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charge, Mr. C., in his Reply addressed to Mr. Horne, * answers :
• In the first place, your observations on this subject do not exceed three pages, while mine occupy nearly fifteen ; besides which, there is not a single remark in common to both treatises, and only a single reference to corresponding topics.'
We must also admit that the Sacred Geography in Mr. Carpenter's volume is often more accurately given; and this Gentleman positively avers, that the citations which his work contains in common with Mr. Horne's, were, for the most part, taken immediately from the original authors.
To the pamphlet in which Mr. Carpenter defends himself from the heavy accusations brought against him, and recriminates on his assailant, we decline to make any further reference; first, because we have not yet heard the other party, and secondly, because we do not wish to interfere in a personal controversy. But we shall now lay before our readers the contents of Mr. Carpenter's volume, by comparing which with those of Mr. Horne's work, they may judge how far the general plan and order are the same.
• Part. I. DIRECTIONS FOR READING THE BIBLE. Introductory Observations. C. i. Of the disposition and habits of mind which are required for a profitable perusal of the Bible. C.ii, Rules for Reading the Holy Scriptures.
• Part. II. Helps TOWARDS A RIGHT UNDERSTANDING OF SCRIPTURE. Introductory Observations on the Nature and Sources of these helps : 1. Sources of internal help. 2. Sources of external help.
i Chap. i. Prefatory Observations on the several Books of Scripture. - Preliminary Remarks on the Divisions occurring in the Bible. 81. Of the Pentateuch. § 2. Of the Historical Books. $ 3. Of the Poetical Books. 4. Of the Prophetical Books. $ 5. General Re. marks on the Books of the Old Testament. $6. Of the Gospels. 87. Of the Acts. & 8. Of the Epistles of St. Paul. $ 9. Of the Catholic Epistles. q 10. Of the Book of Revelation.
Chap. ii. A Sketch of Sacred Geography. $ 1. General Features and Divisions of the Holy Land. Š 2." The Jewish Capital. $ 3. Atmosphere and Phenomena of Judea. § 4. Seasons and Productions of Judea. Ø 5. Places beyond the limits of Judea, mentioned in Scripture.
Chap. iii. Political Antiquities of the Jews. \ 1. Forms of Government. Ý 2. The Judicial Law. 3. Jewish Courts of Judica
* « Reply to the Accusations of Piracy and Plagiarism, &c. In a Letter to the Rev. T. H. Horne, A.M. By William Carpenter," Svo. 1s. London, 1827. .
ture. 4. Of the Roman Judicature. $ 5. Modes of Punishment. $ 6. Military Affairs. § 7. Tribute and Taxes.
Chap. iv. Sacred Laws of the Jews, and their Sanctions. $1. The Moral Law. § 2. The Ceremonial Law. 3. Ecclesiastical Punishments.
· Chap. v. Sacred Festivals of the Jews. § 1, The Sabbath. $ 2. The Great Annual Festivals. $ 3. The lesser Festivals. $ 4. The Sabbatical Year and the Jubilee. $ 5. Festivals and Fasts not of Divine Appointment.
•Chap. vi. Sacred Places of the Jews. The Tabernacle. The Temple. The Synagogues.
• Chap. vii. Sacred Things.-Animal Sacrifices. Meat and Drink Offerings.
Chap. viii. Members and Officers of the Jewish Church. $1. The Hebrew Nation, Proselytes, and Devoted Persons. § 2. Ministers of the Sanctuary
Chap. ix. Of the Corruption of Religion among the Jews. 9 1. Idolatrous Practices. 2. Jewish Sects. 3. The State of Religion among the Jews at the Christian Era.
• Chap. X. National and Domestic Customs. $ 1. Divisions of Time. 5 2. Weights, Measures, and Coin. § 3. Literature. $ 4. Habitations. 5. Costume. $ 6. Marriages and Treatment of Chil. dren. 7. Modes of Travelling. Ø 8. Manner of Treating the Sick and the Dead. 9. Domestic Customs. § 10. Forms of Politeness and Marks of Honour and Disgrace.
• Chap. xi. Scripture Allusions to various Customs and Opinions. § 1. Images borrowed from ihe Theatre. 0 2. Images borrowed from the Grecian Games. $ 3. Philosophical Sects.
• Appendix. 1. Outlines of a Scripture Cyclopedia. 2. Scripture Lessons for Daily Reading, in historical order.'
From this Table it will be seen, that the subjects treated of by Mr. Horne in his first two volumes, which certainly do not constitute the least valuable portion of his work, are almost entirely left out of Mr. Carpenter's plan, whose volume answers to Mr. Horne's third and fourth. Here, there is of necessity a great similarity of arrangement, because both have followed the same authorities,- Jennings, Harwood, Roberts, Michaelis, and Jahn. But the variations are numerous; and we are surprised that Mr. Carpenter should not have followed more closely that of his predecessor, which is in many respects superior to the distribution he has adopted. In the treatment of some of these topics, there is a still more material difference between them.
We have now endeavoured, to the best of our judgement, to arbitrate between the respective parties : no doubt, each will think that we have leaned unduly to the other, which, next to satisfying both sides, (a hopeless endeavour,) is the impression we would wish to leave. Before we dismiss the subject, how
ever, we must take the freedom of addressing a few words to each of these gentlemen.
