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age of success is the courage to blunder. The way to success is by a zig-zag route. One fact should arouse us to the highest pitch of energy and enthusiasm; should make us gird our armor on to fight for better things. It is the awful fact, that, good as our present common schools are, mighty as has been their progress and magnificent the results, they are not, by any means, equal to the tremendous social problems that face us in the coming twentieth century. Our common school system is not equal to municipal reform; not equal to overcoming the thirst for money, the desire to get something for nothing. It is not equal to the education of a vast number of people whose ancestors have been degraded through long ages of ignorance and oppression. We must have something better. The old German saying, "That which you would have the state, put into the school," we can revive and change to "That which we would have society, must be put into the school."

It is said that an aged statesman, in welcoming Charles Sumner to the senate, commiserated him in the fact that all the struggles of the new republic were over, and that there were no more worlds to conquer. This blindness to the situation is a common fault. There are dangers to-day far greater and far more threatening than those of 1861. We had a touch of the danger in the great riots last summer in Chicago. It is useless for us to say that we must not look to the common school for the development of every virtue; that the church and society must do their work. We must gird on our armor and put into the school everything that is good in society, and this can be done by the development of character; and character can only be developed by the study of personality and the application of the right conditions for its outgrowth. Our critics may deride us with their habitual ridicule, and say it is but the re-swinging of the pendulum; but hang the pendulum high in the heaven of eternal truth and its arc will sweep the universe.

The future ideal school is the ideal community, the embryonic democracy. The children are not in school to get knowledge; they are there to live and to learn to live. Dr. John Dewey says: "Education is not a preparation for life; it is life itself." In the ideal school should be all the elements of living. The main purpose of the school is the solving of the problem of all ages-the reconciliation of the individual to the state. The highest gift of a community is the liberty and the means of freedom. Education is the means of freedom, and the ideal school should present all the means which will assist each child in his personal striving for freedom. The old ideal was to sink the child into the state; to make him subservient to the organization, to the machine. The new one is to make him, through the development of his individuality, in the highest degree serviceable

to the state. My fellow-teachers, he who truly faces the problems of education faces infinity and infinite progress. He must have a great, profound faith in the development of the human race; he must feel in his soul that education is the one means for the fundamental outworking of all the problems that endure for good to the human race, and he must have a heart full of courage, persistence, patience, and wisdom. Without ignoring the treasures of philosophy, we can say that, from three sources-three great converging sources-the stream of education is flowing on; one from Herbart, who has promulgated fundamentally the doctrine of unification; another from Froebel, who has taught us the dignity of the child; and the third from child study, which will give us knowledge of the child. From these three we shall know the conditions which enable us to develop the child into the fullness of manhood.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION.

CONSTITUTION.

PREAMBLE.

The National Council of Education shall have for its object the consideration and discussion of educational questions of general interest and public importance, and the presentation, through printed reports, of the substance of the discussions, and the conclusions formulated. It shall be its object to reach and disseminate correct thinking on educational questions; and, for this purpose, it shall be the aim of the Council, in conducting its discussions, to define and state with accuracy the different views and theories on the subject under consideration, and, secondly, to discover and represent fairly the grounds and reasons for each theory or view, so far as to show, as completely as possible, the genesis of opinion on the subject. It shall be the duty of the Council, in pursuance of this object, to encourage from all its members the most careful statement of differences in opinion, together with the completest statement of grounds for the same. It shall further require from the chairmen of its committees the careful preservation and presentation of the individual differences of opinion whenever grounds have been furnished for the same by members of their committees. It shall invite the freest discussion of the reports of its committees, and, whenever said reports are not so amended as to embody the new suggestions developed by such discussion, any member making such suggestion or objection may put in writing his view and the grounds therefor, and furnish the same to the Secretary for the records of the Council. It shall prepare, through its President, with the aid of the chairmen of the several committees, an annual report to the National Association, setting forth the questions considered by the Council during the previous year, and placing before the association, in succinct form, the work accomplished. It shall embody in this report a survey of those educational topics which seem to call for any action on the part of the association. The Council shall appoint, out of its own number, committees representing the several departments of education, and thereby facilitate the exchange of opinion among its members on such special topics as demand the attention of the profession or of the public.

