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emotional powers, and, like ideal literature, set up standards of perfection in execution and in conduct of life.
The world in which we live is the world we are to know in order to adapt ourselves to it in thought; the world we are to know in order to gain power to work therein with success; the world we are to know as representing the thought of the Creator and the correlated nature of man; the world we are to know to gain the soul's highest realization; and for these ends, to know it in its various phases. Each department of study makes its own peculiar contribution to knowledge, each has its peculiar fitness for developing some given power of the mind, each makes its own contribution in preparing the individual for the practical world. In three distinct ways does each subject have a peculiar value—for knowledge, for power, for practical life.
While a classification of studies without cross-divisions is impossible, we may say that the first four groups give us the power of knowledge for action; the fifth the feeling for perfection of action and righteousness of action; and these in their exercise and their tendency create the right kind of power in action.
Can the exact absolute and relative value of each line of study be determined ? No; but we may make approximate estimates through philosophical study of the relation of the mind to the world, through the history of education and the experience of practical teachers. Every position is tentative and subject to constant readjustment, with a closer approach to truth. A re-investigation of many problems through careful observation of children will doubtless make an important contribution to knowledge of values, if the experiments are conducted with a wisdom that takes them out of the realms of fads, and if the Platos of the world are not given a seat too far back. Important as this kind of investigation is, extreme advocates may undervalue the store of educational philosophy that has become common property. From Cain and Abel down, the child has always been the observed of all observers; the adult man recognizes the nature of the child in his own nature, and has recollections of many of his first conscious experiences. From the time of the early philosophers, the data have been sufficient to discover universal truths. Child-study serves, not so much to establish principles as to bring the teacher's mind in close sympathy with the life of the child, in order to observe carefully facts for the application of principles.
THEORY OF EQUIVALENCE. In an ideal course of general training, can there be in any exact meaning an equivalence of studies? As well ask whether one sense can do the work of another in revealing the world to the mind. To be sure, the fundamental conceptions of the material world can be obtained through the sense of touch alone; but we also attach importance to the revelations of sight and hearing, and these revelations have a different quality. He who lacks these other senses is defective in sources of soul development. So he who neglects important fields of knowledge lacks something that is peculiar to them. Each study helps every other, and before special training begins each is to be used up to the time when the student becomes conscious of its meaning. By contact with nature and society, the child, before the school period, gets an all-around education. He distinguishes numerically, observes natural phenomena, notes the deeds of his fellows, gains the thoughts of others and begins to perceive the qualities of beauty and right. The kindergarten promotes all lines of growth; the primary school continues them. Shall the secondary school be open to broad election? At a time when some educators of strong influence are proclaiming the formal theory of education, that power without reference to content is the aim of study, and some universities encourage a wide choice of equivalents in preparation for admission, and the homes yield to the solicitation of pupils to omit different subjects, it is important to answer the question in the light of the previous analysis. And we say, no, for the simple reason that not until the secondary period can the meaning of the various departments of knowledge be brought within the conscious understanding, not until then are the various powers developed to a considerable degree of conscious strength, not until then has the natural bent of the student been fairly tested. In this period one would hardly advocate the exclusive study, for instance, of history, to the entire neglect of mathematics and physics; nor would he advocate the choice of mathematics to the entire neglect of history and literature.
The question of college electives is to an extent an open one. But it is clear that where general education ends special education should begin, and that indiscriminate choice of studies without purpose is no substitute, either for a fixed curriculum or for group election in a special line. I believe most fully in the freedom of modern university education, but not in its license. Its freedom gives the opportunity to choose special and fitting lines of work for a definite purpose; its license leads to evasion and dilettantism. We hear of a senior who took for his electives Spanish, French, and lectures in music and art, not because they were strong courses in the line of his tastes and tendencies, but because they were the lines of least resistance. There appears to be a reactionary tendency toward a more careful guarding of college electives, together with a shortening of the college course, in order that genuine university work may begin sooner. If this tendency prevails it will become possible to build all professional and other university courses upon a substantial foun.
dation, and we shall no longer behold the disgraceful spectacle of law and medical students entering for a degree upon the basis of a grammar-school preparation.
The opportunity to specialize, which is the real value of college election, is necessary even for general education. To know all subjects one must know one subject. The deepening of one kind of knowledge deepens all knowledge. The strengthening of power in one direction strengthens the whole man. And education is not complete until one is fairly master of some one subject, which he may employ for enjoyment, for instruction, and for use in the world of practical activity. Here we reach the ultimate consideration of the intellectual side in estimating educational values.
