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is visible, but the fine and perfect results,-the subtle spirit arising before the eye in a thousand shapes of splendour and beauty.
• I willingly concede to him who is deeply impressed with the grandeur of his subject, and so ardent in the prosecution of it, as to bring me, by a manly and noble vehemence, iato delightful captivity to himself, as to the voice of truth and of nature, the character of an orator ;--and if he should, moreover, be qualified, according to the direction of Quintilian, to imitate the bold river, which overflows a whole valley, and where it does not find, will force a passage by its own natural strength and impetuosity,'-1 allow him to be an orator of the first rate, as it is only such who can steer their course with safety amidst impending rocks and precipices. These high and ele. vated places have always a terrible depth at no great distance from them; and to be fearless of such dangers under the influence of an assured and self-collected spirit,-to maintain the empire of reason under an impetuous tide of passion, and all the enthusiasm of a raised and heated imagination, belongs only to that eloquence which is of the most exalted order. It is indeed, the gift of heaven, being founded in nature more than in art.'
275–7. • It cannot be denied, that some clergymen read their sermons in a dull, monotonous tone,--in the same dispassionate manner as a philosopher would deliver a lecture upon an abstract point of science ; and it is no wonder that such apparent indifference in the preacher, (whether it arise from moral or physical causes,) should produce similar indifference in the hearers, and even induce some, who have no proper sense of their ecclesiastical relations, to wander from their own fold for the sake of attending a minister of a more lively cast. Now this supine mode of delivering prepared discourses is no necessary concomitant of them, and very few of the clergy are, I trust, such automatons in the pulpit.
• There are others who are attentive both to their matter and their manner of preaching, but their minds are too much occupied by points of minor importance. They are ambitious of attracting ad. miration by glittering and meretricious ornaments ; their compositions are crowded with metaphors; they not only gather the flowers that lie in their path, but wander out of their regular course for the purpose of embellishing their sermons with them. They know not, ihrough the want of a correct taste, how to select congruous images, or to dispose, like skilful painters, of their lights to the best advantage. They are so fond of glare and magnificence, that they do not consult the sublime simplicity of nature, and its pleasing varieties. Even the heavens themselves are not so illumined by the mild effulgence of the moon and stars, as to leave no intervening spaces of comparative obscurity; nor does the greater luminary of the day lose any of its attractions by the passing shadows of those clouds which gild themselves with his rays, while they serve to moderate the in. tense heat of his brightness. These are, however, juvenile redundancies of a promising nature, since such false fires generally refine themselves, and emit a more pure and genuine lustre, as the fervor of youth abates, and the imagination falls under the discipline of a Vol. XXVII. N.S.
more cultivated and matured understanding. That excellent rule laid down by Quinctilian will be no longer neglected by them : • Curam ego verborum, rerum volo esse solicitudinem.'
• Many stand high in the estimation of their hearers for pulpit eloquence, and, indeed, deserve to do so, as far as the important attainmenis of a good pronunciation, a proper modulation of voice, and a courteous manner ought to command admiration. But their ministerial addresses are too studied and factitious, having an air of affected declamation about them; and nothing is more frigid than a counterfeit ardor, or an artificial elocution. Preachers of this description produce no great effects. They look more to the theatre for their models, than to the scriptures, or to the writings of the ancient fathers of the church :--and they generally obtain a reward, highly grateful to their feelings, in the applause of the female sex, who are reminded, by some of their protracted and pathetic tones, of a Siddons or a Kemble; and disposed, by a sort of fashionable and contagious sympathy, to acknowledge their moving appeals to their passions in the expressive, though silent, language of tears.'
pp. 279-82. The following passage is intended to enforce the wisdom of preaching written discourses inasmuch as they do not absolutely preclude the exercise of extemporaneous eloquence. Thus, their superior recommendation would seem to consist in the possibility of making but little use of them. The advice, however, will apply still more forcibly and appropriately to the deprecated mode of preparation.