ARTICLE I.-MEMBERSHIP.

1. The National Council of Education shall consist of sixty members, selected out of the membership of the National Educational Association. Any member of the association identified with educational work is eligible to membership in the

Council, and after the first election such membership shall continue for six years, except as hereinafter provided.

2. In the year 1885 the Board of Directors shall elect eight members-four members for six years, two for four years, and two for two years; and the Council shall elect eight members-five members for six years, two for four years, and one for two years; and annually thereafter the Board of Directors shall elect five members and the Council five members, each member, with the exception hereinafter provided for (section 5), to serve six years, or until his successor is elected.

3. The annual election of members of the Council shall be held in connection with the annual meetings of the association. If the Board of Directors shall fail, for any reason, to fill its quota of members annually, the vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the Council.

4. The term of service of the several members of the Council, chosen at the first election, shall be arranged by the Executive Committee of the Council.

5. The absence of a member from two consecutive annual meetings of the Council shall be considered equivalent to resignation of membership, and the Council shall fill vacancies caused by absence from the Council as herein defined, as well as vacancies caused by death or resignation, for the unexpired term. All persons who have belonged to the Council shall, on the expiration of their membership, become honorary members, with the privilege of attending its regular sessions, and participating in its discussions. No state shall be represented in the Council by more than eight members.

ARTICLE II.-FEES.

There shall be no fee for membership in the Council of Education, but each member of it shall secure a membership in the National Educational Association by becoming a life member of the same, or by paying to the Treasurer of the association the annual membership fee of two dollars.

ARTICLE III.-MEETINGS.

There shall be a regular annual meeting of the Council held at the same place as the meeting of the National Association, and at least two days previous to this meeting. There may be special meetings of the Council, subject to the call of the Executive Committee, but the attendance at these meetings shall be entirely voluntary. The regular meeting of the committees shall take place on the days provided for the annual meeting of the Council. Meetings of committees may be called at any time by the chairmen of the respective committees, but attendance at such special meetings shall be entirely voluntary. A majority of the Council shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting, whether regular or called; but any less number, exceeding eight members, may constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the regular annual meeting, as defined in this article.

ARTICLE IV.-COMMITTEES.

The general management of the affairs of the Council shall be vested in an Executive Committee, composed of the President, Vice President, and Secretary of the Council, and four other members, all of whom are to be elected by the

Council at its annual meeting. There shall be twelve standing committees, each consisting of five members. They shall be appointed by the Executive Committee, and be named as follows:

1. Committee on State School Systems.
2. Committee on City School Systems.
3. Committee on Higher Education.
4. Committee on Secondary Education.

5. Committee on Elementary Education.

6. Committee on Normal Education.

7. Committee on Technological Education.

8. Committee on Pedagogics.

9. Committee on Moral Education.

10. Committee on School Sanitation, Hygiene, and Physical Training.

11. Committee on Psychological Inquiry.

12. Committee on Educational Reports and Statistics.

ARTICLE V.-DUTIES OF STANDING COMMITTEES.

The committees of the Council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the same; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.

Whenever called upon, the committees shall continue the deliberative work of the association on topics assigned to them, or prepare questions to be submitted to that body.

It shall be the duty of the standing committees to observe the new educational experiments and original investigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and report the same from time to time to the President of the Council.

ARTICLE VI.-DUTIES OF MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEES.

The members of the Council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the Council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the Chairman of the Committee.

Meeting of Committees for Special Work. -A half day at each annual session shall be set apart for "round table" discussions, and each standing committee may conduct its own meeting separately, inviting, at its pleasure, experts, original investigators, or other persons, to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.

ARTICLE VII.-DUTIES OF THE CHAIRMEN OF COMMITTEES.

The Chairman of each committee shall communicate the questions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his committee, and send them such other communications as may assist them in their work. He shall arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the Secretary of the Council of the progress made by his committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his committee, arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his committee,

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