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served as an ornament for a chapel of the Vatican for two hundred and fifty years; we have seen twenty-six popes succeed each other, who have all been to glut their sight with the murders which we represent: they have made us, as they have a number of other images, the object of their worship. What will the partisans of popery answer to this?

That the popes, who have succeeded Gregory XIII., have allowed these pictures to exist merely out of deference for their departed brother? This is not a sufficient excuse; for the sovereign pontiffs have made no scruple of revoking, breaking, and annulling the decrees of their predecessors. Has not Pius VII. re-established the Jesuits in all their prerogatives, abolished by a solemn bull of Clement XIV.? Will they pretend that Pius VII. is ignorant of the existence of these pictures? This cannot be; for he is continually passing through the room where they are placed, and they are of the largest dimensions ; besides, this pontiff is prefect of the holy Inquisition, the innumerable eyes of which are ever on the watch.—Yes; the mere existence of these paintings is an indelible proof of the sanction, every day renewed by the court of Rome, of the conduct of those detestable cannibals, authors of that horrible carnage on the night of Saint Bartholomew. This is not all: the pope caused medals to be struck with his effigy; on the reverse, an exterminating angel, armed with a crucifix and a sword, is destroying all before him ; it has this motto : Ugonottorum Strages (Slaughter of the Hugonots).-But at length this proud Babel, which has so long dominated over the palaces of kings, begins to totter ; its foundations are shaken, and it must soon fall; it is not the confusion of languages, but the language of reason, which will consummate its ruin. The papal knot, more complex than the Gordian, will be cut by the constitutional sword. Representative government, which is become an imperious necessity for civilized nations, has as irreconcileable an antipathy to the dominion of the tiara as Hercules to Antæus : the one must suffocate the other.' pp. 208–10.

The vices of the papal government as exemplified both in the criminal and the fiscal administration,—the pusillanimous or interested policy pursued towards the brigands who overrun this land of indulgencies,'—the cavalletto and the use of torture,-the system of monopoly pursued in respect to the necessaries of life,-all these are harmonious features of that monstrous yet imbecile despotismı which has converted the Campagna into a desert, and the Church into a puppet-show.

Almost all the bakers' shops belong to dignitaries of the Church : they who appear as masters of them, are merely the deputies of these reverendissimi. If any of the laity attempt to exercise this species of industry, they are liable to a thousand vexations, penalties, &c.; and they generally abandon it hopeless of success......... It is not with baking only that the cardinals soil their purple robes ; they have also their share in the grocers' shops, and generally in all the necessaries of life which find a daily and lucrative sale. It is thus that they occupy themselves for the public good. To the monopoly of grain, the Government adds the monopoly of oil: this is striking at the heart of agriculture. The unfortunate husbandman is compelled to dispose of the produce of his labour on terms dictated by the Government; and he is often obliged to buy the same article at a very high rate, which he has been obliged to sell at a very low price.'

The morals of the modern Romans, the cicisbeo system, the deepening shades of licentiousness which distinguish the Parisian, the Roman, and the Neapolitan women,--these are subjects into which we cannot enter. The following statement, however, if we may depend upon its accuracy, is too expressively characteristic of the state of society to be withheld.

• The glow of shame is never seen on the cheek of the Neapolitan woman : the Roman woman can still blush. The latter associates religion with her intrigues as a consoler, the former as an accomplice.

The Neapolitan woman, to preserve herself from all the dangers of an illicit connexion, places herself with confidence under the protection of the Holy Virgin; she exclaims, La Madonna mi ajuti (May the holy Virgin aid me); the Roman woman says, La Madonna mi perdoni (May the holy Virgin pardon me).

6. You will see me at the church of Gesu-Maria," said a young Ronian dame to a Frenchman; “ after mass we will take a walk." He went to the rendezvous at the hour appointed. When the mass was ended, he approached the lady cautiously; she made him a sign not to disturb her. “ Allow me to observe, madam, that the office is finished.” “ I know it very well,” answered she, “but I always hear two masses.'

Can those' (asks this Writer) who have vowed never to become fathers, have any paternal sentiments for their species ? Can those, we might also ask, who have vowed never to enter into the conjugal relation, feel as men ought to feel on the point of female purity and domestic morality ? Such a man has no longer any immediate interest in the maintenance of a high-toned morality. The institutions of society are all against him, because he has renounced them all. Every man, on becoming a husband and a father, may be considered as giving bond, under heavy penalties, to respect the honour and the interests of others. The celibacy of the Romish clergy withdraws them from the operation of any moral restraint arising from the reciprocal interests of men in society, and the obligations of boih the domestic and the social compact. And what is the consequence? In proportion to the numbers and ascendancy of a Cybelean priesthood, woman is found dishonoured and degraded, the relation of husband ceases to confer security, and the name of parent almost ceases to be honourable.

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Art. IV. _A Paraphrase of St. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians ;

with Explanatory Notes. By the Rev. J. G. Tolley. 8vo. pp.

348. London, 1826. AS S religious controversies among Christians originate in the

different views which are taken by them of the design and meaning of the Sacred Scriptures, and as the contentions which have thus been raised are among the evils which all Christians deplore, the termination of every kind of religious controversy, as the result of a generally received uniform interpretation of the Scriptures, must appear a consummation devoutly to be • wished. The existing state of religious profession, however, and the character of the exegetical works which are circulated by the several classes of Christian theologists, would seem to indicate, that the time is still distant when the oppositions and differences of religious professors, who acknowledge the Bible as the standard of their opinions, will be extinguished by the illuminations of truth producing in all of them the same apprehensions of the same objects. In temper and in manner, something has been already gained, as testimony in favour of our improvement in the spirit essential to the successful prosecution of religious discussion ; but our diversities in sentiment are not diminished.