• Let the preacher, under the advantages of those intellectual attainments that a liberal education implies, carefully investigate the source and primary meaning of his subject, and deduce sound and appropriate matter from it, and in a connected chain of conclusive arguments, apply it to the diversified habits, prejudices, and wants of his hearers, and he cannot but excite their attention, and produce a conviction, more or less, of the truth of his statements. If he should, moreover, be endowed with transcendent abilities, and a natural talent for elocution, and compose his sermons as in the presence of his congregation, and under a solemn and devout sense of his ministerial responsibility, he will not be satisfied to convince their understanding, but will endeavour to kindle their imagination, and, through the imagination, to call up their passions and every active principle of their souls into lively exercise. Hence he addresses his audience, not in dry abstract terms, but in the language of nature and of the Bible,-enforcing his exhortations in all that variety of lights and colours reflected from surrounding objects, that he may, by such vivid and glowing descriptions, and the most powerful and affecting appeals, arrest the career of vice, break through all the barriers and strong holds of sin, awaken the slumbering conscience from her deJusive security, and re-establish the sacred majesty of truth in its own rightful dominion. Thus the commanding mind of the speaker trans
fuses into his words an electrical power, that astounds the transgressor; it comes into such violent collision with his sense of guilt, that he stands self-condemned and subdued by the terrors of the Lord He hears and sees nothing but the thunders and lightnings of heaven around him, and anxiously seeks a refuge • from the wrath to come.'
· When a Christian minister is so wrapped up in the greatness of his subject, (whether that subject be the terrors or mercies of the Lord,) that it inspires him with such lofty and magnificent conceptions, that the beauties of his style, though highly illustrated by the figures of rhetoric, seem to be lost in the superlative brightness of his thoughts ;—when the most common and familiar truths are so raised and ennobled, by the new and rich combinations in which they are represented by the enchanting influence of his eloquence, that we wonder at our former indifference, and even ascribe our strong and lively emotions to the spontaneous exertions of our own mind, more than to the corruscations of his genius ;—when this sublime sympathy—this mysterious action and reaction between himself and bis hearers-is thus powerfully produced, we can no longer with hold from him the praise of that exalted species of oratory, which seems to act by virtue of some hidden principle that eludes analysis, and becomes tangible only in its effects. These ethereal emanations can be reduced to no laws of criticism. The grandeur of such superior spirits is chiefly of a moral nature, having reference to the mind, as distinct from the intellect. Their ascendancy over us is felt in every look, movement, gesture; it is exuberated in all the tones and various inflections of the voice. Indeed the latent cause of all good elocution originates in the heart; it is founded in a noble simplicity and depth of feeling. These alone inspire genuine pathos, and a felicity of diction, melodiously responsive to our sentiments. And this account seems to be sanctioned by the high authority of Longinus, who gives, in his admirable treatise, this definition of the sublime: It is an image reflected from the inward greatness of the soul.' And he exhorts us, to spare no pains to educate our souls in grandeur, and impregnate them with generous and enlarged ideas.'
• The above account of eloquence may discourage some, whilst it excites only a laudable emulation in the minds of others; but the former should recollect that there are different species and degrees of eloquence. Whilst very few possess that native fire, that eleva, tion of spirit, those strong sensibilities of heart, and that commanding power of language, which bears down, like a torrent, every thing before it;-there are many preachers of considerable reputation and influence, whose complexion is of a more calm and contemplative turn, and whose mode of delivery is marked by the mild and tranquil character of their minds. They instruct, they please, they move their auditors, by a holy simplicity and subdued fervor of address,-by a suaviloquentia, that vibrates like music on the ear, and attunes all the powers of the soul to high and solemn musing and meditation.
