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French delivery, and the superiority in this respect, of one system of utterance over the other, will be manifest. We are not, however, disposed to make the same concessions on the point of general harmony. The rising close, though favourable to distinctness, is incomparably inferior in melody to the falling cadence, too often suffered by our readers and speakers to siok into an inaudible murmur. The incessant jerk and prevailing nasality of Gallic intonation are indescribably unpleasant, and fatal to every aim at dignity and genuine power. There may, perhaps, be somewhat of rational self-complacency in our opinion; but we are, on the whole, very much disposed to believe, that, to say nothing of internal structure, our system of reading and pronunciation is, for all the higher purposes, superior to that of any other people in Europe. The harsh aspirate of the Spaniard, the overwhelming gutturality of the German, and the predominance of vowels that emasculates the language of Italy, are much more intractable peculiarities than the imputed sibilancy of our own dialect.

M. Scholl's designationl'un des Pasteurs de l'Eglise Francoise de Londres-has suggested these remarks, by reminding us of the pulpit exercises of one of his predecessors, M. le Mercier ; a gentleman whose attractive manner sometimes tempted us to lose sight of the rather doubtful evangelism of his matter. His exterior was advantageous; his countenance intelligent and interesting. He read well, with enough of the English cadence to cover the edginess of French enunciation, and enough of the latter to give point and poignancy to the former. He published some sermons on public worship, which were, if we recollect rightly, rather vapid. How far his successor may surpass or fall short of his advantages as a public speaker, we are unable to say, but we can bear testimony to his superiority as a preacher of the gospel. M. Scholl is not remarkably distinguished for excellence as a reasoner, nor should we suppose that his doctrinal views come quite up to what decided Calvinists are accustomed to consider as the Evangelical standard; but he is a spirited declaimer, a faithful and earnest preacher; his appeals to the conscience are searching and uncompromising ; his practical exhortations are well defined; and his estimates of character are discriminating and effective. The following is a fair example of his general manner.

• The Saviour gives to his disciples the strength necessary for stedfasto cos in the faith, and for growth in grace and holiness. The Christian character is not the work of a moment. To believe that it is thus formed, is to betray ignorance of our own hearts, as well of •he spirituality of the divine law. The sinner is weak, depraved, and

he is to be made holy. He must put off the old man and put on the new, which is created after the image of God, in righteousness and true holiness. He must be transformed by the renewing of his mind. He must lay aside conformity to the world. He is not to love the world, neither the things of the world. He must be sanctified, as well as justified, by Christ, and by him be clothed with that Christian character of which the features are humility, gentleness, mercy, poverty of spirit, purity of heart, hungering and thirsting after righteousness. What a task! left to himself, vainly will the sinner attempt to fulfil it. Far from advancing in the narrow way, he will return io the path of destruction. But Jesus Christ is with him, as he was with the man sick of the palsy. He trusts neither in his own wisdom, nor in his own strength, but in the promises of his Lord. He knows that his Saviour has enough of goodness and of power to bring him out of the sepulchre of sin, and he strives manfully in reliance on him who is mighty to save. He lifts up his heart to him, in temptation, and makes proof that in his weakness the strength of the Lord is made manifest. He often falls. He finds in himself a law, warring against the law of his mind. But every failure is to him a lesson of humility, of repentance, of dependence on the mercy of God in Christ, of watchfulness, and of prayer. Thus his hatred to sin increases in proportion as he feels how much it is opposed to the glory of God and to the Christian calling : and he labours to separate himself from it more and more. Upheld by his master, he advances in the way; he combats with determination and without relaxation. Notwithstanding much weakness, he lives holily in the midst of a world sunk in sin. He fixes his affection on things which are above, in the midst of a world immersed in those which perish. He lives for his God, his Saviour, eternity, in the midst of a world for which God, the Saviour, and eternity, are but words. Thus Jesus Christ, his strength and his life, raises him above all that destroys the sinner in whose heart the Saviour does not dwell. Thus his soul lives the true life, that for which it was created. Thus it resumes the image of God; it is secured in the fellowship of its Saviour; it is preparing for eternal life.'