A living infallible interpreter of Sacred Scripture would afford unspeakably great advantages to persons seriously engaged in the pursuit of truth. To be guided aright in the most important of all inquiries, to liave the causes of error so far removed from us as not to induce by their influence incorrect and inadequate perceptions and devious conclusions into our understandings, would be a safeguard to our principles for which our debt of gratitude would be large. The promise of such protection is, indeed, held out by the advocates of the Church of Rome, and to her authority our submission is claimed, as guarding the ancient uniformity of belief, and dictating the explications which are to be received of the sense of Revelation. But, for this authority, the claims which she asserts are altogether nugatory and visionary. Her character and acts afford no presumption in favour of her appointment to so high an office. Her secularity and her crimes denounce her usurpation. Her wisdom is neither pure nor peaceable, is not either gentle or full of mercy and good fruits, and is not therefore heavenly. Her craft, and frauds, and cruelties, are incompatible with the qualities which are inseparable from the custody and propagation of the truth. It is not the key of knowledge that admits into her territories, over which ignosance and superstition spread their overshadowing wings, and where tyranny bears down the mind in debasing captivity. The state into which we wish the controversies of religion to subside, is widely different from the state into which the authority of the Church of Rome would impel those jarring elements, and cannot possibly be produced by the coercive methods which she employs. The reduction of these disorders into harmony must be effected by the evidence and the force of truth, making manifest the errors from which they proceed, and introducing into the understandings of the erring, the light of knowledge. In joining himself to those who keep the unity of the faith in the bond of peace, every man must perceive the way by which he is to advance to that fellowship; he cannot surrender himself to ignorant guides, or to a conductor who refuses to give satisfactory proof of his competence for the office. Now, this is precisely the character of the Church of Rome. Her pretensions are high, even to extravagance. But she produces no vouchers by which her pretensions might be established, and her vaunts justified. Her living infallible interpreter of Scripture is a fiction. Her traditions, declared by the partisans combined to support her usurpations, and practising intrigue and fraud in her service, to be of equal authority with the word of God contained in the Holy Scriptures, are only the opinions of men. Her methods of instructing mankind in Christian verities, possess no advantage which should raise her to eminence; and she is unable to furnish them with the means of discriminating truth from error. In these respects, the slightest investigation of her claims is sufficient to shew her entire destitation of the supports necessary to establish their validity, and will enable us to detect and expose her assumptions as being among the grossest absurdities and the most monstrous impositions which have ever been practised on the credulity of the world.

The only mode of ascertaining truth is the examination of its evidences; and its influence and effects are to be expected, only as it shall be received on the conviction of the mind to which its proofs are addressed. Prejudices can be successfully opposed only by the means of knowledge, and erroneous interpretations of Scripture must be displaced by the circulation of those which are correct. Existing diversities of religious sentiment cannot be remedied by the interposition of autho. rity in alliance with ignorance; but they may be moderated and abated by the labours of wise and good men directed to the consideration of the causes in which they originate, and to the investigation of the records to which the parties professedly appeal. In this service, the Author of the present work has engaged. He writes for the purpose of promoting

agreement among Christians on the great doctrines of the Gospel; and, regarding the manner in which they have generally been exhibited as defective, and as less spiritual and abstract than is requisite to induce a correct acquaintance with them, he proposes to take new views of some of the subjects comprised'in the Epistle which he has selected for illustration. With the spirit which pervades bis discussions, we have been uniformly pleased; it is calm and Christian : but to some of his positions and arguments we have not been able to give our assent. The former appear to us to be deviations from the simplicity which belongs to the Apostolic doctrines ; and the Author's reasonings in support of them are too recondite to allow us to hope that he has discovered the principle by which the agreements of the Scriptures are to be demonstrated. There are readers among those for whose use his work is intended, to whom we should fear his statements will in some instances seem less perspicuous than is necessary for the ready perception of their import, and to whom some of his arguments will appear forced and inconclusive. He has, however, calculated on the slow and partial reception of his modes of instruction, as well from the disinclination of readers in general to such methods, as from the novelty with which some of his interpretations are invested. A peculiarity of his Exposition consists in an endeavour to point out the spiritual view which should be taken of the scriptural doctrines.

• It is from a suggestion in the second chapter of this Epistle (v. 13), that the notion of so viewing them has been derived. It is true, indeed, that this notion is founded on a different rendering of the passage from what is given in our version. But there are various opinions about its true meaning. The translation here given has not been adopted without the fullest consideration of both the pas. sage

itself and the connexion, and I have explained my reasons for it in the notes. I may, however, here remark, that assuredly this is the appropriate way of viewing the doctrines, and the only one in which their real meaning can be discerned ; moreover, that it is that in which they must ultimately be considered. But doubtless, it is not to be expected that the generality of persons will be at once induced to enter into these abstract and spiritual views of religion. All that can be reasonably hoped, is, that this mode of exposition should be silently and gradually received, and so work its own way on the mind. But I am inclined to think, that it is only as Christians accustom themselves to this mode of reflection that they will ever come to an agreement on the great doctrines of the Gospel. The ordinary representations of them, under sensible images, and notions derived from the present life, have necessarily in them so much of uncertainty and imperfection that, while so considered, they will always be open to 'doubt and cavil. Indeed, the leading object

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