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darken the sands at the mouth of the river, were the first indications we obtained of our approach to shore. Shortly after, when the land was on both sides of us, the classical Euphrates was to be seen lazily pursuing its course between low banks of mud and rushes. In proceeding up the river, the scene changed, offering a nearly unin. terrupted succession of date-trees till we reached Bussorah.'
On the 21st, the Alligator anchored opposite that town, of which we have the following description.
• The city of Bussorah is enclosed within a wall, eight miles in cir. cumference. Of this space, the greatest portion is laid out in gardeng and plantations of date-trees. It is traversed throughout by nume. rous canals, supplied by the Euphrates, into which they empty themselves at every turn of the tide. The abundance of water, besides irrigating the gardens, which it does effectually, might also be the means of keeping the town clean, were there not in the inhabi. tants an innate love of filth. Bussorah is the dirtiest town even in the Turkish dominions. The streets, which are narrow and irregular, are almost insupportable from the stench. Some houses are built of kilo-burnt bricks, but the greater number are of mud. From these, project several long sprouts made of the body of the date-tree, which convey filth of every description into the streets, so that a passenger is in frequent danger of an Edinburgh salutation, without the friendly caution of Gardez loo. • The old bazaar is extremely mean.
Rafters are laid across the top, and covered with ragged mats, which prove but a poor protection against the heat of the sun. Throughout the bazaar we observed numerous coffee-houses ; they are spacious, unfurnished apartments, with benches of masonry built round the walls, and raised about three feet from the ground. On these are placed mats ; at the bar are ranged numerous coffee-pots and pipes of different descriptions. It is customary for every smoker to bring his own tobacco. These houses were principally filled by Janizaries, who were puffing clouds from their pipes in true Turkish taciturnity.
• The principal trade is with our Indian possessions, which, with the exception of a few English ships, is confined to Arabian vessels. The return for the articles with which we furnish them, are pearls, horses, copper, dates and raw silk. The population is estimated at sixty thousand, principally Arabs, Turks, and Armenians ; but I have no doubt, that on a close enquiry, there would be found natives of every country in Asia. Dates are the principal production here; there are, besides, quantities of rice, wheat, barley, and abundance of fruits and vegetables.'
A new pasha made his public entry into the city, the day after our Author's arrival ; and from the windows of a Persian's house, they witnessed the whole procession.
• They came in the following order. At nine o'clock, a body of armed men, forming an advance guard, announced their approach
by a continual discharge of musquetry, and passed us at a jog trot; then another party, who occasionally halted, and danced in a circle ; marking time by striking their swords against each others' shields. These were followed by large parties of Desert Arabs, of the Zobeir tribe, preceded by their immediate petty chiefs, on horseback. Each of them had carried before him, a large flag, red, green, and red. The Zobeir Arabs are mercenary troops, and acknowledge a kind of subjection to the Governor ; they are small, mean-looking men, with an Indian cast of features. They carried either fire-arms, or swords and shields. Some had their robes bound at the waist with a girdle ; others wore only a loose shirt. Several had on the handkerchief turban, peculiar to the Arabs ; and a few were bareheaded, having their hair twisted into several long plaits. This appears to have been the ancient custom of the people of the Persian Gulf. Diodorus Siculus describes the inhabitants of Gidrosia, as keeping their hair thick and matted, το τριχωμα πεπιλωμένον εωσι.
• After these came the toofungees, personal troops of the Governor, distinguishable by fur caps, nearly a yard in diameter; then the Pasha's led horses richly caparisoned. Behind them, a troop of mounted Tchousses, (messengers,) beating small drums placed at the saddle-bow. These were followed by the native officers of the En. glish factory, mounted on horses“ trimly decked.". Then the Capitan Pasha, (the Admiral,) who, with a watch in his hand, was timing the auspicious moment, as laid down by the astrologers, for the Pasha's entrance into his palace. This was decided to be twenty minutes past three, Turkish time; or twenty minutes past nine, according to European computation. Next came the Cadi and Mufti, whose offices are so often mentioned in the Arabian Nights ; and then the Pasha, with his hand on his breast, returning the salutations of the populace. At the moment of his appearing, a groupe of women, covered from head to foot, set up a loud and shrill cry. A troop of mounted Janizaries brought up the rear, having with them a band, the music of whose instruments resembled that of so many penny trumpets.
