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posed to favor. Means for the erection of shops, necessary for the use of the Deaf and Dumb, and the support of each of these Institutions during the present year, are clearly objects claiming immediate provision, to the extent of which I refer to the respective reports.
The Geological survey of the State has been prosecuted during the past year with great energy, and most encouraging results. The able report of Professor Percival, our State Geologist, will doubtless elicit attention, both at home and abroad ; and I trust will receive at your hands an early examination; as its importance will justify the publication of a larger edition than is usual of this report, so immediately connected with the great mining interest of the State. The surveys thus far made have been chiefly confined to the lead districts, and that having now been nearly completed, it is intended, during the coming season, to direct the examination of the country north of the Wisconsin River, to our copper mines, bordering on Lake Superior. There may, in my judgment, be prosecuted in connection with the Geological survey, a Zoological examination, for a comparatively trifling expense, resulting in such discoveries and collections, connected with the natural history of the State, as in future will be viewed as valuable and interesting, and to secure the full benefit of which, early action is necessary.
The military spirit exhibited by a portion of our fellow-citizens is both commendable and worthy of further encouragement than is now provided by law. In order to render the Militia of practical utility, the proper steps should be taken by the Legislature to encourage the formation of uniformed companies, which seems to be the best, if not the only practicable means, at present, of bringing into use the quota of arms which our State is entitled to draw annually from the United States government. Imperfect as is the system for obtaining an enumeration of the militia of the State, yet thepartial reports of the assessors of the several towns, show an increase which entitles the State, for the present year, to receive equal to about 400 stand of arms, valued at nearly
$5,000 00. It is recommended by numerous military officers that a law, similar in its character to the one now existing in the State of New York, be enacted. An examination of that law has induced me to recommend it to your consideration, as worthy of imitation, and calculated to inspire a proper inilitary spirit. The report of the Adjutant General, to which I'invite your attention, contains explicit information, and many valuable suggestions, concerning the present condition of the militía.
The Attorney General, although not required by law to submit an annual report, has seen proper, in view of some matters of importance to the State connected with his department, and of which it is proper for the Legislature to be informed, to transmit, through me, a brief report, which I recommend you to consider
Emigration to our State is annually on the increase, furnishing further evidence of the adaptation of our soil and climate to the habits and wants of the emigrant, and of the high estimate abroad placed upon our resources. The Commissioner of Emigration, in his annual report, calculates the number of emigrants from foreign countries who have found their homes in Wisconsin, to be much greater during the past than any former year. A large portion of this, I am induced to believe, resulted from the contínuance of an agency in New York, and through the sub-agency, established at Quebec, under it. My former expressed views, in regard to the propriety of such agencies, I have had, as yet, no reason to change. : ;"
: "" . !! The Secretary of State and Governor were, by an act of the last Legislature, constituted commissioners, to procure to be published in two volumes, so much of the Documentary History, as at that time had been prepared for publication. Under this authority, a contract was made for five thousand copies of each volume, which are now nearly ready for delivery. The work has been prosecu. ted under the supervision of the author William R. Smith, Esq., whose report of his doings in the premises, is herewith 'submitted. This valuable and interesting publication, being the property of the State, it is proper that provision be made for an early distri
bution of a portion thereof. I would therefore suggest the propriety of donating one copy to each of our common school libraries, to the libraries of each institution of learning throughout the State, and also to each of the several State Libraries of Union, and the various departments of the General Government-reserving a large number of copies for future demand, and the purpose of exchange for other valuable works, to be deposited in just proportions, in the Libraries of the State, and the State Historical Society. The annual report required of the Executive Committee of the State Historical Society, is herewith transmitted and gives evidence of strict fidelity on their part, to the trust committed to them. Through the perseverance of its managers, this society has grown into an importance which reflects much credit upon them and meriting, in my judgment, greater encouragement at your hands than has heretofore been bestowed by the Legislature. The increasing labors devolving upon the