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of the body one result of the Atonement—The Eucharist not a com-

menioration of the death of Christ only—The necessity man feels of

offering Sacrifice-As the link between man and God is love, of which

sacrifice is the expression, the restoration of love is the restoration of

CHRISTIANITY

CHAPTER I

THE UNIVERSAL ANTINOMY

When Being's jarring crowds, together thrown,
Mingle in harsh inextricable strife;
Whose spirit quickens the unvarying round,
And bids it flow to music's measured tone ?”—Goethe's “Faust.”

Progress in Nature general—Its law the emancipation of individuality

The object of instinct-Animal instincts and Intelligence in manConsequent Antinomy-Happiness the signal when the instincts are satisfied-- The antinomy between reason and sentiment—The antinomy between faith and reason-Reason unable to act without axiomsAntinomy in morals and politics—and in religion-Natural religion inconclusive—The existence of God is incapable of demonstration—The inductive and deductive methods, are usually opposed — Opposition of analysis and synthesis–Science analytic and religion syntheticConciliation possible.

HE law of Nature is progress, progress that is gradual,

never abruptly transitional; so that Linnæus might well observe, “She never takes a leap."

The mineral kingdom shades into that of vegetation, the plant graduates into the animal, and the instinct of the animal lightens slowly into human intelligence. The rock bears no resemblance to the flower, but there is a point at which inert matter and vegetable life meet and kiss, and

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at which the plant loses itself in the animal. On a slope of red bolus, sprinkled with boiling water from a jetter in Iceland, I picked up some red slime, an algid,—vitalized clay.

On my window-sill a shower has deposited an almost imperceptible atom, a dusky grain which the sun in drying has attached to the stone. Respect that granule of dust.

. It is a living being. The heat has suspended, but not extinguished, its life. Another rain-drop restores it; the diatom swells and revives. Myriads of these little creatures people the lakes, the sea, the springs. They are born, they breathe, they dart nimbly through their element, they die and drop their shells to accumulate in considerable masses at the bottom of the waters. Are they animalcules, or are they vegetables? Their agility belongs to the animal, but they attach themselves to the vegetable realm by one of its most essential characteristics ;--under the influence of light, they decompose carbonic acid.

The method by which Nature proceeds is invariable. First she watches over the conservation of the individualities she has called out, then she takes care of the species to which they belong, and lastly, she assigns to all their places and their functions in the scale of creatures. Thus, she introduces into the world duration, stability, and unity.

In the inorganic world matter is preserved by the laws imposed upon it—the laws of affinity and of gravitation; but in the higher classes individuals are made to participate in the execution of the laws. Nature, as it were, admits them to be her auxiliaries, calls on them to co-operate in the work of their own maintenance, and in the preservation of their race. Thus, a plant is not merely subject, like a mineral, to physical laws, but it bears within itself a force, a new principle, a higher law; it grows, protects itself, de

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velops itself by nutrition, and reproduces itself by seed. This double power has made it a living being.

The little celandine that heralds in the spring screens itself from the icy blast:

“While the patient primrose sits

Like a beggar in the cold,
Thou, a flower of wiser wits,

Slipp’st into thy sheltered hold;"1 and the autumn colchicum retains its seed-pod under ground to mature its germs in darkness till the winter snows are past, when it will thrust them into light.

The life of the animal is more complete than that of the vegetable, for it intervenes more spontaneously and more efficaciously in the double function of self-protection and continuance of the species.

Inorganic matter submits passively to the law without, whereas the organism is regulated by a duality of laws, that law which rules all inorganic matter, and that which governs matter transformed into an activity.

This duality explains the phenomena of life and death. The rudimentary being inspired with vitality, progresses; its fluid parts thicken, its soft parts become firm, membrane changes into cartilage, and cartilage into bone, bone hardens and is welded into neighbouring bones, the entire being advances towards solidification. One day a demonstration on this subject was made in the cabinet of M. Flourens. Some one asked the eminent physiologist at what point the process would terminate. “If we lived long enough,” he answered, “we should be mineralized.”

This tendency of matter to agglomerate in masses always more compact from the moment that it is put in circulation in an organized being explains life, which is the perpetual

1 Wordsworth: To the Celandine.

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