The Sermons are twelve in number, on the following topics : The infallible Fulfilment of the Words of Jesus Christ-Domestic Worship-The Joy of Angels at the Conversion of a SinnerChrist's Invitation to the Sinner - The Beneficence of Jesus Christ and the Lessons it inculcates—The Effect of what the World deems trivial Faults-Misconception concerning the Duty of partaking of the Lord's Supper-Frequent Communion—The Depravity of human nature-Jesus Christ in Gethsemane-Illusions which hinder practical Obedience to the Word-Redemption.

A respectable list of subscribers is prefixed.

Art. IV. 1. Leltres à M. le Duc de Blacas D'Aulps, Premièr Gen

tilhomme de la Chambre, Pair de France, &c. Relatives au Musée Royal Egyptien de Turin. Par M. Champollion le Jeune. Premiére Letire. Monuments Historiques. Royal 8vo. pp. 110.

Paris, 1824. 2. Lettres à M. le Duc de Blacas D'Aulps, &c. Seconde Lettre.

Suite des Monumens Historiques, par M Champollion le jeune; Suite de la Notice Chronologique des Dynasties Egyptiennes de Manethon, par M. Champollion-Figeac. Royal 8vo. pp. 168.

Planches, (41o.) Paris, 1826. WE have already submitted to our readers an account of two

of M. Champollion's former publications on the mysterious and long-neglected subject of Egyptian Hieroglyphics, in which he gave us the result of his examination of the statues, sarcophagi, and mummies, monkeys, cats, crocodiles, and beetles, and other Egyptian lumber in the Museum of Paris. * We now proceed to notice the subsequent archæological acbievements of this most persevering and intelligent inquirer, as detailed in two letters relating to the historical monuments in the Royal Egyptian Museum of Turin.

In the opening paragraphs of the first letter, the grateful Author pays a well-merited compliment to the King of France (Louis XVIII), for the enlightened patronage with which he had honoured his Egyptian researches ; next, to M. le Duc, for being actuated towards him by sentiments similar to those of his Majesty; and thirdly, to un ministre (Visc. Chateaubriand ?) for having · honoured the memory of the Pharaohs

by transports of the noblest enthusiasm upon the very soil of Egypt.' He deplores the unlucky events-most lucky, we apprehend, they would be deemed by his royal or noble patrons-that compelled the French Government to restore to their rightful owners, the works of art which the rapacity of its revolutionary chief had most illicitly assembled in the gallery of the Louvre. He then informs us, that the collection of which he is about to give an account, is the result of the active researches of M. Drovetti during twenty consecutive years. He might have gone on to state, that the said M. Drovetti was the French Consul in Egypt of the Revolutionary Government; that, after he was turned out of office, he remained in the ancient land of the Pharaohs; and that having taken into his employ a number of individuals, he amassed, with their assistance, the splendid collection which he in due time brought to Europe, and sold to the King of Sardinia for the not inconsiderable sum of 400,000

* See Eclect. Rev. Vol. XX. p. 481 (Dec. 1823); and Vol. XXII. p. 330. (Oct. 1824.)

