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Fifth-That we cordially approve the action of the National Council in the appointment of a special committee to investigate the condition of the rural schools of this country, regarding their organization, their conduct, and their support, and to report upon the most feasible plans for their improvement in these respects, whereby the youth of the country may enjoy, in reasonable measure, the advantages that are common in cities and villages; and in support of this action the request of the council for an appropriation to meet the necessary expenses of this committee is approved.

Resolved, First-That we heartily appreciate the efforts of our government to bring every Indian child under appropriate instruction in the elements of conduct, industry, and letters, and to free the Indian school service from the evils of partisan influence; that we emphatically approve its efforts to systematize Indian education under professional leadership; that we cordially sympathize with Superintendent Hailman's appeal to the teachers of the land for active interest on their part in the civilization of the Indians and for a concerted effort to bring the Indian under the same law with the white man in the several states of the Union.

Second–That we heartily approve the efforts to educate Alaskans, and especially in the care and use of reindeer as an industry and as a means of saving them from starvation, and affording them food, raiment, shelter, and transportation; and that we believe Congress should extend to Alaska aid in settling the questions of productive industry by experiment stations, as it now aids in the other territories and in the several states by its appropriations for agricultural stations.

Resolved, That all intelligent pedagogy demands that we should recognize as fully as possible the nature of the children for whom the school exists. Every method which can prove itself profitable to this end should be encouraged. All sciences touching the physical or mental development of children should be drawn upon for whatever help they can afford. Teachers everywhere should have wise direction in the common sense observation of the children under their charge. There should be throughout our public school system renewed and profound consideration of all things touching the physical and mental health of children, and training in school hygiene should constitute part of the professional education of teachers.

Resolved, That, while we recognize with unbounded satisfaction the splendid provision made by the different states of the Union, without exception, for the education of the children of this country, in primary, grammar, and high schools, and by many of them in state universities, we also recognize the fact that while we find the thousands in the first grade of the primary schools, we find the hundreds in the eighth grade of the grammar schools, the tens in the high schools and the ones in the state universities; hence, we urge the necessity of employing all means possible to increase the efficiency of the instruction of the thousands.

To this end we hail with joy the advent of the kindergarten, and we urge the legislatures of the several states to make such provision in their school laws as will render it possible to make the kindergarten an integral part of the public school systems of the United States.

Resolved, That since we believe that the intelligent teaching of children can be secured only by the intelligent training of teachers, we heartily commend the efforts made in all parts of the country, by means of round tables, teachers' institutes, and summer schools, to increase the efficiency of the force already in the field. But, at best, the training acquired by these means, in the nature of things, must be inadequate. Hence, we urge upon the legislatures of the several states, that they make provision for the establishment of thoroughly equipped normal schools in sufficient numbers to make it possible that all of the teachers of the public schools may receive such training as the transcendent interests committed to their charge imperatively demand, so that in the near future none but well-trained teachers shall be permitted to enter upon the work of instructing children. In this connection, we congratulate our friend and co-worker, Supt. W. H. Maxwell of Brooklyn, upon the enactment into law of the bill drawn by him so many years ago and for which he has so long and faithfully labored. We also congratulate His Excellency Governor Morton that he has risen to his high privilege of signing this bill, and thus making it a law that "no person shall be employed or licensed to teach in the primary and grammar schools of any city of the state who has not had successful experience in teaching for at least three years, or, in lieu thereof, has not completed a three years' course in, and graduated from, a high school-or academy having a course of study of not less than three years, approved by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, or from some institution of learning of equal or higher rank, approved by the same authority, and who, subsequently to such graduation, has not graduated from a school or class for the professional training of teachers having a course of study of not less than thirty-eight weeks, approved by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction.” We congratulate the Empire State that it has such loyally true men to stand for the welfare of its children.

