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shepherdesses of the tribe, with whom they remain, for a whole season, together. The boy endears himself to his young charmer, by a thousand little services : he searches for her sheep that have gone astray; he draws up the water from the well, to give her cattle to drink; be divides with her his only provision, a piece of dry, bread; and the young couple thus often contract a passion that accompanies them through life.
Burial. The Arabs El Kebly bury their dead generally, in the mountains or Wadys, where a kind of burial ground is formed, by the heaps of stones which are collected upon every grave. A long stick is stuck into these stones, just over the head, which I suppose to be in lieu of a lance. It is a custom among the Howeytat, that if a man dies, the women of the neighbouring encampments pay visits, in mass, to the widow, who is obliged to kill, on that occasion, a lamb. While on their way to the encampment, they sing, without interruption, all sorts of doleful chants and mourning hymns.
Religion. The Southern Arabs observe the rites of their religion, as to prayers and oblations, in the time of Ramadhan, when they regularly pray and fast, even during their travels, During the rest of the year, they seldom trouble themselves with prayers.
Wahabees. Abd el Aryz father of Ibn el Saoud, the present chief of the Wababees, had sent summonses all over the Mahommedan world, to engage the people to join his creed. Some of his missionaries were arrested by the Shah of Persia, while others penetrated to the shores of the Atlantic. The Moggribeen Olemas entered into discussion with him, which gave origin to several written dissertations of both sides. The principal points in dispute are: 1st. The Wababees” denial of Mohammed's still living invisibly among the followers of his faith : 2d, of his being able to intercede at the Almighty's throne, in favour of the departed souls of the faithful : 3d, their irreverence for the saints in general, and their influence in heaven; which they demonstrate by demolishing all the chapels constructed in honour of them : 4th, their like sentiments with regard to the companions and followers of Mohammed : 5th, their severity of discipline : 6th, their refusing any authority to tradition, or Hadyth, as related of the companions of Mohammed. The champions of the established Turkish faith answer, and pretend that Mohammed is still alive; that he hears the prayers addressed to him by the faithful, and grants them as much as is in his power, partly by the faculties he himself possesses of working miracles, and partly by his applications to the city. The saints, indeed, they say, were but mortals, and no more;
but their virtues have entitled them to the favour of the Almighty, which they are at liberty to invoke, and often to obtain for those earthly inhabitants and faithful Mouslims,* who devoutly pray at their tombs. The same is the case with the compa nions of Mohammed, for which it is the duty of all the faithful to pray : therefore the Turks seldom mention the name of the prophet, without adding prayers for his family, and his companions ; but the Wahabees only pray, in that case, for his family. The only tradition which the Wababees admit, is that which contains the sentiments of the prophet himself, and his own explanation of the difficult passages of the Koran, as related by his conipanions. But they resist all tradition of later times; even that which can be traced to the companions of Mohammed, as soon as they relate to their own opinions on religious matters, or to the opinions of the prophet himself
, as reported by people who are not comprised within the class of " the companions." As to discipline, 1 have already mentioned several points, in which they (the Wahabees) disagree with the established religion. I only add, that all the Wahabees are enjoined to shave their head completely; without having any hair lock on the top of it, as is generally done by the Turks ; or else to leave the whole head of hair growing. The Hadyth says, "shave all, or leave all." In general, the precepts of the
Sunné," which, although not given in the Koran, are yet strongly insisted upon by the prophet, and enforced by his own example, are more in vigour among the Wahabees than the Turks, who evidently transgress the most conspicuous of these tenets. Thus, for instance, it is a precept of the Sunné, cogtained in the Hadyth,"gold and silver is only permitted to your women ; it is unlawful for men.” The loud cries over the dead corpse are positively forbidden by Mohammed.
It will be seen that those tenets show a spirit of reform much to the credit of the founders of this religion. Religious dissertatious, however, are entirely banished from the conversations of the Turks; and it is, therefore, rendered impossible that the Wahabees should get any partisans, in countries which they have not yet conquered; where the defenders of the old faith circulate the most absurd stories of the principles of the new sect; and where every word, contrary to the established doctrine, is looked upon as heresy, and punished as such. The tax-gatherers of the Wahabees, are called Mezekas, or Nowab.
In reading over the sevenor eightthousand principal Hadyth,
* The orthography of the manuscript has been strictly preserved.
acknowledged as such by all the learned Mussulmans, and comparing them with the present manners of the Turks, inpumerable instances are met with, of a total neglect of these precepts. The acquaintance with the Hadyth is, in my opinion, absolutely necessary, to get a clear insight into the spirit of the Turkish religion, which the reading of the Koran alone does not give. Moral precepts are much more enlarged upon in the Hadyth, than they are in the Koran itself; and as it is generally Mohammed, the Arab, who speaks, his views and his mind, together with the customs of his times, may be better estimated, as it were, in his familiar conversation, than in the laboured language of the Koran. 1. Government. The Bedouin tribes of el Beker, and el Kebly, have all their Kadyhs; but the trial of the Mebeshae, is unknown amongst them, and seems to belong exclusively to the Aerezes.