“But,” says some one, “my conservative, not to say old-fashioned, friend, do you not know”—etc.? Yes, I know that we have before us new problems, or a reconsideration of old problems; and I hope I am with the vanguard. I believe the trend of educational thought is right, however we may for a time deviate in curious paths. I know that mental capacity, health, time, money, home obligations, proposed occupation, and even deviation from the normal type, are all to be considered in planning the education of a pupil. But the deviations from ideal courses and standards should be made with ideals in view, a different proposition from denying the existence or possibility of ideals. Yes, I know that the mind is a unit-being and a self-activity; that it develops as a whole; that there are no entities called faculties. But suppose the various psychical activities had never been classified, as they now are, in accordance with the facts of consciousness, the usage of language and literature, and the convenience of psychology, what a herald of fresh progress would he be who would first present mental science in clear groupings! We may call the world one, but it has many phases; the mind is one, but it has many phases; these are more or less correlated, and our theory of educational values stands. Yes, I know that interest is the sine qua non of success in education, and nothing is more beneficent than the emphasis given this fact to-day. I also know that pleasure is not the only, not even the most valuable, interest; and that the disagreeable character of a study is not always a criterion for its rejection. The pleasure theory will hardly overcome the importance of a symmetrical education.
In regard to some things, however, you must permit some of us to move slowly. We must use the principle of "apperception," and interpret the new in the light of that which has for a long time been familiar-attach it to the "apperception mass;" we must be indulged in our right to use the "culture-epoch” theory and advance by degrees from the barbaric stage to that of deeper insight; we must "concentrate” (concenter) with established doctrines other doctrines that present large claims, and learn their "correlations" and "co-ordinations."
A new object or idea must be related to and explained by the knowledge already in mind; it must be so placed and known or it is not an idea for us. If "apperception" means the act of explaining a new idea by the whole conscious content of the child's mind, then it is the recognized process of all mental growth. In a given study topics must be arranged in logical order, facts must be so organized as to constitute a consistent whole, important relations with other studies must be noted, and one subject must be made to help another as opportunity arises. If "correlation" means to unite and make clear parts of subjects and subjects by discovery of valuable mutual relations, then it is a vital principle of all good teaching. Studies, while preserving their integrity, must be adjusted to each other in time and sequence so that a harmonious result may be produced. If "COordination" means the harmonious adjustment of the independent functions of departments of study, we own the triteness of the truth.
If the theory of "culture-epochs” finds a parallel in order of development between race and individual, and throws light upon the selection of material for each stage of the child's growth, then let the theory be used for all it is worth. Its place, however, will be a subordinate one. Here are the world and the present civilization by means of which the child is to be educated, to which he is to be adjusted. Select subjects with reference to nature as known by modern science, with reference to modern civilization and the hereditary accumulation of power in the child to acquire modern conceptions.
If "concentration" means subordinating all other subjects of learning to a primary subject, as history or literature, which is to be used as a center throughout the elementary period, we refuse to give it a place as an important method in education. •Intrinsically there is no such thing as a primary center except the child himself. He possesses native impulses that reach out toward the field of knowledge --and in every direction. It is difficult to imagine a child to be witliout varied interests. Did you ever see a boy who failed to enumerate his possessions, investigate the interior of his automatic toy, delight in imaginative tales, applaud mock-heroic deeds, and appreciate beautiful objects and right action? If the child lacks normal development and has not the apperceiving mind of the various departments of knowledge, create new centers of apperception and interest, cultivate the neglected and stunted powers. The various distinct aspects of the objective world suggest the selection of studies; the nature of the mind suggests the manner in which the elements of knowledge are to be organized. The parts of a subject must be distinctly known before they are correlated; subjects must be distinctly known before they are viewed in a system of philosophy. Knowledge is not organized by artificial associations, but by obsery. ing the well-known laws of classification and reasoning. Moreover, all laws of thought demand that a subject be developed in a definite and continuous way, and that side illustration be employed only for the purpose of clearness. In practice the method of concentration can but violate this principle.
We may ask whether apperception, correlation, co-ordination, and concentration are anything but a recognition of the laws of association. The laws of association in memory are nothing but the law of acquisition of knowledge, as all good psychology points out. These laws include relations of time, place, likeness, analogy, difference, and cause.
Add to these laws logical sequence in the development of a subject, and you have all the principles of the methods named. Have these investigations an important value? Yes. They explain and emphasize pedagogical truths that have been neglected. Having performed their mission and having added to the progress of educational theory, they will give way to new investigations. This is the history of all progress.
The subject of interest deserves a further thought. It goes withcut saying that all a man thinks, feels, and does centers around his own personality, and in that sense is a self-interest. But we are not to infer that therefore interest must be pleasure. We are born with native impulses to action, impulses that reach out in benevolence and compassion for the good of others, impulses that reach out toward the truth, and beauty, and goodness of the world without regard to pleasure or reward. These impulses tend toward the perfection of our being, and the reward lies in that perfection, the possession of a strong and noble intellectual, æsthetic, and ethical character. The work of the teacher is to invite these better tendencies by presenting to them the proper objects for their exercise in the world of truth, beauty, and right. Interest and action will follow, and, later, the satisfaction that attends right development. Whenever this spontaneous interest does not appear and cannot be invited, the child should face the fact that some things must be, because they are required, and are for his good. When a course of action is obviously the best, and Inclination does not lead the way, Duty must come to the rescue.
I am not touching this matter as an old ethical controversy, but because I am convinced it is a vital practical problem of to-day in