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and proceedings, beyond the fact, that it has done itself credit by issuing this able publication. We by no means sympathize in the alarms of those who view the spread of knowledge and the activity of the press, with dismay, as a portentous sign of the times; but still, we feel deeply anxious that Christian instruction, properly so called, should be made as accessible, and presented in as advantageous a form, as the elements of mathematical science or of mechanical philosophy. The present publication is a model for the lucid clearness of its statements, the candid and temperate style of its argumentation, and the firm and dignified manner in which the unprincipled misrepresentations of the Manifesto-writer are repelled.

The following remarks on the nature of the various read• ings, and the inferences to be drawn from them,' will be a sufficient specimen of the valuable information comprised in these pages.

. Previously to the invention of the inestimable art of printing, about the year 1440, books could be multiplied only by the tedious and laborious process of taking copies in hand writins. The method of publishing, in the classical ages, consisted in an author's having his work read among his friends, and sometimes in large assemblies of people : and, if it met with general approbation, persons were permitted or procured to write out copies for distribution or sale. From each of these, other transcripts were made ; and so on, from one generation of men to another. In this way have been preserved the works of Homer, Herodotus, Hippocrates, Euclid, and an illustrious host of Greek writers besides, the eldest of whom belongs to the ninth century, at least, before the Christian era ; and those of Ciceru, Cæsar, Virgil, Tacitus, and the rest of the Roman classics. Now, whoever has any experience of the toil and liableness to mistake which attend the transcribing of even a short pamphlet, will easily understand the difficulties necessarily accruing, when this was the only way of multiplying the hundreds and thousands of books that existed in the world; when persons, fond of knowledge, were obliged to spend a large part of their lives in copying the books which they had bor. rowed, (often by pledging their most valuable possessions as a security for the loan,) unless they were immensely rich, so as to hire transcribers; when a modern library was, in pecuniary value, worth a barony or a duchy; and when the possessors of these costly treasures had not the means, nor perhaps were expert in the method, of comparing two or more copies together, in order to ascertain the correct ness of each. In the transcribers themselves, many of whom got their livelihood by this labour, obvious causes must have been in contidual operation to produce variations from the original copy; generally in a manner involuntary and purely accidental, but sometimes from design. Haste, carelessness, wandering of the attention, weak eye-sight, bad light and seeble lamps, difficulty of making out the hand writing of the copy before him, and sometimes the idea of correcting a hastily-supposed mistake in that copy; were among the númerous circumstances which were likely to betray a transcriber into errors in letters, syllables, and words. These differences would be detected, when two or more copies were carefully compared ; they were called by the very proper term Various Readings; they became, in due time, an object of anxious study; and the art, acquired by long practice, united with extensive learning and solid judgement, of determining the True Reading out of several variations, in a manner impartial and satisfactory, formed a most important branch in the art of Criticism.


• From this collection of circumstances, the following facts naturally and necessarily ensued.

11. That, of those books which were the most frequently copied, in all periods of time and in different countries, the number of various readings is the greatest ; and yet the settlement of the true or genuine reading in each instance is the easiest, on account of the multitude of copies, each one being a kind of check upon the others. For example; the writings of Terence, those of Horace, and some of Cicero's, are in the best-evidenced state of purity, because the. number of old manuscript copies, and consequently of various read. ings, is greater than in the case of most of the other classics.

2. That, on the other hand, when very few manuscripts of a work are known to exist, the variations are indeed few; but obscuri. ties and difficulties attach to the text, which criticism cannot remove, except, in some instances, by the adventurous hand of conjecture.

This is the case with the writings that have come down to us, of Pa. terculus, Hesychius, and some others.

• 3. That, if, in addition to manuscript copies of any ancient work, quotations from it are found in other writings of great antiquity, and ancient translations of it exist in any other language, these two are new sources of evidence, and may be, in some respects, equal, and even superior to that of manuscripts. Thus the late Mr. Porson very happily, in several instances, confirmed or corrected the Greek text of Euripides, by adducing translations of passages from Latin authors who lived two or three hundred years later.

