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It should be needless to say this, but unfortunately it is not only neces. sary to say it, but to emphasize the fact, even among some educators who seem to think that a “liberal” education consists in “cramming” the student with their own subjects, however narrow in range, vague in theory, or useless in practice.

Its great educational value is appreciated in some of our leading universities, but it has a hard struggle for fair recognition in our secondary or smaller ones, where its short-sighted and narrow-minded opponents jealously guard the fossilized traditions of inanimate education, and while praising art from the housetops in daylight undermine its value in the dark, as some of the antiquated subjects of the mediæval ages need protection from anything progressive. And where the study of art has been deprecated in any university it has been by those who either knew nothing of the subject or were jealous of its increasing popula

But education in our universities should be broad, far-reaching, and liberal, embracing the highest ideals of universal knowledge; and what subject can be more universal in its application than art?

Let us for a moment consider the usefulness of art in relation to other university subjects, and we find that to one of its most elementary features — that of drawing -science owes its greatest debt of gratitude ; for how could the scientist describe his discoveries, or the student understand them, without the medium of drawings ?

Huxley called drawing “ the hand-maid of science,” and Professor Tyndall has said that “one well-illustrated page conveys more knowledge to the mind of the student than ten pages of reading matter.” But besides making us observant of what is within our reach, the graphic arts give us a clear conception of what lies beyond it; past history, distant countries, and great discoveries by the aid of art are made visible to us, and intricate details of construction, which could not be understood by verbal description, are made perfectly clear by illustration. If all the great works on engineering, botany, zoology, travel, biology, anatomy, etc., were stripped of their illustrations, what would they be worth to the university student ?

Now, as to the history of art. When å student graduates from our universities he should certainly be familiar with the great works accomplished by man of the past ages, in shaping the crude raw material of the world to his highest ideals of use and beauty, from the Egyptian and elassic arts to the Gothic and Renaissance; and he should be able to divide the past into the great art epochs of advancing civilization, as well as by the narrow political divisions of conquest. “To know history is not simply to be familiar with what men of the past have said, but to see what they have done,” and the character of every nation and epoch may be read in the character of its arts.

As to the kind of art work best adapted to our universities, there may

be differences of opinion ; but I hold that it should be of an industrial and historical character. All the great art epochs of the world's history were industrial and decorative — not pictorial. That is to say, their art was adapted to use as well as beauty — to purpose, place, and material, in stone, wood, metal, glass, clay, mosaics, fabrics, etc.-- thus lifting whole nations to a higher plane of civilization and prosperity. Even Raphael and Michael Angelo made designs for the potters and the weavers, the silversmiths and carvers, and the work of these artist-artisans is so highly prized that they are exhibited today in our great museums and treasured in the palaces of kings. And the study of the industrial arts teaches our young people not to be ashamed of using their hands in pro. ducing something. Is it not too true that today many of our university graduates are educated away from all industrial art pursuits, rather than to them? And yet we are sending millions of dollars to Europe every year to buy almost everything we use in that line, even tho the raw material lies at our very doors awaiting development thru a higher education of the hand and mind than the mechanic or the pictorial artist can give; and our universities should be prepared to meet this important demand.

We already have enough "picture painters” for a new and undeveloped country, but we need, above all things, knowledge to develop our raw material to the highest standards of use and beauty, so that we may compete with the rest of the world in the industrial arts. It has often been said that all our best pictorial artists must stay in Europe to make a livelihood, while we have to send to Europe for artist-artisans to do our work in nearly every branch of art industry. We lead the world in some machine-made goods, but are woefully behind in art as applied to our industries, the most and best of which is done by foreigners.

Art courses in our universities should embrace both the technical and historical sides of art, so arranged that they may be taken together or separately to meet the demands of those who desire either a practical or theoretical knowledge of art. Those desiring only a theoretical knowledge could attend the lecture courses upon art and its history that every university should give, with only academic requirements as preparation; but the groundwork of all the technical courses in art should embrace good, strong outline drawing, correct details, and true perspective from the object.

Those teachers of pictorial art in our universities who are not university men always dwell too much upon the grouping of masses, pictorial effects, impressionism, and fads of technique, thus disconnecting the work of the art department from that of other university departments, as this is not the kind of work needed or expected of them by other departments. A student of industrial art, for instance, must think of careful outline and correct detail, instead of "impressionism." A student of botany or biology must draw his microscopical discoveries in correct detail, instead of considering "pictorial effect." A student of engineering who has to sketch bridges, viaducts, or machinery does not have to consider the “grouping of masses.” The pictorial artist of the “downtown” studio cries, “Too much detail,” or, “Consider your masses ;" but in university work we must have careful detail, and it cannot be too careful for scientific and industrial art purposes.

An art department in the university must consider its relation to and connection with other departments, instead of striving independently for pictorial "effect” and “show.” It should form one link of a great chain composed of all the departments, and be prepared to offer the exact, careful detail work to students required by them in their scientific and other studies, as well as supplying the more advanced courses needed by its own special students in the industrial arts.

