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fused to take the paper. The king advanced, and pressed it on me. I retreated several paces, till at last I was literally pushed to the wall, with my hands behind my back. The king still followed, and when I could retreat no farther, his majesty stuck the paper in my military sash. I took it only to endeavour to return it into the king's hands, when he said, “ You refuse then, Sir, to save my crown, and the lives of my ministers." I answered, “Sir, I can no longer resist such an appeal. I accept the task, but I entreat your majesty to recollect that I declare, that if the royal authority can be re-established in Paris, it can only be by painful sacrifices, dictated by necessity, and I shall be held responsible for all the consequences. If, on the other hand, I should fail, I shall be equally to be pitied ; too happy indeed if I do not even find myself accused of treachery." Thus,' concludes the duke, was I forced into a post which is ordinarily so coveted!

Here, then, was a captain of the body guards become prime minister, without colleagues-without clerks--without an office. What was to be done ? Some one suggested that Mazas was in the chateau ; he was sent for and appointed secretary to the President of the Council. M. de Mortemart seems to have been anxious, as was natural, to proceed immediately to Paris, but he was detained at St. Cloud, waiting and waiting for the return from Paris of Messieurs de Semonville and Vitrolles- negociators of this delusive arrangement. This delay, we have no doubt, was, like all the rest, managed by Lafitte and his clique,' as M. Sarrans denominates them. M. de Vitrolles was, we believe, sincere and zealous; but we have not equal confidence in M. de Semonville, nor in M. D'Argout, who replaced Semonville, when this latter was what is vulgarly but emphatically called knocked up in this negociation, in which the body seems to have had more to do than the mind, and coach horses more than privy councillors.

At last, at half past two o'clock of the night between Thursday and Friday, MM. de Vitrolles and D'Argout arrived. They now said that there was not a moment to be lost--that M. de Mortemart must hasten to Paris, and must take with him as an indispensable introduction, six new ordonnances,-1, annulling those of the 25th; 2. establishing a national guard ; 3. nominating Marshal Maison to command it; 4. nominating M. Casimir Perrier to be minister of finance; 5. appointing Marshal Gerard to be minister of war; 6. convoking the chambers. M. D'Argout dictated these ordonnances to Mazas, who frankly confesses that, little accustomed to such affairs and disturbed by the noise and movement around him, he did not shine in his new office of secretary. Having occasion, for instance, in one of these ordonnances to state that bis majesty consented to the session, meaning, of the Chambershe had in his hurry written cession-M. de Vitrolles, who was overlooking him, exclaimed, How, sir ? The king does not mean


to consent to the cession of any of his royal rights.'—While this was going on, another incident occurs which brings these great historical events down to the level of ordinary human nature. We suppose all revolutions are made, more or less, under the influence of hunger and thirst; but history has been hitherto too dignified to descend to such minutiæ. The royal guard were, we have seen, rather starved than beaten out of Paris, and at St. Cloud were scantily fed on silver dishes from the royal table, while the royal family and their guests went supperless to bed.' MM. de Vitrolles and D’Argout were now obliged to beg a morsel to eat-'a large brown loaf and a bottle of wine were brought to them, as one sees a loaf and a bottle brought to the workmen in Paris,' and they devoured the homely repast with great eagerness. These little incidents prove in a most striking manner how completely the king and his friends were surprised in the whole of this affair. The court, and the army, and the negociators, and everybody who in any way adhered to the court, are without food, and many of them without clothes; while we have little doubt, indeed we have evidence, that M. Lafitte and his clique' had their dinners as usual, and served their country in the intervals between their customary and delicate repasts. The truth is, in such times the ordinary affairs of domestic life go on without interruption, but the supply on the larger and more artificial scale for courts and armies is the first thing to fail. We recollect to have heard that when, in the beginning of November, 1830, the peace of our own metropolis was seriously threatened, and a number of troops were concentrated in and round the town, the Duke of Wellington had the precaution (an idle one it might, by common observers, be supposed in such a city as London) of providing bread, cheese, and beer, for the sustenance of the troops and the police.

