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meanings of words, whether in the usual brief form or upon the more extended scale, Mr. Ewing has evidently not contented himself with copying the dicta of other Lexicographers, but has examined and thought for himself, and has signally impressed his work with the characters of conscientious research and mental independence.
Dr. DONNEGAN's Herculean work was published a year before that of Mr. Ewing, who readily acknowledges his obligations to it. Indeed, these two Lexicons ought not to be considered as rivals; nor would we willingly support the idea of competitorship between either of them and the Greek and English Lexicon of the late Dr. John Jones. Each of these productions possesses a character so distinctly its own, that it may enjoy a large domain in the public favour without jealousy of its neighbours : there are classes of scholars who will feel their predilections and pursuits more completely in unison with one, than with either of the others; and those who may be so happy as to acquire them all, and to make the most assiduous use of them, will find no dull redundancy, no servile sameness, but reciprocal illustration, and contributions from each, of what the others do not supply. In Dr. Jones, we see the warm-hearted Celtic scholar with his British and Phænician etyma, the bold thinker in philology and religion, the constructor of fine-spun and frail theories, the enthusiastic student of Philo, Josephus, and Hartley, and who, with all his errors and eccentricities, is often singularly happy in touching the true meaning as with Ithuriel's spear, and in giving the most surprisingly appropriate English expression to Greek diction, particularly in the Tragedians. In Dr. Donnegan, we have the naturalist, the physician, the diligent reader, the careful and accurate scholar, the unwearied collector from the rich stores of foreign philologists and critics, apparently determined upon avoiding theological and biblical topics, but deterred by no toil or difficulty in the enterprise of making his work a TheSAURUS of Hellenic philology. In Mr. Ewing, we discern the expansions of a generous and candid mind, liberal erudition, zeal for the most enlarged usefulness, a heart filled with the grandeur of divine revelation, and the warmest piety to the Author of all genius and talent, truth and wisdom.
Upon the materials and plan of Dr. Donnegan's labour, we shall select a few sentences from his Preface.
The plan of the Lexicon which is now offered to the public, has been formed under the guiding counsels of scholars of eminence, both British and Continental. In collecting materials, neither time nor labour has been spared. The classical Greek writers have been carefully studied, the works of eminent Lexicographers consulted,
and information sought in the writings of the most celebrated critics and philologists of our own and of neighbouring countries. Many expedients, both technical and typographical [in abbreviations and signs), have been resorted to, that a large quantity of inatter may be coinpressed within a comparatively small compass. Words—from the writings of Hippocrates and the Greek physicians—will be found explained, chiefly according to interpretations contributed by German physicians of high reputation as Greek scholars, to the Supplement to the third edition of Schneider's Lexicon.— The Linnæan names of plants, as well as the English, have been given.- [In the Natural History department) the works of Sprengel have been principally relied on as authorities; with occasional aid from the Philosophical Transactions, and notices found in the works of modern travellers. The arrangement of words is strictly alphabetical.-[Discriminating notes point out those which are) poetical, of dialectic variety, or peculiar to certain writers, classes of writers, or certain schools of philosophy, as also to certain epochs of Grecian literature. -The MEANINGS of words are arranged in a natural and philosophie cal order. To the primary succeed the secondary, in the order of their relation; the proper signification distinguished from the metaphorical, idiomatical, and adscititious. Phrases are added-to note the transitions from the proper significations, and to indicate the connexion when apparently remote. A short phrase is frequently added, to direct the young student to the proper use of a word in certain constructions, in which the context modifies the sense. Authorities have been given, not only for words in peculiar senses, but also for many others. When a word is used by the same writer in different senses, the passages are distinctly noted.-Sentences and phrases have been selected from the purest classical writers, to exemplify the use of certain words, mark certain delicacies of expression, and explain idiomatic or other difficulties.—Derivatives are referred to their pri. mitives—[on the cautious and safe principle] to admit, as primitive words, verbs of which we find [some] regular tenses preserved in the later form of the language.'
