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to prove the universal and perpetual obligation of devoting the seventh day, or one day in seven, as "holy unto the Lord,” and the abolition of the Jewish ritual by the establishment of christianity.”
To these remarks we may add, that as our Lord continued forty days with his disciples after his resurrection, “speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God,” (Acts i. 3.) that is, directing them concerning the government of His kingdom or church on earth, we may rest assured of his full sanction, if not of his express direction for the change ; and that in this, as well as in every other catholic practice, we are fulfilling the will of the divine Author of our holy religion.
The observance of the Sabbath in the Patriarchal ages, before the time of Moses, may be traced in various parts of the Old Testament. Noah, for instance, having sent forth the dove from the ark at intervals of seven days. (Gen. viii. 10, 12.) It appears as if he expected a blessing on the seventh day rather than on any other: it being the day devoted from the beginning to religious services. It is also spoken of by Moses himself, (Exod. xvi.) as a day of rest, previous to the institution of the ceremonial law.
With regard to the observance of this day by the early christians,
find from heathen sources, that it was very strict and uniform. Pliny, for example, in his letter to the Roman Emperor Trajan, written probably only six years after the death of the evangelist St. John, says, that he found nothing to allege against the Christians, except their obstinacy in their superstition, and their custom of meeting together on a set day before it was light, and binding themselves by a sacrament to do no evil. Justin Martyr also, who wrote about forty years after the death of the same apostle, states, that on Sunday, as the day of our Lord's resurrection, all the Christians met together to read publicly the writings of the Apostles and Prophets; that, after this, the president made an oration to them, exhorting them to imitate and practise the things which they had heard, and that, after joining in prayer, they used to celebrate the sacrament and to give alms.
“It is a gross mistake says, Bishop Horsley, to consider the Sabbath as a mere festival of the Jewish Church, deriving its whole sanctity from the Levitical law. The contrary appears, as well from the evidence of the fact, which sacred history affords, as from the reason of the thing, which the same history declares. The re
ligious observance of the seventh day has a place in the Decalogue among the very first duties of natural religion. The reason assigned for the injunction is general, and has no particular relation or regard to the Israelites. The creation of the world was an event equally interesting to the whole human race; and the acknowledgment of God, as our Creator, is a duty in all ages and in all countries, , epually incumbent on every individual of mankind. The worship of the Christian Church is properly to be considered as a restoration of the Patriarchal in its primitive simplicity and purity : and of the Patriarchal worship, the Sabbath was the noblest and perhaps the simplest rite.” The obligation, therefore, upon Christians to comply with the religious odservance of Sunday arises from the authority of Apostolic practice, and the express sanction, at least, of the great, head and ruler of the Church.
The chief uses proposed by it are :-
2. To meliorate the condition of the laborious classes of mankind, by regular and seasonable returns of rest.
3. By a general suspension of business and amusement, to invite and enable persons of every description to apply their time and thoughts to subjects appertaining to their salvation.
"The duty of the day is therefore violated, as Archdeacon Paley observes, first, by all such employments or engagements as (though differing from our ordinary occupation) hinder our attendance upon public worship, or take up so much of our time as not to leave a sufficient part of the day at leisure for religious reflection; as the going of journeys, the paying or receiving of visits which engage the whole day, or employing our time at home writing letters, settling accounts, or in applying ourselves to studies, or the reading of books, which bear no relation to the business of religion.
Secondly, by unnecessary encroachments on the rest and liberty which Sunday ought to bring to the inferior orders of the community; as by keeping servants on that day confined and busied in superfluous preparations for our comfort or convenience.
Thirdly, by all such recreations as are customarily forborne out of respect to that day; as fishing, public diversions, frequenting taverns, and playing at cards or dice.”
Does the conscience, then, of one of our readers tell him that he has been guilty of any of these things ? Let him be persuaded to a wiser and happier course. Let him no longer employ the sacred hours of the Sabbath about his temporal gains, or the empty politics of the world, but remember the account he must shortly give at the bar of eternal justice, who will render to “every man according as his work shall be.” Let him shun the dark retreats of the drunkard, the sensual, and the vile, where the language of blasphemy and licentiousness is continually falling upon the ear ; and apply himself diligently to the study of his Bible, “while the evil days come not, nor the years draw nigh when he shall
I have no pleasure in them."
ECONOMICAL HINTS TO COTTAGERS.
Continued from Page 122.