At last the new ordonnances were signed, and M. de Mortemart and his secretary were about to depart for Paris, when M. de Polignac led his successor aside and had a short conversation with him, the concluding words of which Mazas reports. What a misfortune,' said the prince, that my sword broke short in my hands! Had I succeeded, the charter would have been placed on an indestructible basis.' M. Mazas believes, and so do we, in the sincerity and good faith of M. de Polignac, who, so far from being adverse to a representative government, carried his love of that system almost to insanity.' M. de Polignac complained that his sword broke in his hands ;' but why had he but one? why not the twenty thousand swords which were within his reach ? and which he ought to have had at hand, if it were only to prevent the necessity of using the sword at all! 2 K 2


At last, at seven o'clock in the morning of Friday the 30thabout fourteen hours having been unfortunately and unaccountably lost-M. de Mortemart set out for Paris; he carried the ordonnance for his own appointment: the other six M. Mazas put into the pocket of his jacket—he had no coat—and 'secured with a pin Iest he should lose them.' Finding great difficulty from the mob at the barriers, they alighted from their carriage and entered Paris on foot, and having further disordered their already disordered dress as a kind of disguise, walked separately, in order not to attract notice. The interior was silent and tranquil, the windows were not yet open, no horses nor carriages, and scarcely any inhabitants in the streets. 6-What a calm!' said Mazas.

- The calm of force,' replied M. de Mortemart. M. Mazas admires the

depth of this expression; we have the misfortune of thinking that it shows that M. de Mortemart was little suited for the part he was selected to play. The calm was, we think, that of the habits of a great town at an early hour, and of an indifference and apathy in the great body of the middle classes of the people, who neither opposed M. de Polignac's ordonnances nor M. Lafitte's insurrection. A person so pre-occupied with the notion of the force of the insurrection as to see this in a circumstance which assuredly afforded no evidence of it, was manifestly certain to fail in the task of resisting it; and it was, we presume, some knowledge of his character, that induced M. Lafitte to stipulate that, of all men in France, poor M. de Mortemart should be named first minister.

As they proceeded through the empty town, M. d'Argout persuaded the duke to go at once to M. Lafitte's—the focus of the insurrection-before he went to the Hotel de Ville to exhibit his powers and commence his ministry-strange advice and as strangely adopted. On their way, they happened—curious coincidence '—to pass through the street where resided M. Bérard, a leading deputy of the liberal party, who, by another coincidence equally strange, happened, with some other liberal deputies and friends, to be standing in the street. Poor Mazas felt, or at least expresses, no wonder at all this ; but he observed, that when M. d'Argout presented the Duke of Mortemart to Bérard, the latter seized upon him with great eagerness,— s'empara de M. le Duc avec beaucoup de chuleur,' and dragged him into his house, assuring him that he should risk bis personal safety by going to M. Lafitte's-besides, added M. Bérard, you come to negociate an arrangement-it is too late;' and in order that, if the point were before doubtful, it might really be too late, M. Bérard contrived to detain the Duke of Mortemart above an hour in his house. We can easily believe that this hour was not lost by M. Bérard and his friends, particularly when we find, in the sequel, that this M. Bérard was the person who was charged with the composition of the new charter by which Louis Philippe was called to the throne, and which is now commonly known in France by the derisive cognomen of La Charte Bérard. It must be confessed, that accident had given a strange direction to M. de Mortemart's proceedings.


