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Opinion of the Court.
held, after an examination and review of the cases, that if the woman at the time was conscious, had the possession of her natural, mental and physical powers, was not overcome by numbers or terrified by threats, or in such place and position that resistance would have been useless, it must also be made to appear that she did resist to the extent of her ability at the time and under the circumstances.
So where the court stated, that if there was no consent of the woman, the force incident to the commission of the act itself is all that is required to make out this element of the crime, the court should have included in that statement of the law the kind of non-consent which the law declares is necessary should exist. In the cases mentioned above mere non-consent was not enough nor was the force spoken of sufficient. Although it may be claimed that other portions of the charge of the learned court stated correctly the law with reference to this particular case, yet we cannot escape the fear that the error above pointed out may have found lodig. ment in the minds of the jury. Where the evidence of the commission of the crime itself impresses us as being somewhat unsatisfactory, and in a case where the life of the defendant is at stake, we feel that it is impossible to permit him to be executed in consequence of a conviction by a jury under a charge of the court which, we think, in some of its features was clearly erroneous in law, because not full enough on the subject herein discussed, even though in some parts of the charge a more full and correct statement of the law was given. Which of the two statements was received and acted upon by the jury it is wholly impossible for this court to determine, and as one of them was erroneous in not more fully and definitely stating what was the character of the non-consent which rendered the mere amount of force incident to the performance of the act itself sufficient to constitute the crime, the judgment of death must be reversed, and the defendant subjected to another trial where the rules of law applicable to the case shall be correctly and fully stated to the jury. The judgment is, therefore, reversed, and the cause remanded
with instructions to grant a new trial.
Statement of the Case.
OSBORNE V. FLORIDA.
ERROR TO THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF FLORIDA.
No. 87. Argued December 8, 1896. – Decided January 4, 1897.
The license tax imposed upon express companies doing business in Florida
by 9 of the statute of that State, approved June 2, 1893, c. 4115, as construed by the Supreme Court of that State, applies solely to business of the company within the State, and does not apply to or affect its business which is interstate in its character; and, being so construed, the
statute does not, in any manner, violate the Federal Constitution. The construction of the state statute below is not open to review.
F. R. OSBORNE, the plaintiff in error, was arrested in the State of Florida for an alleged violation of a statute of that State in knowingly acting as the agent, at Jacksonville, for the Southern Express Company, a corporation created under the laws of the State of Georgia and doing business in Florida, without having paid the license provided for by statute. He was required to give a bond for his appearance before the criminal court of record of Duval County, in the State of Florida, to answer the charge, and upon his refusal to give the same be was committed to the common jail of the county there to await trial. He then applied to the judge of the state circuit court for a writ of habeas corpus, and upon the hearing his arrest was adjudged to be legal, and he was remanded to the custody of the sheriff. The case was submitted to the circuit court upon an agreed statement of facts as follows: "That the said F. R. Osborne is the agent of the Southern Express Company, and that said company is a corporation created, existing and being under the laws of the State of Georgia; that said Southern Express Company is doing a business in the State of Florida ordinarily done by express companies in the United States of carrying goods and freight for hire from points within the State of Florida to points in said State, and also of carrying goods and freights for hire from points within the State of Florida to points without the State of Florida in other States in divers
Statement of the Case.
parts of the United States, and in carrying goods and freights for hire from points in other States of the United States to points within the State of Florida, and that it has been engaged in such business for more than twenty years, and was so engaged on the 3d day of October, 1893; that of the business done by the Southern Express Company 95 per cent thereof consists of traffic carrying of goods and freights from the State of Florida into other States, and bringing and carry. ing from other States of the United States to points within the State of Florida, and 5 per cent thereof consists of carrying goods and freights between points wholly within the State of Florida ; that F. R. Osborne did knowingly act as the agent of said express company on the 3d day of October, 1893, in the city of Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida, a city having more than 15,000 inbabitants, the said Southern Express Company having then and there failed and refused to pay the license tax as required by article 12, section 9, of an act entitled 'An act for the assessment and collection of revenue,' of the laws of Florida, approved June 2, 1893; that the Southern Express Company does business in and has agents in more than one town in nearly every county in the State, and that said towns differ in population, and that it has an office and agent and does business in Polk County, Florida, in the following incorporated towns, with a population as follows: Bartow, 1500 inhabitants; F't Meade, 600 inbabitants; Columbia, 600 inhabitants; Lakeland, 800 inhabitants; and Winter Haven, 200 inhabitants. In Orange County : Apopka, 500 inhabitants; Orlando, 10,000 inhabitants; Sanford, 5000 inbabitants; Umatilla, 3000 inhabitants; Winter Park, 600 inhabitants; and Zellwood, 300 inhabitants. In Alachua County : Campville, 400 inhabitants; Archer, 150 inhabitants; Grove Park, 110 inhabitants ; Gainesville, 5000 inhabitants; Hawthorne, 300 inhabitants; High Springs, 500 inhabitants; and Island Grove, 200 inhabitants. In Duval County : Jacksonville, with a population of over 15,000 ; Baldwin, 125 inhabitants."
