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must view the earlier portraits, especially by those artists of most merit. Indeed, we consider them all (the originals) more or less alike, but certainly there are some greatly superior to others; and we hope it will not be looked upon as invidious when we specify the busts of Houdon and Ceracchi, the portraits of Trumbull, Robertson, Pine, and Stewart, as the best we have seen, with regard to likeness, according to the periods to which they were done.
G. Stewart, of Newport, Rhode Island. 14. Mr. G. Stewart painted his original portrait in 1796, at
Philadelphia, several copies of which, perhaps equal to the original, (at least by himself) are in the possession of various individuals. One of them belongs to Mr. Pierpoint of Jamaica, Long-Island. Mr. Stewart's portrait (being the last Washington sat for,) has been engraved by Heath, and is in every one's eye ; few persons ever imagining he had more looks than one, this has been looked to as the only standard for Americans to behold Washington from ;- but it is, in reality, very different from the above-mentioned originals.
We shall add a few remarks on the chief characteristics of those sculptured and painted portraits of Washington which. were done from life, by artists the most respectable for talents, and which he actually sat for ; premising with a few introductory reflections.
It was a wise decree of Alexander the Great, that none should paint his portrait but Apelles, and none but Lysippus. sculpture his likeness; we feel the want of such a regulation in the case of our Washington, whose countenance and person as a man, were subjects for the finest pencil, or the most skilful chisel. But we are cursed as a nation in the common miserable representations of our Great Hero; and with the shocking counterfeits of his likeness by every pitiful bungler that lifts a tool or a brush, working solely from imagination, without any authority for their misrepresentations and deceptions, and bolstered up by every kind of imposture.
This evil has arisen to such a height, that it is necessary, for something to be done with a view to rectify the public sentiment, on this point, now so warmly agitated, so as to undeceive posterity. For these reasons we have drawn up this list of artists, who painted and sculptured him from life, as far as is ascertained ; and give the various circumstances under
which they executed their likenesses, that the public may know where to find the true standard, of what were genuine like. nesses of Washington, at the respective periods of his life in which they were done; with a comparative view of those originals most worthy of confidence, which we necessarily limit to six of the best artists, who took his likeness at those periods of his life most interesting to us; and which at the time they were done, met the decided approbation of the most competent judges, no one ever imagining it necessasy to procure a set of certificates, as to their authenticity or genuineness for verisimilitude, with which spurious or imaginary impositions are bolstered up.—Therefore,
1. If we wish to behold the countenance of Washington in his best days, we must look at the bust of Houdon ; who gives the air of the head and costume of the hair of the day, but with closed lips; in his best manner, and of whose competency to the task he undertook there can be no doubt.
2. If we wish to behold his complexion, and expression of the eye with an averted aspect; let us look at Pine's portrait in military uniform ; the excellence of the painting, and its correspondence with the other genuine originals, speaks volumes as to its character.
3. If we wish to behold Washington, not only in bis countenance, but the full display of the air of majesty and figure of the man, with eye averted, we shall find it in Trumbull's brilliant whole length.
4. If we wish more particularly to see the graceful play of the lips in the act of speaking, and the peculiar expression of the mouth and chin at the same moment, we shall see it in Ceracchi's colossal bust.
5. If we wish to behold Washington, when he began to wane in his latter years, when he lost his teeth, but with full vivacity and vigour of eye, looking at the spectator, we must behold Robertson's; it is somewhat remarkable that Robertson and Stewart only make him look at the spectator.
6. If we wish to see President Washington, as delineated from the life, in 1796, by one of the first portrait painter's of his day, let us look at the original picture in the possession of the artist, G. Stewart, now in Boston. The head only is finished in this picture. The drapery has never been added.
This last differing so essentially from all other portraits, has been the cause of all the dissension about Washington's likeness; although we have not the least doubt the artist gives us a true representation of the man when he sat to him ; and thus we explain why we ought to receive all these originals as cope rect likenesses at the time they were done, for it is impossible that one picture can represent him with his teeth, without them, and with a new set of formidable ones, at the same time.
From whence we conclude, that it is a self-evident absurdity to speak of one picture, as being a standard likeness of Washington ; for it must take three originals at least to give a tolerable idea of his looks at three different periods of his life; and the three only competent for this purpose are those of Trumbull, the best by far of those done whilst he had his own teeth; that of Robertson, when he wanted his teeth; and lastly, that of Stewart, when he had this want supplied by a set of artificial ones.
It is particularly requested, that should any person be in possession of a well authenticated original likeness of Washington, other than above specified, he will be so good as to communicate it to the secretary of the American Academy of Fine Arts, New York, by letter, or otherwise. American Academy of Fine Arts, New York,
Sep. 20th 1824.
A word of defence in favour of that much abused and long-suf
fering people, the Medical Experimentalists, usually denominated Quacks.