francs. It is now fixed at Turin, and as it bears the denomination of Royal Egyptian Museum, it is to be hoped that his Sardinian Majesty will, with all convenient speed, provide for it a suitable mansion; its present one being by far too small, and so miserably ill-lighted that the most sharp-sighted visiter can scarcely distinguish in it stone from stucco. This we are enabled to state on good authority; and from the same quarter we have information, that, besides the historical monuments, this Museum contains many objects of great rarety and value. Among these, is an ancient cubit measure, made of the wood of Meröe, in texture and colour something between wainscot and mahogany; the divisions and measurements are marked in hieroglyphics : it was found at Memphis. There are also, a small statue of a priest carved in the same wood, having the fragment of a god on each shoulder, and a staff in each hand; many pastophori, and various specimens of gilding on wood and on metal ; 3000 Roman-Egyptian coins; one Daric; and many papyri, extending from Amenopbis I., who, according to Manetho, reigned thirty-eight years after the expulsion of the Shepherd-kings (1778 B. C.), down to the time of Adrian, of which date there is a well-preserved mummy. One of the papyri is sixty feet long, exceedingly well-preserved, and admirably unrolled : it is said to contain the name of Osymandyas, written ()usimandouei, the first king of the XVIth dynasty, who began his reign 2272 years before the Christian era. In addition to these, there is an ancient painter's pallet, with paints, brushes, and paint-box; a granite stone bearing a bilingual inscription in the Demotic and Greek characters; thousands of scarabæi; a statue of Memnon, very much like a Tomfool; and one of Sesostris, having the appearance of a young god, and valued at 100,000 francs.

M. Champollion, in the Letters before us, does not, however, profess to describe the different kinds of monuments with which this Museum is stored, but only such as are of an historical nature, in continuation of the subject of his Letter to M. Dacier, published in 1822. At that time, the learned Parisian, having expounded to his own satisfaction, the phonetic lieroglyphics of the names of a few Pharoahs, Ptolemies, and Roman prefects, flattered himself that he had mastered all the difficulties of the subject, and, by his discoveries, had shed a flood of light to illuminate the path of every future explorer of Egyptian antiquities ; in fact, that hieroglyphic obscurity or Egyptian darkness should henceforth be but a name. He was like the glowworm, glimmering over an inch, and imagining that, as the Sun, it could irradiate the pole. A journey to Turin has served to moderate his vanity; and, we transcribe with pleasure the following avowal, which does credit to his candour.

• It is only in the Royal Museum of Turin, in the midst of that mass of remains so varied of an ancient civilization, that the history of Egyptian Art seemed to me still to remain entirely to be composed (m'a semblé rester encore entiérement à faire). Here, every thing shews that we have been in too great haste to judge of its proceedings, to determine its means, and especially to assign its limits. p. 5.

We speak on good authority in assuring M. Champollion, that when he shall have performed his intended journey through Egypt, he will not only see reason to strike out the 'only' (seulement) from the above sentence, by which he invidiously exalts the Turin Museum, the second or third that he has ever seen, to the disparagement of all others; but will feel compelled to acknowledge that, up to this time, he had seen very little of Egyptian Art. What should we think of the individual who, on having presented to him a stone taken from every splendid edifice in the world, should pretend to pronounce, from those specimens, on their respective character and appearance, and the comparative grandeur of each? Your Majesty,' said Canova to Napoleon, who had invited him to reside at Paris, and, as an inducement, offered to transport every work of art from Rome to that city, may take away every thing that can

be removed, and, after that, there will still remain infinitely more at Rome to delight and improve the artist, than all which • you have removed.' The observation applies with accumu- , lated force to Egypt. More of art and more of history are contained in the ruins of that country, which it exceeds the power of man to remove, than in the whole world besides. “A

temple,' it has been remarked by one of the most intelligent of our modern Travellers who has explored this wonderful country, is the pride of Athens; an amphitheatre the boast

of Rome; but Egypt, from end to end, and from side to side, . from the mouth of the Nile to the second Cataract, is a field of inexhaustible wonder and delight to the traveller.'* Yet, Egypt is not, as M. Champollion represents, the first link in the chain of ancient Art, but Babylon; of which, to our shame as a nation be it spoken, we know nothing compared with what ought to be known, considering our means and opportunities of exploring its ruins. Not a brick exists within the bounds of ancient Babylon, but ought to be interrogated, as our primeval parent questioned Nature respecting his own origin, how' it came thus, how here.'

Richardson's Travels. Vol. II. p. 162.

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