corresponding Secretary to perform, have reached that magnitude that I regard it proper in view of the interest the State should manifest, in the promotion of the objects of thiş society, that a reasonable salary should be provided, and paid by the State to that officer. . . . . . . · It affords me great pleasure to announce the fact, that the Fox and Wisconsin Improvement Company have pressed the work undertaken by them, with a degree of energy, which must prove most satisfactory to all interested in its completion. The Company have been fortunate in the selection of their officers, and in obtaining abundant means to forwatd the enterprise, on a scale of far greater magnitude, than was at first contemplated; being intended to pass boats of a draft of at least four feet and a half of water. s: The expenditures of the Company, as reported by its President, Otto Tank Esq., since the transfer by the State, and up to the 20th, of December last, are as follows, viz; , ;i ;
nie ... Grand Kaukalin ..',, -;
- $42,630 94, Little Chute.:,' . -.,-. .,' : 60,403,57 11* Cedar Rapids · ... :,: ... 5:1 8;665 80 -;. Grand Chute ... ....... . :47,852 36
6,939 16 · 16,948 05
$183,460 53 The sum estimated as necessary to complete the work, is the comparatively small one of $32,388 84. The Company have paid of the Improvement liabilities, the amount of $123,480 81—there by giving an earnest of their design to remove all the pending indebtedness, within the time required by the act of Incorporation. The difficulties which have been overcome, in the progress of this work, were exceedingly formidable, but the benefits to be derived from it, when finished, by a large portion of the State, are on a scale of far greater magnitude. As one of the few great connect ing lines of communication, between the Lakes and the Mississippi it assumes almost a National importance; and running as it does , through the entire breadth of our State, it becomes of a value to those along its line, that no other means of transportation now used could replace. Rapid settlements, and a great increase of wealth, must necessarily follow its completion, and a large portion of our State now but thinly inhabited, or a wilderness, will receive an impulse whicb, at no remote period, will render it a rival in al of the elements of material prosperity, to those sections already of importance, from their resources and population. A glance at the map will show the favorable Geographical position of the work, which, together with the internal improvements now in progress in Canada, confer an importance upon it which the originaturs the project, in all probability, never foresaw. From th : terruinn of the Improvement at Green Bay, to Turointi on Ltke (tario, via. the Rail Road, te miraring at ligorgian B.1', an I which is bu 70 miles in length, it is nigrcato di tance, tha's froni that point in our State, t, Detroit; and les-ent the number of miles, nynally travelled to reach the Eastern pintu, by several load els. Trs js a mn uter of 19 snall colegionc., to the Northern and North Wetern portivus of our State, and cleinoistrates the fact, that'the, when e-tablished, must be the line over which it large proopa vrtion of the vast carrying trade of thosc ecctcrs, und wuc, of the country lying west of the Mississippi, will be most conveniently and cheaply done. The portion of country, contiguous to the Lake shore, must also share in the advantages thus conferred, by the opening of a nearer and cheaper avenue of communication with the commercial centers at the East.
The State at large is not without a deep interest in the completion of this important improvement within it. The number of great water powers which it will create along its extent, the manafacturing villlages which it will canse to spring up in consequence, and the increase of taxable property and commercial activity, are considerations important to the welfare of our whole people. We can now plainly discover, unaided by speculative statesmen, the benefits and disadvantages of the policy of granting public lands, in the states where they may lie, to be appropriated to the construction of works of this character; and our experience will go far towards convincing others, that the benefits have largely the preponderance. Undertakings, of a magnitude which would repel private enterprize unless thus aided, are encouraged and assisted to completion, and where, without such aid, if attempted, they would languish and die, the whole country, including the General Government, by the more rapid sales of its lands, are benefitted to an extent not easily calculated.
Large additions to the State Library, through means provided by the last Legislature, have been made during the past year. A detailed report, concerning the same, will be laid before you at an early day. The expenditures of a moderate sum only will be required annually, in the purchase of late publications, to render it both an ornament to our State, and sufficient for the objects which induced its establishment.
The U. S. standard weights and measures, to which this State was entitled, on her admittance into the Union, have recently been received and put in order for use, in a suitable tire proof building, erected for that purpose, upon the public grounds, in pursuance of plans furnished by the U.S. Government.
In order that these costly standards may be rendered as useful,