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into the work. I desire to have compulsory training schools established in order that these teachers may be brought within this line of influence, and this would readily come about if teachers were required to have a license to teach. The very fact of the license is a compulsion. They must do a certain amount of work. It is simply to cover that point that I would make attendance compulsory over a given period.

N. C. SCHAEFFER, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Harrisburg, Pa.I agree with the first speaker in dividing teachers into two classes; but, nevertheless, my classification is somewhat different. According to my thinking, the first class of teachers consists of those who die before they are ready for burial. In other words, they cease to grow before they are ready to quit the schoolroom.

Since education is the play of mind upon mind; since the growing mind is a quickening mind; since the teacher who has ceased to grow has also lost his power to awaken life, and interest, and thought in those intrusted to his care, it is evidently incumbent upon us to ask ourselves the question, What is to be done with these teachers who have reached the dead line? Shall we find a remedy for the difficulty in the reading circle, or shall we say that the teachers' classes and the teachers' institutes are the remedies for revivifying the work of these teachers in the schoolroom? I confess to you that I have tried all three of these remedies without avail, and in my despair I turned to my catechism and learned something new about the resurrection from the dead. I find taught there iu clear and explicit terms the resurrection of the dead in the world to come, but I find not a word about the resurrection of the dead in the world of school-teaching.

My conclusion, therefore, is, that, for the sake of the children, we should entirely eliminate from the schoolroom this first class of teachers who have ceased to grow. We should eliminate them by a comfortable marriage if she is a woman; and if the teacher belongs to the opposite sex, then, by placing him upon the emeritus list-the most decent form of burial ever invented for a human being.

I turn my attention to that second class of teachers-to the teachers who have not yet reached the dead line, to that class of teachers who are still susceptible of life and of growth. With reference to these it must be confessed that every one of the three agencies discussed here to-day may be helpful in keeping them from reaching that dead line. And yet it is possible that every one of these remedies may fail. It is possible for that teacher to look upon all knowledge gathered from these three instrumentalities as the end in itself; to look upon the pupil as simply existing for that knowledge, as simply existing in order that the teacher may take the knowledge thus gained and put it into the child's mind as a receptacle. For that reason I deem it necessary to combine these three remedies with the additional remedy found in the materia medica of my friend, Dr. Barnes; I mean the study and love of the child. And here do not misunderstand me. I do not by this refer to that abstract pedagogical entity oftentimes known as "The Child.” I am willing to admit that it may be like breaking of light from above when the teacher finds out what are the three stages of growth in the development of the hurran soul. It may be like a revelation from on high for a teacher to find out that just as there are nascent periods for the first teeth, for the second teeth, for the mous. tache, and for the beard, so there are nascent periods for the different organs and functions of the body, and for the different faculties and sentiments of the soul. It may be reviving the work of the teacher when he learns that there is a nascent period for this part of the arm, and a nascent period for that part of the arm, and a still different period of growth for the nose and fingers, and it may save that teacher very many a sin when he finds, that, by reason of the laws of life, he may ruin the child by imposing upon the little one, before the nascent period has come, too great burdens. I say, it may be like a revelation from on high for a teacher to find out that there is a time when the head grows that way (indicating), and that there is still a different time when the head grows that way (indicating), and still a different time when the head grows that way (indicating); and it may save the teacher from many a sin to find out how these nascent periods are related to the development of the child—the development of the faculties of perception through the eye and through the ear. Studies of this sort may be carried on for the purpose of adding something new to the sum of human knowledge. They may be carried on for the purpose of preparing articles for the "Forum," or writing books for Americans. These investigations may be carried forward in the same scientific spirit with which the entomologist studies the bugs and insects of his collection. Now, a scientist and investigator of that sort may say, “Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not,” but the children never come. There was an entirely different spirit in the life of the Great Teacher in the Book of Books. That is the grandest book on teaching ever written, and in that book I am taught to keep the heart with all diligence, for out of it are the issues of life. Education is not wholly the result of mind playing upon mind, but it is also the result of heart influencing heart.

When Horace Mann made a famous speech for the dedication of a building that had cost many thousands of dollars, devoted to the reformation of bad boys, he said, “If all this which has been spent upon this building results in the reformation of one boy, it is money well spent.” Somebody said to him, “Mr. Mann, do you think that one boy is worth all that money?" He replied, "Yes, if it is my boy or your boy.

I would have the teacher look upon every member of his class as “my boy,” and go out toward each member of that class with the same fullness of love with which the mother's heart and father's heart go out towards that boy. Is not that what is meant by the famous inscription upon the monument of Pestalozzi, where on one side you read, "Everything for others; for myself nothing,” and upon the other, “I lived like a beggar, that beggars might learn to live like men ?"

