Whiteman than sang "Little Boy Blue," and 'Tis But a Dream" as an

encore.

Short papers on "Mothers' Meetings" were then read by Miss Vary C. McCulloch of St. Louis and Miss Wilhelmina T. Caldwell of Denver.

Miss Laura E. Tefft of Greeley, Colo., also spoke on "Mothers' Meetings” as they are conducted in Germany.

The following committees were appointed:

On Vominations.- Miss Mary B. Page of Chicago, Miss Hattie Twitchell of Milwaukee, and Miss Ada E. Cole of Denver.

On Resolutions. -Miss Sara A. Stewart of Philadelphia and Mrs. Hughes of Toronto. The department adjourned until Thursday, July 11th, at 3 o'clock p. m.

SECOND SESSION.—THURSDAY, JULY 11, 1895.
The session opened at Trinity church at 3 p. m., with a large audience.

The first exercise was the singing of the kindergartner's hymn, led by Mr. Whiteman.

In the absence of James L. Hughes of Toronto, who was not able to be present to read his paper on "Comparison of the Educational Theories of Froebel and Herbart," Miss Wheelock called Dr. Z. X. Snyder, President of the State Normal School of Colorado, to the platform.

President Snyder briefly addressed the department.

Miss Sarah Arnold, Supervisor of Schools, Boston, Mass., was introduced, and addressed the department on "A Knowledge of the Kindergarten Indispensable to Primary Instruction."

Mrs. Eudora L. Hailman of Washington, D. C., opened the discussion of the subject "Comparison of the Educational Theories of Froebel and Herbart.”

Dr. W. N. Hailman, Superintendent of Indian Schools, Washington, D. C.; Col. Francis Parker of Chicago, and Dr. Frank M. McMurry of Buffalo, N. Y., continued the discussion.

Mr. W. J. Whiteman of Denver introduced a chorus of forty children, who sang two beautiful songs.

Prof. W. L. Tomlins addressed the department on the “Faculty and Ministry of Song."

The Committee on Nominations reported as follows:
For PresidentMiss Amalie Hofer, Chicago, Ill.
For Vice President-Mrs. Susan H. Harriman, Providence, R. I.
For Secretary-Miss Wilhelmina T. Caldwell, Denver, Colo.

The report was unanimously adopted and the nominees declared elected as officers for the ensuing year.

Miss Wheelock presented the gavel to Miss Hofer with a few appropriate words. Miss Hofer accepted it with graceful acknowledgments of the honorable service to which she had been called.

The Committee on Resolutions presented the following report:

Resolved, That the Kindergarten Department of the National Educational Association express their acknowledgment and appreciation of the cordial hospitality extended by the local Reception Committee, and for the welcome accorded by the Chairman of the Reception Committee, Mrs. Hanna of the Denver School Board, and Mrs. N. P. Hill; to Miss W. T. Caldwell and the Denver kindergartners, for the preliminary arrangements that have contributed so largely to the pleasure of our meetings; to Mr. and Mrs. Whiteman and the children, for assistance in our music; to the press, for generous reports; to the trustees for the use of Trinity church; also, to Mr. Henry W. Blake for his hearty and efficient service in supplying the place of the absent Secretary of the department.

Resolred. That this department recognize the importance of the co-operation of mothers, the influences of the home, and the social spirit and fellowship as indispensable factors in education. The department then finally adjourned.

HENRY W. BLAKE,

Secretary.

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS.

OPENING ADDRESS.

BY MISS LUCY WHEELOCK, BOSTON, MASS.

I simply wish to refer to some phases of kindergarten work which seem to have special prominence, and which most occupy the thought of all kindergartners and all interested in the progress of the kindergarten movement.

We are to consider the details and methods of our work with reference to the needs of the great educational field. I have a very strong conviction that the kindergarten movement is only part of the great educational movement, and we must get into harmony with all other departments of education in order to accomplish best our own particular line of work.

There is no educational thought at present which is not important for the kindergartner to consider.

As I look over the educational world to-day it seems to me there are two or three educational movements of special interest to kindergartners.

First, child study. I have a strong feeling that kindergartners should be first and foremost in the support of the child study movement. We studied our material a great deal at our previous meetings; we talked more or less about the gifts and occupations, but I believe we are coming to see that the chief and foremost work of the kindergartner must be the study of the children themselves. So in all work being done by those who are forwarding the work in child study, I think we see the work which is most helpful to our particular field of work.

At first, in Boston, the kindergartners were afraid that some one was going to find out that possibly we had been doing too fine weaving, or that the length of our lines was not right, or that we had been giving work that was not best for the development of the child; but I know I can speak for all those who are interested that we have their close sympathy in the study of the child. I believe we can safely say the kindergarten does not depend upon any line or particular length of line. If we find it is better for the child to omit some of the work, which perhaps causes nervous pressure, we feel there is no principle violated thereby.

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