These are not the putting forth of ostentatious pretensions. They are the conscientious statements of unassuming merit. The more we have examined Dr. Donnegan's work, the more we have found reason to commend the ability, the fidelity, the care and accuracy, with which it is impressed. For every kind of Grecian Classical reading, as distinguished from the Biblical and Patristical, it scarcely leaves us any thing to desire; but to those members of the healing profession who, in these days of spirit-stirring and research, may gird themselves to the study of the ancient medical writers, (not now a beaten path, but which loudly calls to be explored by the lights of modern science,) it must be invaluable. Unless they understand Ger. man, and obtain Schneider's Supplement, there is no book tbat will yield them such advantages as this. The prodigious labour of its composition cost the learned Author, as we have been informed, a most serious sacrifice of health. We hope that this great work has and will have an extensive sale; but no pecuniary advantage will ever deserve to be called a recom. pense. The Author must find it in the esteem and gratitude of scholars, in an honest joy at the benefits which he has conferred upon them, and in the consciousness of nobler motives than the desire of worldly wealth or worldly bonour.
Of Dr. Jones's first edition, a critical account was given in our XXIst Volume, pp. 114-125. That ardent scholar has recently been removed from all mortal things. We knew and esteemed him; and we cherish his memory with sincere respect -and solemn feeling. A year or more before his death, he. published the second edition of his Lexicon, with improvements, though not to the full extent of his wishes, and many additions ; more closely printed, yet still in a handsome and very perspicuous manner; and at a price reduced nearly one third.
As one of the fairest methods of enabling our readers to judge, in some degree, of the different manner of the works before us, we shall take some word, and that not one likely to have awakened any controversial feeling, or to have been com-, posed under any particular excitement; so that it may be a fair and average specimen.- We have alighied upon Kpírw. As Dr. Donnegan bonourably declares that he has adopted Schneider's Lexicon as the basis of his own, we shall take the first citation from that.
•Kpívw, f. xposic, from which cerno is derived ; to divide, separate, set quite apart; to distinguish, to choose out of a number, to select; from discriminating or distinguishing come the meanings to judge, to pass sentence, to deliver an opinion, to criticise, to execute justice, to decide ; in Soph. El. 1445, to ask. xpivwe veíxen moande Sixa fouerw ais nör, Odyss. 12, 440. composing and adjusting differences ; but 5, 170. νοήσαι τε κρίναι τε should be κρήναι τε from κραίνω to complete ; κρίνω, to consent or approve; Xen. Hellen, 1, 7, 11. expéverw for ttpoexp., Herodoti, 6, 128, and probably from that is xpivos in the sense of choosing. x Exprévos, decided, free from hesitation, Pindar. OI, 2, 56. : in the Passive, xpiropas, of persons who have a contest and fight with each other, to finish and determine their difference by a battle; TotýVECOI xpivarro, Hesiodi th. 882. they fought with the Titans; also, to have a suit at law, a verbal controversy, or, a conference with the party. See under Foxpirouot; to bring an action against a party, to accuse, Wolf on Leptin. p. 306. of causes which are determined and brought to an issue, to get to an end; of diseases, when one may form an opinion whether they will have a favourable or an unfavourable ternuination. μετά τον κιθαρωδών και παράσιτος κρίνεται, censetur, Diphilu
Athenæi 6. p. 247. From xépw, xsípw, répyn, xíprat, whence also comes the Latin cerno. Greek and German Dictionary, adapted to the read. ing of the Greek Profane Writers ; by John GOTTLOB SCHNEIDER, Professor and First Librariun at Breslau, 1819; in two quarto volumes.
* KPINI, f. Yow, aor. expire, p. xexpixa, I separate (by transp. fr. Heb.
3, yoxap) separate as an object of choice, select, prefer, Il. a. 309. Rom. 14.5.-separate for battle, distribute, distinguish. diaxwpust, B. 362.-judge, deem, pronounce, pass a judgment upon, John 7. 24. Mat. 7. 1.-condemn, punish, opp. to oww, John 3. 17.-decide, decree, determine, Acts 3. 13.-interpret. Herodot. 1. 120.-interrogate. Kpoyouacs, I am judged, condemned-decreed-I distinguish myself in battle, i. e. fight strenuously. Il. B. 385. aor. 1. m. expirato. he selected, Od. d. 778.-interpreted, Il. c. 150. xpivao bwo for xpirat. Onoar, let them choose, Od. 6. 36.-dispute, contend, Nubes, 66. per. XEXPYTOV, is ascertained, Olym. 2. 56. tried, decreed. aor. 1. xp bey for Expionoav, they were distinguished, Pyth. 4. 300. exporono is also used. xepindertec, chosen, Il. . 129.' Jones.