I am so anxious about these two ends,-of study and love of children,-side by side, and as part of the work of every teacher and a necessity in every teachers' class, that I will try and turn my thought into the concrete.

About three years ago an acquaintance of mine brought his wife and a little child to the Pennsylvania Chautauqua at Mount Gretna. The child was a favorite with everybody, and near them lived a sickly woman, who persisted in bestowing her admiration upon that child, frequently in kissing the child's hand. A month after the Chautauqua had closed, that child was very sick, and at a consultation of five experts death was pronounced inevitable. When they examined the spittle of that humble woman, who was troubled with some sort of grave-yard cough, they found in it the germs of tubercular consumption, and the theory of one of the doctors was, that, by the kiss upon the hand, one of these germs had lodged there and had been carried by the hand to the mouth, and become inoculated in the system, and death was the result. When the father told me the mournful tale he wound up, with a tear in his eye, with the words, "Is it not strange that the kiss of love should become the angel of death?" And I went away, saying to myself, "The kiss of love the angel of death!" and I vowed that I would study child-life as I had never studied it before, lest something that I might do in love might, after all, prove to be the angel of death.

I would have every reading circle, every teachers' class, and every teachers' institute conducted with that conviction, that even what we do in love to children may, through our ignorance, prove a source of wrong-an angel of death.

John R. Kirk, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Jefferson City, Mo. -Lest you think that I lack in fidelity to current pedagogical thought, I desire to say in the beginning that I do not know of any state-I have not heard of any state-where teachers and pupils are more assiduously and faithfully engaged in trying to make use of these three means of grace and salvation which have been spoken of this morning than in my own State of Missouri, and this is true from the very head of an admirably equipped state university down yonder to the lowlands and mountains among the Ozarks.

For twenty-five years, in an unsystematic and unorganized way, we tried to work these things out. For four years just past I think we have been working in an organized way, and with perhaps good results, to find out what there is that can be done by these means. But honest as I am, for my part, in undertaking to make use of these means, I look upon much of it as being hedged in by many limitations.

I would not go to the extent that one of the speakers did, who said that he would banish from the teachers' class all books on pedagogy and psychology, and similar subjects; I would not do that. If we have a teachers' class I would try, not only to make use of the knowledge which can there be gained that has not yet been put into books, but I would try, if possible, to interpret some of the books that have already been written.

But there are limitations on the value of teachers' classes. If there is anything that tends to destroy the personality and the independence of the individual teacher, it is the improperly managed teachers' class.

I want to tell you a secret this morning. It is only kuown to a few of us. If there is one of you who is a principal or superintendent, where both you and your predecessor have lately been promoted and have moved into a new town, and you don't know the actual details of your business; if you actually cannot go into the fifth grade as principal or superintendent and take charge of any recitation there and do about as well as the ordinary teacher; if you know you cannot do that; if you know you are not an expert in passing upon the work in the third grade or the first-let me tell you how you can cover up these defects and stay longer with those who pay you a salary. Further, if you feel yourself to be deficient in scholarship; if you know you are somewhat narrow with regard to pedagogical information, let me tell you a secret: Go right to work and organize some kind of a reading circle or a number of teachers' classes, and keep them as far as you can under your control, and select the books used and select the instructors used, and keep the discussion going, and talk about your classes, and your reading circles, just as much as you can, and these deficiencies of yours will be undiscovered.

Now, that is not said in irony. It is in good earnest. There are a great many principals and superintendents—at least, I have heard of a great many; of.course, I don't meet them in associations like this, or in our state associations--there are great numbers of them that are admirable managers of large schools, yet cannot get down to the details of the instruction of the teachers that purport to be uuder them, and by this superficial and artificial means keep up an agitation, and thus cover up their defects.

Regarding the institute, I wish we might turn toward the improvement of it; that we might take from it the incomprehensible vagaries that are constantly preached to the teachers who must submit to instruction in our institutes. I will venture to say that in our country there will be 10,000 lectures on apperception, coordination, and correlation that will be like the lecture of a gentleman from Massachusetts whom I heard at Council Bluffs, Iowa, some three or four years ago. It was full of beautiful oratorical effects. A lady, speaking to me about it, said, "That was beautiful, but what did he mean?"