In order to accomplish this, our university students must thoroly understand the chief characteristics of the main art periods - Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Romanesque, Moresque, Gothic, and Renaissance — and learn to translate these into practical working designs, adapted to all purposes in every kind of material, with a full understanding of its limitations, so that the design may be reproduced in wood, stone, glass, iron, or any of the hundreds of different kinds of material it may be intended for ; in other words, the application of art to industrial purposes, with a clear understanding of what others have done thru the various historic periods of art.

Of course, a knowledge of drawing and perspective, and ability to draw well in various mediums, is indispensable for such work, and should be of the practical kind before referred to; and when based upon historic ornament and the antique figure is more especially useful to the designer, as he is unconsciously absorbing the main features of various periods of art while gaining power in drawing, and the bold character of historic ornament gives greater strength and power than could be gained from other sources aside from the human figure, which should be studied in the semi-nude or very lightly draped.

The study of elementary art in our secondary schools in preparation for the university should embrace the careful study of light and shade and linear perspective in drawing from objects of strong, bold, and graceful outline; not in copying from “the flat," where light and shade and perspective are ready-made-such work is mechanical; but the student must produce these from the original model, and models that are bi-symmetrical are especially good subjects for representation, as every inaccuracy stands out with persistent prominence.

Too much of our school drawing is superficial, scattered, and misleading, and young children are led to believe that they can draw, paint, and design when they can do no one of these correctly. They are allowed

to play with paint before they can draw a place to put the paint, and to draw from imagination before they can draw from the object imagined. They are supposed to "design” before they can invent, and to adapt designs to art periods and materials of which they know nothing. One pupil from a high school told me that he could design stainedglass windows, but I found that he had no idea of the kind of glass or "jewels” kept in stock, how the window was “leaded up,” or what "scale" should be used in the design; another said she could make designs for wall-paper and carpets. I was very much astonished, but upon investigation discovered that she did not even know the limitations of either the printing press or the loom, or how many colors she could use, or how they were blended in application.

Now, what is the use of deceiving pupils in this way and letting them waste time that should have been used in getting good solid drawing and perspective ? What would we say of a musician who ignores the "fivefinger exercises” and starts a beginner upon the execution of a very difficult composition ?

These so-called "designs" are neither original nor practical, and the foreman of a factory would laugh at such crude efforts; but the parents think they are “real cute” and “wonderful.” They certainly are wonderful !

If the pupils in our secondary schools become so conversant with drawing as to be able to render correctly and freely in “black and white" any familiar object in any position from any given position, they are doing well and are on the right road to more advanced work. The highest art is not possible until a pupil can master the simple art of representation of common objects, and such study is much more useful than a vague striving after less serious work for pictorial "effect" and "show.”

We should try to cultivate a taste for the beautiful in our schools by cheerful and artistic surroundings, and by drawing from beautiful objects instead of ugly ones. Of course, we must use geometric models and objects related to them in order to teach perspective, but a Greek vase cultivates the taste more than a coffee-pot, or a Roman scroll than a potato. Of course, you might argue that a potato is beautiful, but there are degrees of beauty. Good technique was shown in paintings of morgues and butcher-shops in the French gallery of the world's fair in Chicago, but I turned with pleasant relief to the beauties of nature represented elsewhere and with still better technique. There is a great deal in the selection of art subjects, and the youthful mind should be trained to beautiful thoughts and impressions by careful selections for study.

One of the great hindrances to uniform and useful art work in our schools is the experimental "fads" of inexperience claiming to be related in some dim way to psychology and pedagogy; and another is the diversity of opinion caused by everyone posing as a critic and giving advice


upon "art in education ” without any practical knowledge of the subject. It appears that anyone having the power to talk thinks he can talk upon art. Why not branch off into surgery or astronomy? It would be just as reasonable, for art requires just as much study and experience. But art critics are as numerous as flies in August, and sometimes know as much; but let us remember that "the value of a verdict depends upon the knowledge of the judge," and is a matter of experience and training, not experiment or "taste;" for taste without training generally means bad taste.

Our universities should encourage the study of art by offering degrees, as they do in almost everything else, from philosophy to engineering. This discrimination is very unjust, as we need able men in this subject more than in any other.

It is said that there are not more than half a dozen men in America, with a practical understanding of the industrial arts, who have at the same time academic training enough to be cultivated instructors of advanced students, and even these meet with opposition from those who are determined to keep everything useful or utilitarian out of education ; but if we are to keep equal rank with the leading nations of the world, a love of art and a knowledge of its true principles, with skill to apply them to our industries, must be more universal, and our educated men and women must be taught, by precept and example, that it is no disgrace to have trained hands and eyes as well as trained minds; for the hand and eye, when united, are “the factors of everything useful and beautiful that we enjoy," and should certainly be educated together.






S. THOMPSON, JERSEY CITY, N. J. The following resolution was passed by the Art Department of the National Educational Association, July 8, 1898, at Washington, D. C.:

Resolved, That a committee of ten shall be appointed by the president of the Art Department of the National Educational Association, and that the president shall be one member thereof, for two purposes :

1. To determine, in the light of psychology, environment, and experience, a proper basis or bases for a course of study in elementary art education, including form study, manual training, drawing, and the study of art works.

2. To outline, in a general way, such a course of study for the common schools.

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