When an infant is newly-born, you should never omit giving it a tea-spoonful of castor oil ; it prevents many complaints that they are subject to; and may be often repeated with great safety when their bowels are disordered. I, by no means, recommend magnesia, which lies cold and heavy on the infant's stomach, and should never be given alone.--In case of eruption, as measels, chicken-pock, &c., if the complaint come out freely, a very small quantity of weak onion-tea often assists it; but you must be very careful, for it is rather powerful when too strong. Never be persuaded to give an infant any sleeping medicine, for you may depend on it, if they are cross, they only want a little aperient medicine, and I know of none more efficient than castor oil. You add to their uneasiness by giving them what only lulls them for a few hours, as it confines their bowels when they ought to be relaxed, In the hooping cough, nothing relieves the patient so much as slight emetios, but of these I speak with caution, as they are dangerous to tamper with. You cannot, however do harm by rubbing the chest every night with some oily substance, and keeping it warm with flannel. I also believe that the sugar and vinegar is very serviceable in this complaint, as it relieves the chest.
As agues are so prevalent here, the most frugal and ready remedy, you will be surprised to hear, is the snuff of the candle. Strange as it may appear, it is now frequently used with great success. You may mix it with a little honey, treacle, or some other sweet that may disguise it, and you need not tell your patient what it is. Bark and snake root, mixed in beer or wine, is another remedy; but the most certain cure is the quinine, bark, which now most druggists know how to make up in proper quantities. It is, however, a very dear medicine. Cayenne pepper, or a large quantity of ginger taken in warm beer or spirits, often stops it at first. You know I, by accident, found out the most simple and pleasant remedy for a scald or burn, that is, putting the part afflicted into the hottest water you can bear your hand in (an infant, of course, could not bear it so warm) and keeping it there for a considerabl time, adding to the heat of the water as it cools, till, on your taking it out, you feel no return of the pain, if so, you return it to the water again, and add again to the heat of it.—You feel no pain in this case, but in the first plunge, which you must not mind being very severe, If the skin is broken, put on some of the following ointment, which you can easily make in summer :—to a pound of sweet hog's lard add a quarter of a pound of mutton suet melted, and poured in a little at a time, till all is well mixed, with a table-spoonful of salt.—Get all the rose leaves you can, and put some in every day, working it well with your hands, for as long as you can get rose leaves.—Then put it into a jar tied close down, and set it in a kettle of water, stirring it now and then till in a liquid state, taking care that no water gets in.Then strain it through a fine sieve into a basin, and, when settled from the lees, pour it off into small vessels for use : you may make a quarter of the quantity, which will last a long time. I have just heard of a recipe for weak eyes, which may be of service to you at some time or other. It is 20 grains of sugar of lead, mixed in a pint of water, and to a small tea-cupful of this liquid. add 5 drops of laudanum, when you use it.—You must take great care of it, as the sugar of lead is a strong poison. Brandy and water, in equal proportions, is very strengthening to the eyes, used every morning. For a sudden pain in the stomach, you cannot have any thing more simple than a little ginger tea, made very hot.—Pepper mixed also, either the oil of it, or on a lump of sugar, or the plant itself made into tea, is often very efficacious. If you are ever rich enough to possess a clock, you may save yourself the expense of a watchmaker in regulating it, by the following method :take hold of the pendulum in your left hand, resting the weight on your thumb. If you want it to go faster, turn the nut at the bottom a little to the right; if slower, to the left. You will easily perceive whether it rises from, or falls on your thumb, and stop as soon as you feel the motion.
To be Continued,
A PEEP INTO CANTON.