• During this procession, muskets were incessantly fired off; the report of which, combined with the squeaking of the music, the noise of the tamtams, the squalling of the women, and the rude singing of the soldiery, formed a din of discord more easily conceived than described.
• Salutes from his Majesty's ship Alligator, and all the ships at anchor, announced the reading of the firman, or order, appointing the Pasha Mooselim, Governor; and the first act of his government was to publish an edict, graciously informing the loyal citizens of Bussorah, that any one of them found in the bazaar after nine in the evening, would certainly be hanged.'
As our Author quotes Greek,* he must know that there
*Not always very correctly. At page 161 (vol. i.), we find fursukh, by the Greeks spelt Paparanyos parasangus. At the sight of were several nations known under the name of ichthyophagi, and that Bussorah does not stand within the limits of the ancient Gedrosia ; otherwise Alexander would not have found it requisite to send his couriers with such despatch into Parthia, to stop the caravans, and bring provisions for bis starving army. The Pasha paid Captain Taylor, the British political agent, a visit, which Captain T. and our travelling party politely returned. But here a curious point of etiquette was to be got over. • Let the greatest blockhead walk first,' said Frederick II. of Prussia to the president's lady who consulted him on a point of precedence. But there was no such master of the ceremonies to appeal to at Bussorah ; and, as neither party could consent to acknowledge himself the inferior by rising to receive the other, both were taken up by their respective attendants, and carried, like Abou Hassan in the Arabian Nights, into the hall of audience at the same time. The visiters sat with their hats on,' in conformity to the Eastern custom • of always keeping the head covered ; and, agreeably to an • exclusive privilege granted to Englishmen,' did not take off their shoes. This latter privilege, Captain Keppel seems to consider as not less insulting to Asiatic feelings, than if a • foreigner were to claim the right of coming from the streets • in his dirty boots, and dancing up and down our dinner • table. We take leave to differ from him. If the Orientals choose to eat off the ground, that does not make it unpolite for the Hesperians to walk upon it; and a dirty foot is quite as unclean as a dirty shoe. We must refer our readers to the Captain's Narrative, for an account of a horse-race in the desert, and of an Armenian betrothment, at which • a Turk and • a Jew danced together to celebrate the betrothment of a • Christian !'; as well as for a description of Zobeir, with the mosque (djami) of Ali the Barmecide, the uncle of the farfamed vizier Giaffir of the Arabian Nights. On the 8th of March, the party, having embarked their baggage and a fortnight's stock of provisions in a bughalow, proceeded to ascend the river towards Bagdad. The next morning, they arrived off Koorna, the ancient Apamea, situated at the extremity of a
this strange word, we rubbed our eyes ;-we had assuredly never met with it before, and we consulted every lexicon on our shelf in vain : all disowned the stranger,--John Meursius's Græco-barbarum, and all. We looked again at the spelling, and first, we substituted á y for an y; next, we altered o into a; and finally, changing the o for a 7, (o Q!) contrived to make out a fair Greek word, mapasayoyas. Capt. K.'s corrector of the press has not done his duty: he has passed several other blunders nearly as bad as this.
narrow slip of land formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris. Beyond this point, the navigation is deemed unsafe for single boats, owing to the lawless tribes of thievish Arabs which infest the banks.
• Leaving the Euphrates to the West, we proceeded up the Tigris, where we soon found ourselves in a current running between six and seven knots an hour, which fully proved to us the appropriate name of Teer (arrow) which the ancient Persians gave to this river on account of the rapidity of its course. Two miles beyond Koorna, the plantations of date-trees, which had hitherto covered the banks, ceased, and the country on both sides was overflowed. We landed in the afternoon on the west bank to shoot, and walked several miles : the ground was very wet, and the state of the vegetation indicated little fertility. This destitute place, which is called Il Jezeerah (the island), is generally held to be the seat of Paradise.'