It is a common, but a just remark, that none are so unsparing in their invective, so inveterate in their hatred, and so bitter in their persecution, as professional enemies. Perhaps no class of men can better testify to the truth of this observation than the denounced, degraded and despised fraternity of Quacks. Every epithet of abuse that the ingenuity of malice can invent, or the rage of jealousy inspire, has been heaped, with merciless aggravation, upon those unlucky wretches who have dared to evade the requisitions of the doctorate, or have sought to usurp the rightful prerogatives of the regular physician. It is easy to see the source and secret of this violence. It is easy to see that the acknowledged merit and growing reputation of the empiric, has brought down upon his devoted head the angry anathemas and furious vengeance of the dogmatist. The active and enterprising mountebank has overleaped the puny walls that are intended to guard the sanctuary of medicine from the approach of unhallowed feet, and the pollution of unconsecrated hands; and his more legitimate brother, the initiated priest of the temple, seeks, like another Romulus, to strike the intruder to the ground, and to kill hiin with the epithet of Quack. Yet, although the interests and the feelings of the profession are arrayed, in strong hostility, against the pretensions of the unlicensed practitioner, it might have been expected, that there had been left among them kindness or candour enough to induce some generous spirit to protest against such undiscriminating and unrelenting persecution; or at least, to deprecate the wrath which he had not the courage to oppose. It is true, the empiric, secure in the possession of the confidence of the many, is raised by their protection above the idle malice of his envious calumniators ; and safe from the sting of the serpents, may laugh at their harmless contortions. Yet, as the impotence of rage is no excuse for its extravagance, I hope I shall be applauded by every lover of humanity, if I venture to uplift my feeble voice in behalf of this injured people, against the noisy outeries of their boisterous assailants.
The first and most honourable characteristic of the quack, is his freedom from the shackles of prejudice, and his love of the experimental philosophy. Free from all slavish adherence to the doctrines of his predecessors, “nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri,' his mind is left at liberty to adopt the fair inference from the facts before him. Redeemed by the liberal spirit of his sect from the thraldom of authority, listening not to Hippocrates, nor to Galen, nor to Avicenna, but guided by the result of experiment alone, he is your true Baconian philosopher. In this way, the great Paracelsus accomplished for medicine, what Verulam did for philosophy. The syllogisms of the Stagyrite did not retreat with more rapidity before the blows of the Novum Organon, than the hot and the cold, the moist and the dry of the Coan sage, when assailed by the salt, sulphur and mercury of that priest and prince, and pride of Cantambancos, Aureolus Philippus Theophrastus Paracelsus Bombast ab Hohenheim.
This glorious revolution, or rather restoration, in medicine, has produced at least, among the followers of the philosopher of Einfidlen, a remarkable simplification in all the divisions and details of the divine art of healing. The empiric is thus released from the necessity of devoting his valuable time to the useless acquisition of a farrago of anatomical and physological nonsense, which the candidate for the regular diploma is absurdly obliged, if not to learn, at least to listen to, and which serves no other purpose than that for which, perhaps, it was intended, to make a pedantic display of ostentatious erudition. The human body is now considered by this medical Baconian precisely as it ought to be, the object of extemporaneous ex
periments; experiments which this hardy philosopher conducts with the same quiet composure, as if he were analysing an unresisting and insensible mineral.
The same happy simplicity pervades his system of preven, tion and cure. A few roots obtained from the Cherokees or the Chickasaws, those great observers of nature, along with the elixirs, the balsams, the oils, and the essences, prepared from these materials, constitute the whole of the charlatan's pharmacopeia. And such is his extraordinary skill, that out of a stock not too large to be carried in his pocket, all mortal and incurable maladies to which wretched humanity is subject, may be speedily, safely and radically cured-cured, let it well be observed, always by the blessing of Providence; for the quack never impiously ascribes to his own interference, the glory of the sick man's recovery. He asks not the praise, which he knows is not his ; and so great is this meek man's humility, that he never is heard to complain, although, in return for his services, he receives nothing more than pecuniary recompense, which, as moralists very properly tell us, is the vilest of all compensations.
Another admirable trait in the practice of the charlatan, is this, that his doses are not subject, like those of the graduate, to perpetual and disgraceful vacillation. The regular physician is under the necessity of accommodating his remedies to the age, the sex, or the constitution of his patient, the symptoms which attend the disorder, or the period in the progress of the complaint. This infallibly begets a very narrow and contracted view of things, and gives rise to a niggardly habit of dealing out powders and potions by means of delibes rate drops and graduated grains. The experimentarian, as the great Dugald Stewart would call him, is above such contemptible meanness. He never stoops to the base and mechanic economy of measuring and weighing the medicine he dispenses. He disdains to attend to these trifling minutiæ, and confiding in the power of his nostrum, and the guardian-; ship of Providence, disregarding with noble intrepidity, age, strength and sex, time, place and circumstance, he attacks, puts to flight, and exterminates, with one unconquerable weapon, gout, rheumatism, cramp, serpigo and the rheum.'
Talk not to me of your Celsuses, ancient or modern, of your Sydenhams, eastern or western, or your Boerhaaves, European or American! Which of them, think ye, could boast
, of possessing the no-cure-no-pay · Balm of Gilead," the matchless. Quintessence of Gold,' or the marvellous Elixir of Life?'
Another highly praiseworthy feature, for which the genuine,