The sail from Hong-Kong to Canton is very interesting, particularly to a stranger. The numerous islands he passes, and the entirely new scenes that everywhere attract his eye, cannot fail to delight and amuse him. Here, the unwieldly Chinese junk; there, the fast-sailing Chinese passage-boat; now and then, the long snake-like opium smuggler, with his fifty oars; innumerable fishing-boats, all in pairs, with a drag-net extended from one to the other; country boats of all descriptions passing to and fro, their crews all bent on money-getting, yet never failing to cast a glance of mingled contempt and scorn at the “ Fanqui;” the duck-boats on the river banks, their numerous tenants feeding in the adjacent rice-fields; a succession of little Chinese villages, with groups of young celestials staring at him with never-ending wonder; here and there a tall pagoda, rearing its lofty head high above the surrounding scenery, as if conscious of its great antiquity and of the sacred objects for which it was built; the Chinese husbandman, with his one-handled plough, drawn by a single wild-looking buffalo; smiling cottages, surrounded with orange and other fruit-trees; the immense fleet of foreign ships anchored at Whampoa; these, and a thousand other objects equally strange and new, attract the attention of the stranger, as he sails up the “Quang Tung river. On nearing the city itself, he is still more astonished and pleased with the sights that literally confuse his ideas, making the whole scene to seem the creation of magic, rather than sober reality. Here, the river is absolutely crowded with junks and boats of all sorts and sizes, from the ferry-boat of six feet long to the ferry-boat of a thousand tons burden. Long rows of houses, inhabited principally by boat builders and others connected with maritime affairs, and built on the river, line its right bank. Outside of these, are moored numerous flat-bottomed boats with high roofs; these come from the interior with tea and other produce, and resemble what I fancy Noah's Ark must
have been, more than anything I have seen elswhere. On the left bank, the shore is lined with boats unloading and loading cargoes, while the different landing-places are completely blocked up with ferry-boats seeking employment. The space in the centre of the river is continually crowded with boats, junks, &c., proceeding up and down. The scene altogether is bewildering to the stranger. Busy as the scene is which the Thames presents at London, its superior regularity and order, in my opinion, prevent its coming up to the scene I have just faintly traced, in the strange and excited feelings it calls up. Amidst all this, there is a constant clatter of tongues strongly recalling the confusion of Babel. A Chinaman never talks below his breath; and if one may judge from the loud tones in wbich the whole community express their sentiments, whether in a house or a shop or in the street, the only conclusion that can be come to is, that in China, the word secret is not understood, or rather, that the idea corresponding to that word has no existence in their conceptions.
Of the immense city itself, the home of a million of souls, what account can a traveller give who has seen little more than the portion inhabited by foreigners ? I must say a few words, however, about that part of it which I have seen.
I begin with the foreign factories. These buildings stretch along the left bank of the river about three-quarters of a mile, (or rather, they did so, for one-half of them have recently been destroyed by fire,) and extend back about two hundred yards. They are large, substantially built, and comfortable houses ; but those situated behind the front row must be (indeed, I know they are ) oppressively hot residences in the summer season. The space between the factories and the river is reserved for a promenade, where foreigners may take a little recreation after their day's work. Although but a limited space, it is invaluable. Here, in the evening, may be seen Englishmen, Americans. Frenchmen, Spaniards, Dutchmen, Portuguese, Parsees, Moslem, and Hindoos; all enjoying the evening breeze, and talking over the affairs of the day, or the news brought by the last overland mail, while a crowd of Chinese coulies surround the square, gaping with noisy wonder at the strangers attired in all the costumes of Europe and Asia. The streets principally resorted to by foreigners are China Street (old and new) and Carpenters Square. In the former, a very choice collection of Chinese articles may be purchased, either in the way of curiosities or of valuable merchandize. In Carpenter's Square, the new-comer may fit himself out with everlasting trunks, dressing-cases, &c.; or if in search of furniture, he may here, in half an hour, furnish his house with wellmade, substantial articles. The houses in these streets are all of two stories, with very narrow frontage, ground being valuable. A large quantity of timber is used in their construction, which renders any chance fire in this city so very destructive. The streets in Canton are all very narrow, most of those I have seen, not exceeding six or seven feet in width; the two China streets are probably twelve feet wide. The city does not cover half the space which a European one with the same population would do. Its streets, from their want of breadth, always appear, and indeed always are crowded ; and the unwary passenger is very liable to get knocked down by some heavily-laden porter running out against him if he does not keep a sharp look out. Like Macco, it is infested with loathsome beggars, who are, if possible, still more clamorous in their demands for charity than those of that place. Here the stranger will be surprised to see dogs, cats, and rats hawked about, dead and alive. I do not say that these animals form the daily food of the people of Canton, but they are daily and hourly hawked about its streets and purchased by the poorer classes. The Canton market is, nevertheless, remarkably well supplied with the good things of this life; and the European who cannot live and be contented with the provisions procurable in it, must be hard to please. By nine o'clock at night, this huge city is perfectly quiet, and nine-tenths of its inhabitants are wrapped in sleep. At either end of each street is a gate, which is shut at that hour, and ingress or egress put a stop to for the night. This regulation, as may be supposed, is an excellent check upon night robbers, whose peregrinations can extend no further than the end of the street they live in. Another equally salutary regulation is that which makes the inhabitants of the street responsible for each other's good conduct. Thus, if A's servant steals anything from B, A must make good the loss. Prowling being