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The study and the analysis of the real shapes of objects may also reveal to us certain fundamental, ideal, or type solids which are useful as units of comparison in dealing with the concrete forms of all objects. The following is a convenient classification of artificial objects :

(1) Regular geometrical solids, or type solids; (2) objects of ordinary manufacture and building construction; and (3) objects of art. The study of the first group gives us the science of geometry; of the second, the principle of building construction ; of the third, ceramics, architecture, sculpture, and all plastic art in general.

How expressed. -- The only really complete and logical expression for the real tangible forms of these three-dimension objects is in solidity, in some material having three dimensions. (No vocal or written language can portray solidity directly. No pictorial, conventional, mechanical, or other kind of drawing can do it.) Remember that pictorial drawing and pictorial painting of any kind can only show us appearances, not real three-dimension forms.

The second phase of real shape or form may be stated as follows:

D. The real shape in space of the planes, sections, or edges of an object having one or two dimensions. Under D the objects to be considered are mostly artificial, and their planes may be classified as follows :

(1) Faces, horizontal or vertical; (2) sections, cross and longitudinal; and (3) their faces arranged in single planes, called developments. These planes with their edges may be studied as judgment concepts. When we study the edges, faces, sections, or surfaces of type solids and other regular objects, as buildings, furniture, machines, etc., and record our judgment concepts (in conventional drawing) of their real one or twodimension forms (not our visual percepts), we call the results : (a) plans or elevations; (6) sections; (c) developments or patterns.

How expressed. - It will thus be seen that the only adequate expression for our judgment concepts of edges, faces, sections, and developments is in mechanical drawing, or working drawing. Such drawings do not show us objects as they really are ; they are only conventional representations of the separate and detached edges or faces, with their relations conventionally indicated. The synthesis of these separate concepts (they are not visual percepts) forms in the mind a whole, or a concept which may be realized only by a constructed object in space.

The basis for the conventional representations of these mental conceptions in the mind, or of the corresponding objects in space, is orthographic projections, a branch of descriptive geometry, with its practical departments of architectural, machine, and engineering drawing.

DEPARTMENT OF MUSIC EDUCATION

SECRETARY'S MINUTES

FIRST SESSION.- WEDNESDAY, JULY 12, 1899

The session was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by Mrs. Gertrude B. Parsons, of Los Angeles, Cal., who introduced the president, P. C. Hayden, of Quincy, Ill.

The president read a paper on “The Ultimate Object of Music Study in the Public Schools."

Herbert Griggs, of Denver, Colo., read a paper entitled “The Content and Extent of a Course in School Music.”

The paper was discussed by Miss Alice Lyon, Whittier, Cal.; P. C. Hayden, Quincy, III., and Mrs. Gaston Boyd, Newton, Kan.

Mrs. Grace Miltimore Stivers sang “Parla," Arditi, very pleasingly.

Thomas Tapper, of Boston, Mass., read a paper entitled, "What Power does the Child Gain thru Music Study ?”

The president announced changes in the program as first printed, and read the following communication:

SANTA BARBARA, CAL., July 11, 1899. To the Music Section of the National Educational Association, in convention assembled, Los Angeles,

Cal.: Greeting!

Prevented by sickness from meeting with you, will be glad to entertain all musical pedagogs in Santa Barbara.

JULIET Powell Rice,
Chairman Music Section, State Teachers' Association,

An invitation to join the National Federation of Music Teachers was cordially extended by the president.

Under the direction of Mrs. Gertrude B. Parsons, supervisor of music, Los Angeles, Cal., a class of fifty-five pupils gave four class songs, and did some very creditable sight reading

Upon conclusion of the exercise, Herbert Griggs, of Denver, Col., offered the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted :

Resolved, That the Music Department thank Mrs. Parsons and the children for the excellent class work exhibited; and, furthermore, that the grade teachers who, thru their wise supervision of their pupils and their hearty co-operation, have aided Mrs. Parsons in bringing the children to such a state of excellence, should receive due recognition and thanks.

The chair announced the appointment of the following Committee on Nominations:

Herbert Griggs, Denver, Col.

Mrs. Gertrude B. Parsons, Los Angeles, Cal.
Mrs. Frances M. Clark, Ottumwa, Ia.

SECOND SESSION.- THURSDAY, JULY 13

The afternoon's program opened with “An Overture in Hungarian Style," by the Women's Orchestra, conducted by Harley Hamilton. In response to an enthusiastic encore they gave Rubinstein's "Melody in F.”

Mrs. Constance B. Smith, of Jacksonville, Ill., read a paper on “The Necessary Education of the Supervisor.”

The paper was discussed by Mrs. Gaston Boyd, of Newton, Kan.

Miss Abbie Gilman rendered effectively a contralto solo, “The Autumnal Gale,” Grieg.

Miss Kathryn Stone, of Alameda, Cal., read a paper entitled, “What should Constitute a Course of Study for County Institutes ?"

Mrs. Constance B. Smith, of Jacksonville, Ill., and Mrs. Frances M. Clark, of Ottumwa, Ill., discussed the paper.

A quartet of young ladies from the High School of Pasadena, Cal., sang two selections.

The president then suggested that the following committees should be appointed to assist the president in broadening the work of the Music Department of the National Educational Association :

1. Committee on Literature.
2. Committee on Federation,
3. Committee on Condition of Music in the States,
4. Committee on Model Course of Music Study.