From the order committing plaintiff in error to the custody of the sheriff an appeal was taken to the Supreme Court of
Opinion of the Court.
the State of Florida, and that court affirmed the order. 08borne v. State, 33 Florida, 162. The plaintiff in error then sued out a writ of error from this court.
Mr. John E. Hartridge for plaintiff in error.
Mr. W. B. Lamar, Attorney General of the State of Florida, for defendant in error.
MR. JUSTICE PECKHAM, after stating the case, delivered the opinion of the court.
The criminal proceedings against the plaintiff in error were taken by virtue of a statute of Florida, known as chapter 4115, approved June 2, 1893. The ninth section of that chapter provides that: “No person shall engage in or manage the business, profession or occupation mentioned in this section unless a state license shall have been procured from the tax collector, which license shall be issued to each person on receipt of the amount hereinafter provided, together with the county judge's fee of twenty-five cents for each license, and shall be signed by the tax collector and the county judge, and have the county judge's seal upon it. Counties and incorporated cities and towns may impose such further taxes of the same kind upon the same subjects as they may deem proper when the business, profession or occupation shall be engaged in within such county, city or town. The tax imposed by such city, town or county shall not exceed fifty per cent of the state tax. But such city, town or county may impose taxes on any business, profession or occupation not mentioned in this section, when engaged in or managed within such city, town or county. No license shall be issued for more than one year, and all licenses shall expire on the first day of October of each year, but fractional licenses, except as hereinafter provided, may be issued to expire on that day at a proportionate rate, estimating from the first day of the month in which the license is so issued, and all licenses may be transferred, with the approval of the comptroller, with the business for which they were taken out, when there is a bona fide sale and trans
Opinion of the Court.
fer of the property used and employed in the business as stock in trade, but such transferred license shall not be held good for any longer time, or for any other place, than that for which it was originally issued.”
There are various subdivisions to this section not herein set forth, and they enumerate divers occupations and professions, the members of which are required to procure a license and to pay annually therefor the amounts stated in those subdivisions.
The twelfth subdivision provides, among other things, that “all express companies doing business in this State shall pay in cities of fifteen thousand inhabitants or more a license tax of two hundred dollars ; in cities of ten thousand to fifteen thousand inhabitants, one hundred dollars ; in cities of five thousand to ten thousand inhabitants, seventy-five dollars; in cities of three to five thousand inhabitants, fifty dollars; in cities of one to three thousand inhabitants, twenty-five dollars; in towns and villages of less than one thousand and more than fifty inhabitants, ten dollars. Any express company violating this provision, and any person that knowingly acts as agent for any express company before it has paid the above tax, payable by such company, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a stine of not less than fifty dollars, or confined in the county jail not less than six months."
In addition to the criminal penalty above set forth, section 10 provides that the payment of all licenses taxed may be enforced by the seizure and sale of property by the collector.
The plaintiff in error assigns two grounds upon which he seeks for a reversal of the judgment of the state court. One is based upon the allegation that the statute, so far as regards the Southern Express Company or himself as its agent, violates the commerce clause of the Federal Constitution, in that it assumes to regulate interstate commerce.
The second ground is that the statute is not sufficiently determinate, definite and certain in its character upon which to ascertain the amount to be paid for licenses.
It may be here assumed that if the statute applied to the