We are quite aware that some learned men have maintained this strangely absurd opinion; but, were it worth while to enter upon the grave confutation of such an hypothesis, we might observe, that Moses says, four rivers went out of Paradise, and here two of them end: all the learning or logic in the world will not avail to prove, that the mouth of a river is the same as the head. There is something more plausible in Reland's hypothesis, who places the site of Eden in Armenia, whence issue the heads of the Tigris and the Euphrates ; while Major Wilford has supported with much learning and ingenuity, the opinion, that its true situation was in that moun. tainous tract which extends from Candahar to the Ganges. It is not very surprising, that a question relating to antidiluvian geography, should be involved in some uncertainty.
Captain Keppel, however, pleased himself with the idea of killing his first bird in the garden of Eden; and where Nimrod once hunted tigers, the party had excellent sport in shooting hares, partridges, and snipes. In one place, however, where the boat stopped to take in fuel, they put up game of a different description,-a lion, who was sleeping in the jungle, and who, on being disturbed, fortunately stole away. This spot is described as quite living with the immense quantities of animals of all descriptions.
• At every step, our trackers put up pelicans, swans, geese, ducks, and snipes ; numbers of hogs were seen galloping about in every direction; a lioness strolled towards our boat, and stood staring at us for two or three seconds; when within thirty yards, Mr. Hamilton and myself both fired at her, but, as we were loaded with small shot, we did ber no injury; the noise of our guns made her turn quietly round, and she weut away as leisurely as she came. We saw this afternoon a numerous dock of small birds, which presented the ap
pearance of a large whirlwind, and literally darkened the air in their Bight. Both Mr. Lamb and Mr. Hart had seen the same in India, and told me that they were birds of the ortolan species.'
At Coote, a wretched collection of mud huts, 120 miles from Bussorah, and reckoned half way to Bagdad, (although it is twice that distance by the tortuous course of the river,) Mr. Hamilton left the party, and proceeded through the desert, among the hospitable Arab tribes, who seem to respect those that trust them openly, and plunder those that attempt to steal through their territory. In the dry season, the journey is performed in thirty-six hours; it is necessary, however, to carry provisions and water both for riders and horses; but at this time of the year (March), 'abundance of water is found in the desert, as • well as numerous encampments of Arabs, so that the travel• ler may proceed at his leisure. After being, like Jacob, bitten by the frost by night, and consumed with drought by day, Mr. Hamilton, on the morning of the 20th, arrived at the renowned city of the khalifs. Our Author, who stuck by the boat, passed the remains of Ctesiphon and Seleucia, and reached Bagdad on the 21st, the fifth day after leaving Coote.
• A traveller coming by water from Bussorah, is likely to be much struck with Bagdad on his first arrival. Having been for some time past accustomed lo see nothing but a desert there being no cultiva. tion on that side of the city by which he arrives-he does not observe any change that would warn him of his approach to a populous city. He continues winding up the Tigris through all its numerous head. lands, when this once renowned city of gardens bursts suddenly on his sight. Its first view justifies the idea that he is approaching the residence of the renowned Calipli, Haroun Alraschid, in the height of its splendour; a crowd of early associations rushes across his mind, and seems to reduce to reality scenes which, from boyish recollections, are so blended with magic and fairy lore, that he may for a moment imagine himself arrived at the City of the Enchanters.
• Bagdad is surrounded by a battlemented wall; the part towards the palace, as was the case in ancient Babylon, is ornamented with glazed tiles of various colours. The graceful minarets, and the beautifully shaped domes of the mosques, are sure to attract his eye.
One or two of these are gaudily decorated with glazed tiles of blue, white, and yellow, which, formed into a mosaic of flowers, reflect the rays
of the sun : the variegated foliage of the trees of these numerous gardens, which most probably have given the name to the city, serve as a beautiful back-ground to the picture. Thus far the traveller is allowed to indulge his reverie ; but on entering the walls, his vision is dispelled.
The walls are of mud; the streets, which are scarcely wide enough to allow two persons to pass, are so empty, that he could almost fancy the inhabitants had died of the plague: he looks upwards—two dead walls meet his eyes ; he now enters the bazaar, and finds that he has