In short, M. de Mortemart, under the advice of M. Bérard, neither went to Lafitte's, according to his second intention, nor to the Hotel de Ville, according to his first, but made his way to the Luxembourg - the palace of the peers—where M. de Semonville, an officer of that assembly, resided—whence he wrote a letter to Lafayette at the Hotel de Ville, to announce the six new ordonnances, and his own appointment. This had no effect but to hasten the elevation of the Duke of Orleans to the government, under the title of Lieutenant-General of the kingdom,-and so ended, before it began, the ministry of M. de Mortemart. But his troubles were not at end, they hunted him,' he complained, like a wild beast.' It is quite clear that this hunting was not a mere popular effervescence-it was the tactic of the predominant party, who endeavoured to prevent M. de Mortemart's making an effort, as he had announced his intention of doing, in favour of the Duke of Bordeaux. In short, it appears to us quite certain that M. de Mortemart was all along nothing but a stalking-horse, behind which the revolutionary party were ripening and advancing their proceedings; and who, brave soldier and honourable gentleman as he may be-(we wish he had not accepted the Russian embassy) -was manifestly ungifted with either the political sagacity or the moral courage which the station, into which he had been so strangely called, demanded. But another and more curious scene now opens upon us.

In the middle of the night the Duke of Orleans sent to desire to see M. de Mortemart, who was concealed in an entresol at M. de Semonville's—he wished to see him, he said, dans l'intérêt de la cause du roi— for the advantage of the royal cause. M. de Mortemart consented,-he arrived at the Palais Royal about day-break (3 a.m., July 31st.) He found the duke overcome with heat and fatigue and only half-dressed. His Royal Highness hastened to accost him as follows:

* Duke of Mortemart, if you see the king before I do, tell him that they have brought me by force into Paris ; but that I will be torn in pieces before I will permit the crown to be placed on my head. The king, no doubt, reproaches me with not having joined him at St. Cloud-I am sorry for it, but I was informed as early as Tuesday evening, that some persons were urging his majesty to arrest me, and I confess I had no desire to throw myself into a wasp's nest—on the other hand, I was equally afraid that the Parisians would come for


me. I, therefore, shut myself up in a hiding-place known only to my family-but last night a mob invaded my house at Neuilly, and insisted, in the name of the assembly of deputies, on finding me. Being told that I was absent, these people declared to the duchess, that they must carry her and all her children to Paris, to be kept prisoners till I should be found. The duchess, terrified at her position, sent me, by a sure hand, a most pressing note, requesting me to appear. I could not resist such an appeal ; I returned to rescue my family, and the mob brought me hither very late in the evening.'-p. 128.

We believe the duke was sincere in all this, not only because he voluntarily said so, but from a small incident which convinces us that these immediate events took him, also, by surprise. Of his numerous household and staff, he had not one soul in attendance; a single aide-de-camp, who was not even in turn of duty, hearing in the country of what was going on in Paris, hastened to town, and very opportunely arrived in time to be the official attendant, and the only one, of the duke : but this does not alter our opinion, that this Neuilly mob, like those that hunted M. de Mortemart, were directed by the Orleanist 'clique,' who wished to spare his Royal Highness the disgrace of appearing to volunteer to plunder his king and cousin, and who moreover felt that if the duke were to display any ambition for the crown, it would be the surest way, in the then temper of men's minds, to defeat their object; and that to conciliate public opinion towards his elevation, it was absolutely necessary to give the whole drama the air of popular force and princely reluctance.

The duke proceeded to say, that he had been named LieutenantGeneral of the kingdom, as the only mode of preventing Lafayette's proclaiming a republic. At this period of the conversation another incident occurred, which we shall relate in Mazas' own words, and as, no doubt, he heard it from Mortemart:

• While these two personages were thus discussing such important questions, a frightful tumult was heard, which gradually increased and approached. At length M. Barthois' (the aide-de-camp before mentioned) ' entered, and told the prince that the occasion of all this noise was a mob who insisted on seeing his royal highness. “ Is it a deputation of the students or of the national guard ? ” “ Not at all—'tis a mob of the lower orders, who will see you, and, if

you do not appear, will overwhelm all opposition, and force their way into this apartment." “ Tell them that I am quite exhausted, and undressed ; that I cannot receive them, but that I will see their leader :-bring him in.” This broke up the conference with M. de Mortemart, who departed, assuring the duke that he would acquaint the king with the state of affairs.

• I have been assured,' continues Mazas, that the popular leader introduced by M. Barthois was a lively picture of the conspirator in a


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