A. D. Hunter, of Pomona, Cal., moved that the incoming president of the department be authorized to appoint committees on these topics at some time during the year. The motion was carried.

It was also moved and carried that the report of the secretary include a list of the members of the National Federation of Music Teachers for the current year, and of the special music teachers attending this meeting of the Department of Music Education.

The following resolution was presented by Mrs. Constance B. Smith, of Jacksonville, Ill.:

Resolved, That the Music Department of the National Educational Association extend its thanks to the Local Committee, composed of Mrs. Gertrude B. Parsons, Mrs. Laura V. Sweezy, and Miss Jennie Hagan, for its thoro arrangements; to Mrs. Juliet Powell Rice, of Santa Barbara, Cal., for her proffered hospitality; and to the artists and musicians who have contributed to the success and pleasure of the sessions.

The resolution was unanimously adopted.
An invitation to visit the Whittier State School was read.

W. B. Powell, superintendent of schools, Washington, D.C., gave an informal address on “The Value of Music in the Schoolroom.”

Herbert Griggs, Denver, Colo.; Mrs. Gaston Boyd, Newton, Kan.; Geo. H. Taylor, Bakersfield, Cal.; Mrs. Constance B. Smith, Jacksonville, III.; P. C. Hayden, Quincy, Ill.; Mrs. Frances M. Clark, Ottumwa, Ia.; A. S. McPherron, Redlands, Cal., and G. M. Cole, Pasadena, Cal., discussed Superintendent Powell's address.

The nominating committee presented the following report :
For President - Herbert Griggs, Denver, Col.
For Vice-President - Mrs. Gertrude B. Parsons, Los Angeles, Cal.
For Secretary-Mrs. Constance B. Smith, Jacksonville, III.

The report was unanimously adopted, and the persons named were declared elected as officers for the ensuing year. The meeting was then adjourned.

ELEANOR M. Joy,

Secretary.

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS

PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS

THE ULTIMATE OBJECT OF MUSIC STUDY IN THE

SCHOOLS

BY P. C. HAYDEN, QUINCY, ILL.

66

The value of education to the individual must be found in its effect on the soul; in its influence as an element in character-forming. No consideration of ultimate values is adequate unless it weighs the wellbeing of the immortal part of man. As educators we assume that the formation of worthy character is the ultimate object of all education.

Some good men say that the public schools do not recognize this great truth, and are opposed to them on this account; but it is safe to say that most teachers work to build up good characters as well as to develop accurate scholarship.

It is hard to estimate how great is the value, in this character-building, of a true love for nature and God's handiwork in creation. That this love for nature is an important element in noble character has been recognized by the poets and seers of all ages.

“My heart leaps up when I behold

A rainbow in the sky;
So was it when my life began;

So is it now I am a man;
So be it when I shall grow old,

Or let me die !
The child is father to the man;
And I could wish my days to be

Bound each to each by natural piety.” This love for nature has stirred the hearts of all the world's great ones, and makes all feel the brotherhood of a common origin.

Three years ago, when in attendance at the National Educational Association at Buffalo, it was my pleasure to hear three representative educators make addresses before this Department of Music Education on the subject of “Music in the Public Schools." You will all recognize the names, and you all know the reputations borne by these men of national fame.

The official branch of the school system was represented by Dr. W.T. Harris, United States Commissioner of Education ; the collegiate branch by Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark University, Worcester, Mass.; the normal branch by Colonel F. W. Parker, of the Cook County Normal School, Chicago.

These three men appeared at different hours and sessions, and each did not hear the others speak. They were, however, a unit in their estimate of the place of music in school life. They each said that music was the most important study in the school course.

President Hall spoke first. I suspected that, to make his remarks pleasant to the audience of school music teachers to whom he was talking, he had made statements he would hardly care to maintain in a coldblooded argument. When Colonel Parker followed, he took even stronger ground in stating the importance of music in education. I mentally put him in the suspected class with Dr. Hall.

To make the very last talk in our department came the venerable Dr. Harris, and when he took the same extreme view, I was forced to doubt my suspicion. I could not entertain the belief that these three men, representative in a national sense, would all say what they did not believe to be true.

Ever since that time I have been trying to get to a standpoint where I could say the same thing and give reasons for my belief, for I became convinced that these men spoke from a deeper insight into the human soul, and with a more just appreciation of the real values in life, than I could claim.

In Springfield, Ill., at the last meeting of the Illinois Teachers' Association, Superintendent E. A. Gastman, of Decatur, the nestor of the Illinois school superintendents, added the testimony of an active and experienced superintendent, and took the same position, stating, in an address before the music section of the association, that some time ago he had told his school board that music was the most important study in the Decatur schools.

This brief paper leaves me a very short time in which to attempt to tell why these representative schoolmen place so high a value on music in education, and I can say only a part of what I have in mind. I must ask you to let your imaginations carry out to completion the line of reasoning which I have time only to suggest.

I am coming more and more to the belief that these four men of learning, of training, and of practical experience were right, and I think I have in mind a suggestion of a demonstration of the correctness of their convictions, tho I know I shall fall far short of a demonstration in my remarks to you today.

I shall attempt to show that music holds a very important place in the development of the emotional, mental, and moral qualities of mankind. I would add, especially in the development of the higher, nobler attributes in childhood. It is with the child we deal in the schools, and my address today is written with the child in view, and the

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