The testimony of the ancients, with respect to the virtues upon which the Bedouins exultantly praised their nation, to wit, hospitality, bravery and eloquence, will still be found correct in its whole extent, in comparing it with the present character of the desert inhabitants. No chief can hope to extend his influence, and to rise into fame, unless he possesses these virtues in an eminent degree. Hospitality and generosity are nécessary to acquire friends and to keep his own people attached to his interests. Bravery alone can put the Sheikh in possession of the means to be generous. He must rob his enemies, in order to enrich his friends; and without distinguished talents for eloquence, he is silenced in his arguments, by the meanest individual of his tribe, in all judicial controversies. The writer has often had opportunities of admiring the penetration, cunning, presence of mind, and affluence of speech, of the Bedouin Sheikhs. As they have no legal authority whatever over their Arabs, and can act only by the influence their reputation of superior qualities has acquired for them, it is necessary they should possess the talent to persuade and to convince, and should know how to handle the only weapon they possess, to silence the assembled orators of the tribe. A Sheikh must, moreover, be thoroughly acquainted with the politics of his neighbours, and the topography of the desert. In intriguing with his neighbours, and throwing among them the seeds of discord, he may possess himself of good pasturing places, which he would perhaps not have been able to conquer by force. In fact, his constant endeavours are, to make it known publicly, that he is superior to all his Arabs, in intellect, bodily strength, and generosity,
Oaths. I have often heard the Arabs swear, “ by the forefeet of their mares ;” or, may thirst come upon me."
Warfare. If a Sheikh repairs to the tent of another Sheikh, in order either to settle the beginning disputes of their tribes, or else to take an opportunity, in the heat of discussion, to declare open war; it sometimes happens that the angry host orders the tent posts to be pulled out, in order that the tent covering may fall upon the guest. This is looked upon as an ignominious declaration of war. When peace is made, the two Sheikhs of the contending tribes swear, first upon the Koran, and then upon the sword, to hold peace “as long as, the sea shall remain a sea, and no hair shall grow upon the palm of the hand." Among the Berri Szakher, and the Arabs el Kebly, the article of peace, called “ digging and burying,". is only with respect to the cattle which both tribes have robbed from each other; and it means, that no individual belongmg to either of them, should have any reclamations to make kereafter, for the lost goods or cattle. But the debts of blood are not comprised within this stipulation of statu
quo. The contrary is the case among the Aenezes. This condition is inserted at every peace made among the Arabs el Kebly; but takes place very seldom among the Aenezes.
Blood revenge. If an Arab has.committed murder, or killed &ny
of his enemies in battle, all his relations who cannot number five persons of their lineal 'ascendants or descendants, counting from the common forefather of themselves, and the culprit, (including the former and themselves) are liable to pay
the debt of blood, either by their own, or by a stipulated fine; and, on the other hand, all those who stand in the same predicament with the murdered person, have a right to revenge his blood. As for instance, A. bas killed somebody : be has two cousins, B. and C. Their common grandfather is D. The whole family, (Hamoole, as the Arabs call it,) of B. is connected with A. and his family in the blood debt : because, in counting the lineal descendants of B's grandfather, the latter and himself included, down to his child, he can only number four. On the contrary, C. and his family may be free from the effects of the blood revenge ; because, if he have a grandson, he may count, in the same manner, which makes the required number of the Khomse. The numbers are, therefore, counted from the common forefathers, down to the last male offspring. It may thus happen, that if the brother of the culprit is an old man, and has great grandchildren, he is free of the blood; while his cousin, who may only have a son, is exposed to the blood revenge. These five generations, (the Arabs call them Djadood, whether they ascend or descend,
from Djed, grandfather,) must exist at the very moment of the deed having been committed, or, at least, before the judges assemble, who determine what is, or is not comprised within the Khomse. If such a case happens, the oldest men of the tribe assemble, to determine upon whom the blood debt falls. If any relation of the murderer pleads cxemption, as being not comprised within the Khomse, the old judge takes a knife into his hands, and shuts his fist upon it. He then begins calling out the names of the first forefather, common to the culprit and his present relations and family, and in mentioning bis name, he lifts one of his fingers, in which he holds the knife. "This first forefather," he continues, "gave birth to may God help me ;” an oath which is repeated at every name.; and he then raises the second finger. If he can thus continue to number five lineal descendants of the common forefather, the latter himself included, in the family of the culprit who has pleaded exemption, and to raise a finger at the mentioning of every one, the knife, on mentioning the fifth descendant, of course, falls out of his hands, and this serves as a sign that the man is free of the blood revenge ; and it is then said, that the dagger has dropt out of the hands of the revenger. The Arabs relate an anecdote illustrative of this law. Resheyd, a Bedouin, bad pleaded exemption from the blood debt, which one of his relations had drawn upon the family. He appeared be fore the judges, but had only four Djedood to number, and was therefore to be judged in consequence. At this very moment, a friend of his entered the tent to tell him that his wife had been brought to bed of a son. He now began anew his enu. meration; he counted four, including himself, and then exclaimed, “ Resheyd gave birth to Beshyr;"? (his son, whom he thus called ; meaning “ a bearer of good tidings.") There were thus five Djedood in his family, and he was free. It is not ne; cessary that the Djedood should be living ; it suffices to prove that they have existed. In the enumeration of the Djedood, female descendants or ascendants cannot be counted. The family once declared to be in the blood debt, remains for ever exposed to the revenge, if the debt is not paid off; although the five Djedood and many more might afterwards be enumerated.
All the relations of the 'culprit, who are comprised within the Khomse, are either exposed to pay the blood with one of their own lives; or if the family of the person killed accepts of the fine, are obliged to contribute in mass, to the discharge of the debt. Every family thus circumstanced, contributes thus to the sum to be paid, in proportion to the number of its male