Resolved, That we make grateful and sincere acknowledgment to our retiring President and honored friend, Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, for the untiring zeal, the unvarying courtesy, the resistless energy, and the rare genius for organization, which he has displayed in administering the affairs of the National Educational Association. We congratulate him on the wonderful success that has attended this session not only in point of attendance, but more especially on the unequaled interest shown at all of the meetings, general and sectional, and upon the extraordinary excellence of the program of exercises. We assure Dr. Butler of our warmest appreciation of this culmination of his splendid services to the National Education Association, and that our hearty esteem and good wishes will accompany him while life remains.

Resolved, That we heartily acknowledge the courtesy and liberality of the various railroad managements of the United States which have, without exception, extended every facility in their power to make our journey to and from Denver the pleasantest possible, and also to provide numberless attractive excursions; and all at most reasonable rates.

Resolved, That the thanks of this association are due Messrs. Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict of New York City for the continuance of the gratuitous typewriter service which has been so generously furnished this year as in the past, and especially to Misses Orr and Meineke, the expert operators who have for several years performed this service, and who, by their efficiency and courtesy, have placed under special personal obligation to them the many who have received their valuable aid.

Resolved. That we return sincere thanks to Mrs. A. J. Peavey, State Superintendent of Public Instruction of Colorado, for the aid and counsel which she has afforded during the preparations for and the conduct of this meeting.

Resolved, That the thanks of the assembled teachers are due to the press of Colorado, but more particularly to the press of Denver, for the reports, admirable in accuracy and in fullness, which they have published, of the proceedings of this meeting.

Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt thanks to the citizens of Denver for their unbounded hospitality during the session of the National Educational Association. This hospitality has met us in all quarters of the city, from all classes of citizens: in short, we have everythere met a genuine Denver reception.

We especially acknowledge our obligations to Supt. Aaron Gove and his able assistants: to the Executive Committee having in charge arrangements for the meeting, and the various subcommittees who have labored so tirelessly in carrying out those arrangements; to the Board of Education and Common Council, whose splendid liberality has supported every effort of the Executive Committee; to His Honor the Mayor, for his cordial efforts in our behalf and the heartiness of his welcome; to His Excellency Gov. Albert W. McIntire and to Lieutenant Governor Brush, for the pleasant reception tendered the teachers at the capitol on Wednesday evening; to the Woman's Club of Denver, for their untiring courtesies at their parlors in the high school building during our entire session; to the police and fire boards, for the exhibition of their departments on Thursday; to the park commissioners, for their kind provision for band concerts at the city parks; to the Colorado State Teachers' Association, for the splendid reception tendered the members of the National Educational Association at the Brown Palace Hotel on Thursday evening; to the Apollo Club and the Euterpe Quartette of Denver, the Chicago Principals' Male Quartette, and the various other musical organizations and individuals, for their delightful services of song.

We beg to assure the good citizens of Denver, one and all, that their kind efforts in our behalf are most sincerely appreciated and acknowledged, and that the memories of this delightful visit will be cherished as long as we shall live.

Respectfully submitted,


Committee on Resolutions.

On motion of Mr. Baker of Colorado, seconded by Mr. Richards of Washington, the report was received and the resolutions were unani. mously adopted.

President Butler introduced Prof. Edward Channing of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., who addressed the association on the subject, “The Relation of Geography to History."

Organ recital by Prof. John Gower of Denver.

President Butler introduced Dr. James H. Baker, President of the University of Colorado, Boulder, who spoke on "Educational Values."

President Butler appointed the following committee to represent the National Educational Association at the Congress of Education at the Cotton States Exposition, Atlanta, in the fall of 1895:

N. C. Dougherty of Illinois, Irwin Shepard of Minnesota, I. C. McNeill of Missouri. Charles R. Skinner of New York, L. H. Jones of Ohio, W. F. Slaton of Georgia, C. B. Denson of North Carolina, J. M. Carlisle of Texas, Aaron Gove of Colorado, Miss Ella C. Sabin of Wisconsin, Miss Estelle Reel of Wyoming, Geo. J. Ramsey of Louisiana, J. H. Phillips of Alabama, Major S. T. Black of California, James McGinniss of Kentucky, Ray Greene Huling of Massachusetts, E. Oram Lyte of Pennsylvania.