KPÍNN, fut. xpovã, perf. xéxpira, 1 aor. fxpava, perf. pass. xixpipes, to separate ; to put asunder-to discriminate; to call; to select ; to choose; hence to form a judgment, opinion, or decision; to examine ; to criticise; to judge—to decide a difference; to give a verdict; to pass sentence—to inquire, Soph. El. 1445. to confirm ; to ratify, Xen. Hellen. 1, 7, 11.-io accuse or charge, Plut.=Kpívouzó, Mid. to choose for one's self; to select-to determine; to judge; to decide a quarrel by a battle; to fight; to have a discussion, debate, or altercation; to be at law.=Pass. to be judged, decided, &c. to come to a final issue or decision-(in medical writers) to come to a crisis, to assume a decided character, by which the issue may be judged of. xexpo juevos, Pind. OL. 2, 56. decided or indubitable. qxpireofas Tipi co wy, Polyb, to decide the entire contest by a battle. apatas Tò repidèy, Polyb. having done what had been resolved upon." 525 auto xpévesv, Xen. Cyrop. to determine with himself, Th. xépa, xuan, xéprw, xáprw, Schn. L. DONNEGAN.
• Kpixw, f. repřvičp. xéxpiro., 1 a. expivce, I fi pass. xpbiropor, p. pass. róxprpat, 1 a. pass. &xpilny, I distinguish, discern; I judge, try in a solemn judicial manner ; I judge, regulate, rule, appoint, choose, Il. A. 309; I judge, pass sentence, or give my opinion in a private manner; I judge, discern, form a mental judgment; I judge, think, esteem; I judge proper, determine ; I adjudge to punishment, condemn ; wid. I engage or am engaged in strife, I contend, dispute in personal voluntary striving or argumentation, without any appeal to law, 2 Sam. xix. 9. and comp. Jer. xv. 10. pass. I am judged, am brought or called into judgment, am called in question; I am judged, enter into a judicial contest with, implead, sue. Ewing.
Art. IV. 1. Idolatry: a Poem, in four Parts. By the Rev. William
Swan, Missionary at Selinginsk, and Author of “ Memoirs of
Mrs. Patterson." 12mo. pp. 156. Price 5s.6d. London. 1827. 2. The Female Missionary Advocate. 24mo. pp. 96. Price 1s. 6d.
London. 1827. THE first of these publications has every claim to our
favourable notice and to the attention of our readers, that can arise from the production itself, its author, and his theme. It is a poem of considerable intrinsic merit, and possesses that peculiar interest which never fails to attach to the delineation of real scenes and the expression of genuine feelings. Mr. Swan is not the first English missionary of the present day, who has given proof by his literary compositions, that selfdenying zeal and the other rare requisites for the field of labour he has chosen, are quite compatible with a refined and elegant mind. The late Mr. Lawson was a man of this description, and his talents were of a highly respectable order. But, if a poetical work by a Christian Missionary is not an absolute novelty, there is something particularly impressive and interesting in the circumstance of a poem composed under the genuine inspiration of the enthusiasm by which such a man must be actuated, and transmitted to us from a strange and distant region, - almost like a voice from another world. Stationed on the borders of the Chinese empire, at a vast remove from all civilized society, Mr. Swan has solaced himself, in the intervals of more arduous labour, 'when weariness • called for amusement,' by endeavouring to paint Idolatry as it is, the hideous reality existing before him. He could not have employed the hours of relaxation more usefully. Such a delineation of its true character, in a form adapted to awaken the sensibilities of the heart through the medium of the imagination, was needed; and though, in this busy age, poetry stands but little chance of making any permanent impression, (its moral influence as a vehicle being often found in inverse proportion to its state of perfection as an art,) yet, it may be hoped that, to a certain extent, this poem will have the effect designed; that of enabling and as it were compelling the reader to realize the scenes in heathen countries, which he knows only by report, so as to feel, in respect to them, in some measure as an eye-witness.
• I have often thought,' says the Author in his preface, that were it possible to bring the idolatrous practices, the low depravity, the gross ignorance, the unblushing sensuality of the heathen actually under the eye of Christians in general, a very different degree of