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change. But money is also a standard of value. In explaining this phrase I should pick up the silver piece and ask where it came from, and point out the processes through which it has passed from the hour in which it was mined to the laying of the piece upon the desk. I should thus be able to convey an idea as to cost. With the money still before me I should pass on to the question of demand and sup ply. There is only one barrel of sugar in town, but people need the sugar. Mr A needs it; Mr. B needs it; Mr. O wants a barrel, also. But there is only one barrel for all. The demand of Mr. A plus the demand of Mr. B plus the demand of Mr. C will make Mr. X who owns the sugar put up the price to a point where perhaps Jr. B can not buy, or will buy a less quantity. But it is springtime and maple sugar is coming onto the market. The supply may lessen the price of sugar.
Mr. B has had an addition to his income of a thousand dollars a year.
Mr. C has likewise become well-to-do. With their increased wealth they can buy more things, both in groceries aud furniture Dealers in these articles increase their supplies. The demand has increased the supply and the supply equals the demand. Thus I illustrate the great law of demand and supply. I have on my table five kinds of what I may call
money. With these kinds before me I can talk about a paper currency; I can talk about a convertible and inconvertible currency. With the gold and the silver I can talk about a double standard or a single. I have a check here, and I can talk about checks in facilitating business in doing away with the need of currency. With my foreign draft I can go somewhat into the difficult question of international exchanges. International exchanges may introduce the question of free trade or restricted, i. e., protection. What is called paper money and gold and silver will allow me to talk all I can wish as to the perils of paper money and advantages. At this point in my little course I should take the class to a bank and have explained to them what a bank is; what functions it fulfills in the community; and, in particular, its relation to commercial crises. I could discuss the question of the relation of a bank to national finances, and the question of the relation of finance to the national government. A bank at once brings forth the question of capital, and in a bank in a building built for itself it would be easy to discriminate between capital fixed and capital circulating. This idea of money, too, suggests the idea of cost and price. Cost and price lead directly to the idea of labor. I might at once go underneath my money and say that the real cost of the table upon which my money is lying is the labor that has gone into making the table. Labor leads to the subject of division of labor, and also to the territorial division of labor and its products. Labor opens to us
the question of expenditure, productive and unproductive. This question of wages, too, is simply a part of the question of money.
There are two departments in this subject extremely important which should be taught by example and illustration. First, the financial side of the government of the city or town in which the student lives; and, second, methods of transportation. For the firstthe government of the city-let the class visit the offices of the city or town and become acquainted with all the methods of doing the municipal business. Let the student be shown the books of the city treasurer and the auditor. Let him know the cost of each department of the city's house-keeping. Let him examine every means for meeting this cost. For the question of transportation let him visit the railroad office. Let him have pointed out to him the significance of a railroad ticket, the significance of a freight bill, the sig. nificance of a railroad bond or a certificate of railroad stock. These are two departments with which he, as a child, has to do—with which he as a man will have to do. Let him learn them through observation. Let him learn their significance through having it pointed out to him by a wise teacher. If the method of visiting be insufficient, , let copies of various municipal and railroad documents be made, sent to the schoolhouses, and seen by and explained to students.
I am not so blind nor so deaf as not to be aware how very simple all this seems to you. But do you know that I have touched upon most of the principles which John Stuart Mill touches upon in his great book? Is this method too recondite? As Professor Clark says, a child could understand it. Is this method too expensive in time? An hour a day for a dozen weeks would be ample. Is this method beyond the ability of teachers to use? If they have mastered a good book, and then have forgotten the book and can use the principles of the book, it will be very easy to a teacher. Is this method stupid to a child? Not stupid so long as a teacher can afford to invest in three dollars of currency and in blank bank checks. Is the result worth while? Certainly, for the result is an intellectual trainingteaching one to think, to discriminate, to reason. Is the result worth while? Surely, for the result is a moral training of which the principle is that honesty lies at the basis of these methods. Is the result worth while? Assuredly, for the result is a most useful training, as it points out fallacies into which even lawmakers or law interpreters have fallen. Is the result worth while? Yes, it is worth while, for it aids every child in becoming a good citizen.
REPORT OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE ON THE ORGANIZATION
OF CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS.
BY ANDREW S. DRAPER, CHAIRMAN.
It is understood that the committee is to treat of city school systems which are so large that persons chosen by the people to inanage them and serving without pay cannot be expected to transact all the business of the system in person nor to have personal knowledge of all business transactions; and which are also so large that one person employed to supervise the instruction cannot be assumed to personally manage or direct all of the details thereof, but must, in each case, act under plans of organization and administration established by law and through assistants or representatives.
The end for which a school system exists is the instruction of the children, the word instruction being used with the meaning it attains in the mind of a well-educated person, if not in the mind of an educational expert.