PRESIDENT BUTLER: Fellow Teachers, Ladies and Gentlemen: The thirty-fourth meeting of our association draws to its close. It becomes my pleasant duty to return to you thanks for the co-operation which has made this great meeting possible and successful, and to transfer to my successor, your unanimous choice, the gavel which is the symbol of authority and dignity. You will permit me, before taking that formal step, to say to you how profoundly I am indebted for the thousand and one courtesies and for the uniform consideration with which members of this association have treated the occupant of the chair. There has been no incident that has in the least marred the happiness or the success of our year. You will permit me, in your presence, to say to you, Dr. Shepard, and to you, Mr. McNeill, that this association may never know the extent and the character of your labors in its behalf. It is perhaps a pleasant privilege of the President to be the only person to know how difficult, how exacting, and how faithfully performed is the work of these two great executive offices. Nor may I close without saying to Mr. Gove that the incidents of this meeting have forged new bonds of affection and respect, to be added to those that have bound him to us so long and so closely. His associates upon the local Executive Committee, his lieutenant generals at the head of the various committees that constituted the most effective local organization that has ever greeted us, his major generals, his colonels, and his private soldiers, each and all, are entitled to the thanks, not only of this association but of the chair and his colleagues in executive office, and these richly earned thanks are cordially and heartily extended.

And now, Mr. Dougherty, it becomes my privilege to hand to you this gavel. I received it, sir, one year ago, at the hands of my distinguished predecessor, a citizen of your own state, and it is with peculiar pleasure that I transmit it to the gentleman whose intimate personal friendship I have long enjoyed. It is particularly interesting for me to remember that it was through your invitation, when President of our Department of Superintendence, that I first became a member of this association. I wish for you, sir, a successful and happy administration. I tender to you this gavel as an expression of our uranimous confidence and respect, and we are, sir, until the meeting of 1896 is adjourned, your faithful and loyal servants.

PRESIDENT-ELECT DOUGHERTY: Ladies and Gentlemen and Members of the National Educational Association: I am deeply conscious of the high honor conferred in my election to the presidency of this association, the largest and grandest organization of teachers the world has ever known. I cannot hope, I dare not aspire, to fill the vacant place of my distinguished predecessor, whose administration we all agree is peerless in the history of this association. But I can and I do promise here and now to faithfully administer the duties of this high office to the best of my ability. There never was a time in the history of man when this nation so much needed the best and highest teaching, and so much of it, as it does to-day. We belong to the Anglo-Saxon race, whose mission I believe it is to educate the people, and lead all other races in this great work; a race whese very foundation of belief is that the more perfect the culture of a people the greater is the individual freedom, the individual happiness, and the higher the grade of manhood in the people. These are the ideals which we as teachers seek to establish and maintain. It is for this purpose we have been organized. Our object is to exalt the vocation of the teacher, to hold up the noble banner, to foster a professional spirit, and generate professional enthusiasm. How well we are accomplishing this mission I think the meeting in Denver demonstrates; and it is my pleasure to say, here and now, that the meeting of the succeeding year will be continued upon the same lines and for the same lofty purpose.

And now, fellow teachers, the time has come for us to bid farewell to Denver, this beautiful city of the mountains. I am sure we all realize more deeply than ever before that the cause which has been intrusted to us is the most precious which belongs to society, and I am equally sure, as we recall the experiences of the week, the hospitality which has met us upon every side, the work which has been done by the citizens and teachers of this great and almost imperial city, that there comes up within the heart of each one thankfulness for what has been received and for the kindness that has been manifested toward us. As we leave this beautiful city at the foot of the Rockies, we carry with us feelings of the profoundest gratitude. I but express the feeling of each of the 10,000 teachers who have been in your midst, when I say, God bless Denver, and God bless her noble teachers.

And now we shall close the session with the singing of “America."

The audience arose and joined in "America," and President Dougherty declared the association adjourned until such time and place as the Executive Committee may indicate for the next meeting of the association.

Adjourned sine die.



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