To Mr. Carpenter we must say, that we are very ill satisfied with the reason assigned in his preface, as an apology for hastily getting up a volume like the present, for the immediate publication of which there was no urgent necessity. We are totally at a loss to understand the considerable reluctance' with which he states that he ventured upon a task he has seemed in such haste to execute. His ordinary and pressing • engagements,' he tells us,“ have necessarily prevented him ' from giving to the subject that attention which its importance ' and difficulty demand, while other circumstances have ex• cluded him from many valuable sources of information.' Such a confession as this had been better withheld. Unless some unexplained necessity compelled Mr. Carpenter to undertake a work to which he could not give adequate attention, and to finish it within a few months, instead of bestowing upon it the time and pains its importance demanded, we are really at a loss to account for his conduct. The larger work of Mr. Horne and the small volume by Mr. Bickersteth, though they may be thought to have left room for a work on an intermediate scale, still obviated any very urgent necessity for the undertaking. Possibly, Mr. Carpenter might fear being forestalled ; but we cannot allow this to form any sufficient reason for hurrying the execution of such a volume. It looks too much like getting up a work to sell. We have no doubt that, with proper pains, he could have produced a much better book; and then, he might safely have defied any attempts to run down his volume as a piracy.
And now a word or two to Mr. Horne. We can, we think, make every allowance for the vexation and alarm which a writer must feel at a proceeding which he regards as a piratical invasion of his copyright, and an attempt to rob him of fairly earned profits. Considering, however, the nature of Mr. H.'s work, that it is itself a compilation, prudence, we think, would dictate a cautious and inoffensive assertion of his literary rights. There is only one way in which he can establish the permanent value of his work, and secure himself against future competition and piracy; and that is, by a very diligent and repeated revision of its contents. Although he has seldom committed errors himself, he has copied not a few very incorrect statements; bis authorities are not always well chosen ; in fact, his work, though as a whole it does him great credit, is very susceptible of material improvement, both by retrenchment, enlargement, and correction. The geographical part stands especially in need of revision. At p. 225 of the present
sain water material errort: to trust top may be deself to be una
Analysis, Mr. Horne tells us, that the river of Egypt is sup• posed to be, not the Nile, but the Sichor;' when he might have learned from Dr. Shaw and many other sources, that the Sichor was the ancient name of the Nile, answering to the Greek Melas and the Latin Niger. At p. 371, he says: - In Egypt, it • is still the custom to wash the dead body several times with • rain water.' He should have told us where they get it from. These are immaterial errors, but they will sufficiently shew, that Mr. Horne will do well not to trust too entirely to the credit in which at the present moment his work may be deservedly held. We must caution him too against suffering himself to be unduly biassed by a reverence for great names and ecclesiastical titles. He may gain present favour at the expense of the ultimate credit of his own work. In general, Mr. Horne has shewn a very praiseworthy impartiality in his references to the works of learned men of all denominations. We know not, however, why Henry's Exposition and Dr. Boothroyd's Family Bible are omitted in the list of Commentators at pp. 500-507. The former is still one of the most valuable works which a divine can possess : with little of the parade of criticism, it often gives more satisfaction than any other commentary. And Dr. Boothroyd's critical notes, especially those on the Old Testament, are extremely valuable. Mr. Horne's list of necessary (works' at p. 510, is by no means judicious : it contains some that have little claim to rank among indispensables, and it omits, among other important works, one of inestimable value Schleusner's Lexicon. Surely Mr. Horne could not mean to substitute for this, Parkhurst's Greek Lexicon edited by the • Rev. H. J. Rose,' or to include Schleusner among the critics whom he would put into his Index Expurgatorius. The omission is, however, somewhat suspicious, especially in connexion with a very unwise note at page 500. Mr. Horne has gone out of his way to notice, among • Treatises on the Interpretation
of Scripture,' a Series of Discourses by the abovementioned Mr. Rose, on the State of the Protestant Religion in Germany.
• These discourses,' adds Mr. H., are noticed here, on account of the just and accurate representation which they contain of the unsound and pernicious system of interpretation adopted by many modern expositors and biblical critics in Germany, who have applied to the interpretation of the sacred volume an excess of philological speculation which would not be endured if applied to the explanation of a classic author. The accuracy of Mr. Rose's statements, the writer of these pages can attest, from actual perusal of many of the commentaries and other publications which he holds up to deserved censure. His statements are also corroborated by the details which Mr. Haldane has produced in his " Second Review of the Conduct of the Directors of the British and Foreign Bible Society," (chap. ii.) as well as by the details which have appeared at various times in the course of the last six or seven years, in the “ Archives du Christianisme” and other French theological journals. The Latin biblical treatises of the writers in question are, therefore, (with one exception,) designedly excluded from the present list. The best of their philologi. cal observations, divested of their heterodox interpretations, will be found in Mr. Bloomfield's valuable Synopsis, which is noticed in a subsequent page.'
Mr. Rose will hardly thank Mr. Horne, we imagine, for this palpable puff of his volume, or for the very needless attestation of his veracity. Nor will Mr. R.'s statements receive much corroboration from the pamphlets referred to. Giving Mr. Horne all due credit for a competent and extensive acquaintance with modern German literature, we think that he has taken a little too much upon himself in pronouncing this sweeping condemnation. Is he ignorant that a pernicious system of biblical criticism has obtained among a certain class of continental critics long before the present day, and that he has himself recommended some of their works? Of Mr. Bloom, field's labours we hope to give a full account ere long; but, if it should appear that he has been chiefly indebted to the modern expositors and critics whom Mr. Horne proscribes, either his volumes will not justify the high encomium passed upon them, or Mr. Horne has singularly committed himself in his indiscriminate censure of the German critics. Upon this subject, Mr. Haldane veither professes nor is qualified to give much information, and to adduce him as a witness in a literary question of this nature, is worse than absurd. What could be Mr. Horne's motive for so needlessly referring to a controver sial pamphlet of an offensive character, in such a work as his, we do not pretend to divine; but it betrays, at least, a suspension of the exercise of sound judgement, and a bias wbich we egret to notice,