64. That, in proportion to the multitude of various readings, tireir individual importance becomes less and less; for they are found to refer almost entirely lo very little matters, many of which could not be made apparent in a translation, and, of the rest, very few produce any alteration in the meaning of a sentence, still less in the purport of a whole paragraph. The reason of this is, that the greater multiplicity of copies, though it occasions a greater number of trifling mistakes, furnishes at the same time a strong barrier against such as would affect the meaning, and especially such as might proceed from design. pp. 19–22.


Professor Lee's Lectures on the He- lume of Bullaels translated from the brew Language, which have been so Servian languagt, with oher speciinens long in preparation, are now nearly of the popular poetry of that people. ready for publication, and will appear in To this interesting literature, aliention the course of the ensuing nionth. . bas lately been ipuch directed by ar.

The Rev. Greville Ewing has just ticles in the Quarterly and Westminster completed a new edition of his Serip Reviews tuire Lexicon, very considerably en Tlie copious Greek Grammar of Dr. Jarged and adapted to the general read. Philip Bittman, 50 justly esteemed no ing of the Greek Classics. A copious the Continent, is nearly ready for pubGrammar is also prefixed, which may lication. Faithfully translated from the be had separate.

Gerinan, by, a distinguished scholar, Mrs. Gilbert, (formerly Miss Ann Just published, Vol. 2, of Scriptoral Taylor,) one of the Authors of Original Geology, op Geological Phenomena conPoems for Infant Minds, Hymns for In- sistent only with the literal interpretafant Minds, &c. &c., is preparing fortion of the Sacred Scriptores, npon the publication, in a cheap form, Original Subjects of the Creation aud Deluge; in Hymns adapted to Anniversary and answer to an " Essay on the Theory of other Public Services of Sunday Schools' the Earth," by M. Curier, Perpetual and Sunday School Unious.

Secretary of the French (pstitute, &c. Preparing for the press, Memoirs, &c. ap / to Professor Buckland's Theory including correspondence and other re of the Caves, as delineated in bis“ Relimains, of Mr. John Urquhart, late of quiæ Diluvianæ,” &c. &c. the University of St. Andrews.' By W. *** The above publication professes, Orme.

both upoir Scriptoral and Physical Prin In the press, Sixteen Sermons, doc. ciples, to have demonstrated that there trinal, practical, and occasional; with is not a Fossil Bone or a Fossil Shell in illustrative notes and authorities. By existence, that has been proved, or can the Rev. John Noble Coleman, M. A. be proved, to be more ancient than the late of Queen's College, Oxford. 1 vol. Noahic Deluge, &c. &c. 8vo.

In the press, A Course of Lectores op Preparing for publication, a Transla- the Evidences of Christianity, delivered tion of the Second Edition of Niebuhr's at the Monthly Meetings of the ConRoman History; undertaken in concert gregational Union. By the Rer. W. with the Author, by the Rev. Julius Orive, Dr. Collyer, H. F. Burder, StratHare, and C. Thirlwall, Esq. Fellows of tun, Walford, Dr. J. P. Sunith, A; Reed, Trinity College, Cambridge.

Curwen, Philip, Dr. Winter, J. MorriThis Second Edition will now be son, and Joseph Fletcher, A.M. I rol. published in a few weeks in Germany; in 860. ihe nan time the Author forwards the In the press, The Birth-day Present. shects as printed to Englanıl, and will By Mrs. Sherwoorl. himself contribute corrections and addi- In the press, -The Elements of the tions to the translation. The Author History of Philosophy and Science. By writes to a friend in England, that he is the Rev. Thomas Morell, Author of anxious it should be know'u as early as Studies in History, 1 vol. 8vo. possible, that this New Edition is not a In the press, The Pocket Road-Book Reprint of the Old Work with Additions of Ireland, on the plan of Reicbard's and Improvements, but absolutely a Itineraries ; intended to form a Compa. New Work, in which few pages of the nion to Leigh's New Pocket Road-Book former have been retained.