I would have a great deal of illustrative work introduced into all our institutes, whether they be for one day or for four weeks. Instead of the lecture, talk, talk, talk, I would have introduced into every institute-and we are going to do this in Missouri-a model school, where the first grade class is brought into the presence of the institute and taught, and where the second grade class is brought there and tanght; and where the fourth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grades are brought in there and taught, and let the discussion follow the observation and the illustration.

COL. Francis W. PARKER of Illinois.—The sweet, strong spirit of this magnificent convocation is accumulative and culminating. Not long ago a skirmisher on the advance line was often driven back by the brickbats of contempt; or if he stayed he was covered with the mud of ridicule. There is just a little now and then left. The new idea which brought a new name was covered with talk. If anyone does not know what apperception is, buy a “Century Dictionary," and make it more easy for the new idea to be born. The great organization is being perfected. All honor to the heroes and pioneers of the coming school system, who have made it possible to march on. Obstructions are passing away, and we search for the truth. We are learning to understand. We do not propose to cling like barnacles to traditions or to any system. We propose to take from Hegel all he has, and from Pestalozzi, and Froebel, and Herbart all they have to give, and what they have to give is a magnificent spirit of progress. We will take all these, and march on to higher and better things.

The one thing now is the training of the teacher. You have had that eloquently and profoundly discussed this morning. The superintendent is one who teaches directly, earnestly, honestly, for the welfare of the pupil. If he does not do that, he is not a teacher. I believe in the resurrection in this life, and I believe there is a new spirit coming.

I am not going to speak of the delights of the grand old past, but I love to think of the progress of the last forty-one years, in which I have been a teacher. I thank God for living now. I would not have been born later for anything in tho world. Everything is tending toward the training of the teacher. With the 450,000 teachers of our land, it has been impossible to train and educate them all together. We have had to bend to circumstances, and it is all right; but we are going to elevate the standard. Legislation is going to assist us.

I have the great pleasure of announcing to you—perhaps to some of you for the first time that the greatest event for education in the United States since the planting of the first normal school near the old battle-ground in Lexington has just occurred. Governor Morton of New York has signed a bill, as perhaps very few of you know-I have just found it out-that he has signed a bill, which means more for the teaching profession in the United States than any other legislation that ever took place.

Let me give you briefly the terms of this bill. After 1897 no one can enter the schools of any city or village in the great Empire State without at least one year's professional training. More than that. The state superintendent of schools of New York can determine the high schools which may send graduates to the normal schools. In three years' high school course the state superintendent can determine the pedagogical value of that school, and put it off or on the list. Never was given to any superintendent of this country a mightier, grander power to help the schools than is now given to Superintendent Skinner, and I fully believe he will be equal to the great responsibility.

I announce this because it gives me great courage. Seven long years one man has worked for this bill. Twice it passed the legislature, and once it was killed by the politicians. Another time it was vetoed by another politician, but persistent,

indefatigable effort won the day. One of our number has accomplished this grand result, and I say, all honor to W. H. Maxwell, superintendent of schools of Brooklyn, for this victory.

In twenty-five years from this time, I predict there will not be a state in this Union which has not followed the magnificent example of New York. Let us work to this end. Let the spirit of this meeting enter our souls, and let the grandeur of our past enter fully into our hearts and lend dignity and enthusiasm to our professional lives.

This grand army is to march on-not the army of thirty-four years ago-but with the sword of the spirit this army is to march on.

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord;

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In the beauty of the Illies Christ was born across the sea;

As he died to make men holy, let us live to make men free;

For Truth is marching on.

THE RELATION OF GEOGRAPHY TO HISTORY.

BY PROF. EDWARD CHANNING, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:

I feel that an apology is due to you—who have attended this convention since the beginning—from a speaker who reached Denver only this morning. Indeed, on occasions like the present it might be a good rule to permit no one to speak who had not earned his right to the attention of others by giving his own attention to what cthers have said; or, at all events, by giving security for future good conduct in this regard. I have followed your debates in the newspapers as well as I could, and wish to add my testimony to the truth of a remark which fell from Dr. Hinsdale. He protested—if the published reports are correct—against the idea that all good teaching is of the present day. There were undoubtedly just as good teachers one hundred years ago as there are today. The old-time teachers knew little of what we call method; but it is not impossible that too much weight is given to method nowadays. The first-class teacher should, and does, invent his own methods. He will be a method unto himself. Methods invented by other's unquestionably aid second-class and third-class teachers; but they also prevent their rising to higher grades. Because there was no method of doing this or doing that in the olden time, it by no means follows that there were not good teachers and good teaching. The main object of teaching was and is—or should be—the training of the mind, and not the turning out of walking encyclo

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