• I shall not extend this Chapter (which has already exceeded my original purpose,) by a multiplicity of instances, illustrative of the different sorts of eloquence. Whether a minister be inclined, by the tendency of his constitution, or by the line of his studies, to the argumentative, didactic, colloquial, or pathetic style of preaching; whether he be formed to be · Boanerges, i, e. a son of thunder, or a Barnabas, a son of consolation, let him carefully consult bis genius, and move within his proper orbit. It is not nature, but affectation, that makes men ridiculous, leading them to imitate others, while they neglect to improve their own natural endowments. Hence it is incumbent upon us to elicit, as far as we can, the latent qualities of the mind, and to give them an appropriate and useful direction.'
pp. 283–288. • It appears that a minister of Christ should be as the pure voice of revelation to the people. He should be wise to win souls. This momentous end should so simplify and illustrate his motives of action, as clearly to demonstrate that his zeal is exercised not so much for the bulwarks that defend the Christian faith, as for the faith itself; -not so much for the mitre, as for the cross ;- not so much for our ecclesiastical polity, as for the interests of the gospel. Whilst he distinguishes these subjects, he ought to hold them in conjunction, and display his sense of their relative importance in the spirituality of his conduct --in a sublime independence of mind, which leads him to sacrifice whatever militates against the authority of God, and the moral welfare of his flock. In short, he should seek not theirs, but them,'--practically recognizing the excellent advice of St. Jerom, • Docente in ecclesia te, non clamor populi, sed gemitus suscitetur ; Jachrymæ auditorum laudes tuæ sunt.' - How beautifully was this sentiment exemplified in the ministry of Saint Augustine! While he acted as a presbyter of Hippo under Valerius his bishop, it is recorded, that he was appointed by him to preach to the people in or der to reclaim them from riotous feasting on solemn days. He opened the scriptures, and read them the most vehement rebukes. He besought them by the ignominy and sorrow, and by the blood of Christ, not to destroy themselves, to pity him who spake to them with so much affection, and to shew some regard to their venerable bishop, who, out of tenderness to them, had charged him to instruct them in the truth. • I did not make them weep,' says he, by first weeping over them; but while I was preaching, their tears prevented mine. Then I own, I could not restrain myself. After we had wept together, I began to entertain great hope of their amendment.-On another occasion this eminent father observes: 'We must not imagine that a man has spoken powerfully, when he receives much applause. This is sometimes given to low turns of wit, and merely ornamental eloquence. But the sublime overwhelms the mind with its vehemence; it strikes them dumb; it melts them into tears. When I endeavoured to persuade the people of Cæsarea to abolish their barbarous sports, in which, at a certain time of the year, they fought publicly for several days, I said what I could, but while I heard only their acclamations, I thought I had done nothing ; but when they wept, I had hope that the horrible custom, which they had received from their ancestors, would be abolished. It is upwards of eight years since that time, and by the grace of God they have ever since been restrained from the practice.:—Here is indeed an affecting display of genuine oratory. pp. 293–295.
If the whole volume had been in accordance with these passages, our task would have been a most agreeable one ; and we will not add a word that might lessen the favourable impression they are adapted to leave on the minds of our readers.
Art. II. Memoirs of Zehir-ed-din Muhammed Baber, Emperor of Hin.
dustan ; written by Himself in the Jaghatai Turki, and translated
Introduction. 4to. pp. 509. London, 1826.
want of precision about the geography of Central Asia, involving in its uncertainty much of the historical detail connected with that extensive and important region. Tracts, whence have issued armed and organized hosts, before whose desperate and multitudinous charge the chivalry of Europe were unable to stand, have hitherto been known to us only by name; and the journeyings of ancient travellers have baffled all attempts to trace their course in consistency with ascertained circumstances. One of our most useful guides was Herbelot, but his information seldom gave us satisfaction in these matters. His learned, but confused and imperfect compilation displays little of that discriminative faculty which extracts from scattered and discordant materials, the elements of clear and consecutive statement. Modern investigators have done much to remove the difficulties connected with these inquiries, and information has been collected from every available source, so effectually as to enable an attentive student to combine occurrences with localities in a sufficiently clear and satisfactory way.
The collections of the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, as embodied in the map and memoir appended to his Afghan mission, gave a new aspect to the geography of interior Asia ; and Mr. Erskine, with the aid of Mr. Waddington, an engineer officer in the service of the East India Company, has made a further and most important advance towards its definitive arrangement. Ferghana and its surrounding districts are laid down with sufficient certainty for general purposes; and, although much remains to be ascertained towards the east