of England and Wales. . The First Number of a Work, to be. Godfrey Higgins, Esq. of Skellow entitled The Quarterly Juvenile Review; Grange near Doncaster, author of a or, a Periodical Guide for Parents and Treatise entitled, Horæ Sabbaticæ, has Instructors in their selection of New Dearly ready for publication a work Publications, is in the press, and will called the Celtic Druids. It will consist appear in the course of the present of one volume quarto, and be elucidated mionth.

by upwards of Fifty bighly finished LiMr. Bowring has in the press, a vo thographic Prinis of the most curious

Druidical Monuments of Europe and Asia, executed by one of the first French Artists in that branch of the graphic art. · Mr. Gilchrist, of Newington Green, is preparing for the press a work, to be entitled Unitarianism Abandoned, or Reasons assigned for ceasing to be con nected with that description of Religious Professors who designate themselves Unitarians.

The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French, by the Author of Waverley, will be ready early in May. • Preparing for publication, a volume of Plain Discourses on Experimental and Practical Christianity. By the Rev. William Ford Vance, M. A, Assistant Chaplain of St. Johu's, Bedlord-row.

In the press, The Age Reviewed. A Satire. 8vo. . In the press, Missionary Anecdotes for Children and Young Persons. By Robert Newland.

In a few days will be published, A Summary of the Laws peculiarly affect. ing Protestant Dięsenters. With an Appendix containing Acts of Parliament, Trust-deeds, and Legal Forms. By Jos. Beldam, of the Middle Teinple, Esq., Barrister at Law. f In the press, Memoirs of the Life of the Right Honourable Lord Byron. By Thomas Moore, Esq.

In the press, Travels of the Russian Mission ihrough Mongolia to China. By George Timkowski; with Notes, by M. J. Klaprolb. 2 vols. 8vo. illustrated by Maps, Plates, &c. &c.

In the press, Historical Researches on the Conquest of Peru, Mexico, Boyo1a, Natchez, and Talomico, in the 13th Centacy, by the Mongols, accompavied by Elephants; and the local Agreement of History and Tradition with the Remains of Elephants, &c. found in the New World, &c. By John Ranking,

Author of “ Researches on the Wars and Sports of the Mongols and Romaps.”

In the press, A History of Irelaod. By John O'Driscol. 2 vols. 8vo.

In the press, A Chronological History of the West Indies. By Captain Thos. Southey, R. N. 3 vols. 8vo.

In the press, Personal Narrative of Travels in Colombia. By Baron de Humboldt. From the original French, by Helen Maria William3. Vol. VII.

The Odd Volume. Second Series. By the Autburs of the “ Old Volume." Will be ready early in April.

In the press, The Pelican Island, and other Poems. By Jannes Montgomery, Foolscap 8vo.

Miss Edgeworth has in the press, a voluine of Dramatic Tales for Children, intended as an additional volume of Parent's Assistant.

In the press, a volume of Sermons, by the Rev. W. Dealery, of Clapham.

In the press, Memoirs, including correspondence and other remains of Mr. John Urquhart, late of the University of St. Andrews. By William Orme, of Camberwell.

In the press, Sixteen Serinons, Doctrinal and Practical, elucidating the Study of Prophecy ; with Notes and Au. thorities. By the Rev. John Noble Cole. man, M. A. late of Queen's College, Oxford. I vol. 8vo...

lu the press, A concise History of the Transmission of Ancient Books to Modern Times; or an Account of the Means by which the Genuineness and Authenticity of Historical Works espe.. cially, and of Ancient Literature in general, are ascertained. By Isaac Taylor, Junior.

In the press, Original Hymas for Sunday School Anniversaries. By Mrs. Gilbert.


Orlando Furioso, in English Prose, Essays on the Perception of an Ex from the Italian of Ludovico Ariosto; ternal Universe, and other Subjects 'con

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*** The sequel to the Article on Diet, &c. is unavoidably postponed till the next Number, owing to the Writer's professional engagements.

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