To secure this end, no plan of organization alone will suffice. Nothing can take the place of a sincere desire for good schools, of a fair knowledge of what good schools are and of what will make them, of a public spirit and a moral sense on the part of the people which are spontaneous or which can be appealed to with confidence. Fortunately the interest which the people have in their own children is so large and the anxiety of the community for public order and security is so great that public sentiment may ordinarily be relied upon, or may be aroused to action, to choose proper representatives and take proper measures for the administration of the schools. If, in any case, this is not so, there is little hope of efficient schools. Wherever it is so, it alone will not suffice; but proper organization may become the instrument of public sentiment and develop schools that will be equal to the needs of all and become the safeguards of citizenship.
Efficient schools can be secured only by providing suitable buildings and appliances and by keeping them in proper order, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, by employing, organizing, aiding, and directing teachers so that the instruction shall have life and power to accomplish the great end for which schools are maintained.
The circumstances of the case naturally and quickly separate the duties of administration into two great departments: one which manages the business affairs, and the other which supervises the instruction. The business affairs of the school system may be trans
acted by any citizens of common lionesty, correct purposes, and of good business experience and sagacity. The instruction will be ineffective and abnormally expensive unless put upon a scientific educational basis and supervised by competent educational experts.
There will be a waste of money and effort and a lack of results unless the authorities of these two departments are sympathetic with each other; that is, unless, on the one hand, the business management is sound, is appreciative of good teaching, looks upon it as a scientific and professional employment, and is alert to sustain it; and uniess, on the other hand, the instructors are competent and selfrespecting, know what good business management is, are glad to uphold it, and are able to respect those who are charged with responsibility for it.
To secure efficiency in these departments, there must be adequate authority and quick public accountability. The problem is not merely to secure some good schoolhouses, but good schoolhouses wherever needed, and to avoid the use of all houses which are not suitable; it is not to get some good teaching, but to prevent all bad teaching and to advance all the teaching to the highest possible point of special training, of professional spirit, and of life-giving power. All of the business matters must be intrusted to competent business hands and managed upon sound business principles; and all of the instruction must be put upon a professional basis. To insure this, there must be deliberation and wisdom in determining policy, and then the power to do what is determined upon must be present and capable of exercise, and the responsibility for the proper exercise of the power must, in each case, be individual and immediate.
It is imperative that we discriminate between the legislative and the executive action in organizing and administering the schools. The influences which enter into legislative action looking to the general organization and work of the schools must necessarily and fundamentally flow directly from the people and be widely spread. The greater the number of people, in proportion to the entire population, who can be led to take a positive interest and an active part in securing good schools the better will the schools be, provided the people can secure the complete execution of their purposes and plans. But experience has clearly shown that many causes intervene to prevent the complete execution of such plans; that all the natural enemies of sound administration scent plenty of plunder and are especially active here; that good school administration requires much strength of character, inuch business experience, much technical kuowledge, and can be measurably satisfactory only when the re. sponsibility is adequate and the penalties for maladministration are severe. Decentralization in making the plan and determining what
shall be done, and centralization in executing the plan and in doing what is to be done, are perhaps equally important.
It should be remembered that the character of the school work of a city is not merely a matter of local interest, and that the maintenance of the schools does not rest merely or mainly upon local authority. The people of the municipality, acting-and ordinarily glad to act, but in any event being required to act—under and pursuant to the law which has been ordained by the sovereign authority of the state, establish and maintain schools. They must have the taxing power which the state alone possesses in order to enable them to proceed at all. They must regard the directions which the state sees fit to give as to the essential character of the schools, when it exercises in their behalf, or when it delegates to them, the power of taxation.
The plan should be flexible for good while inflexible for evil. After meeting essential requirements, the people of the municipality may and should be empowered to proceed as much farther as they will in elaborating a system of schools. The higher the plane of average intelligence, and the more generally and the more directly the people act in deciding what shall be done, and the greater the facility and completeness with which the intelligence of the city is able to secure the proper execution of its plans by officers appointed for that purpose, the more elaborate and the more efficient will be the schools.
It is idle to suggest that centering executive functions is unwisely taking power away from the people. The people cannot execute plans themselves. The authority to do so must necessarily be delegated. The question simply is: Shall it be given to a number of persons, and, if so, to how many? Or, to only one? This question is to be de. cided by experience, and it is, of course, true that experience has not been uniform. But it is doubtless true that the general experience of the communities of the country has shown, that, where purely executive functions are conferred upon a number of persons, jointly, they yield to antagonistic influences and shift the responsibility from one to another; and that centering the responsibility for the proper discharge of executive duties upon a single person, who gets the credit of good work and must bear the disgrace or penalty of bad work, and who can quickly be held accountable for misdeeds and inefficiency, has secured the fullest execution of public plans and the largest results. To call this "centralization," with the meaning which commonly attaches to the word, is inaccurate. Instead of removing the power from the people, it is keeping the power closer to the people and making it possible for the citizen in his individual capacity, and for organized bodies of citizens, to secure the execution of plans according to the purpose and intent with which those plans