Page images
PDF
EPUB

PHYSICS

The Committee on Physics of the Science Department of the National Educational Association did not submit a regular report signed by the members of the committee. These were :

PROFESSOR E. H. Hall, Harvard University, chairman.
Professor H. S. CARHART, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
R. B. FULTON, Chancellor, University of Mississippi.
C. L. HARRINGTON, Sachs' Collegiate Institute, New York, N. Y.
JULIUS HORTVET, East Side High School, Minneapolis, Minn.
C. J. LING, Manual Training School, Denver, Colo.
PROFESSOR E. L. Nichols, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.
E. D. PIERCE, Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn.
PROFESSOR FERNANDO SANFORD, Leland Stanford Jr. University, Cal.
PROFESSOR B. F. THOMAS, Ohio State University, Columbus.
EDWARD R. ROBBINS, Lawrenceville School, Lawrenceville, N. J.

The basis of a report, suggested by Professor Hall, and consisting of a list of laboratory experiments, is given below. Comments by the members of the committee, in case they dissented from any part of this, were to be sent at once to the chairman of the Committee on College-Entrance Requirements. It may be assuined that the list met with the approval of those who did not so indicate dissent. Such comments as have been received are given after Professor Hall's statement.

OUTLINE OF LABORATORY WORK IN PHYSICS FOR

SECONDARY SCHOOLS

[ocr errors]

At least thirty-five exercises, selected from a list of sixty or more, not very different from the list given below. In this list the divisions are mechanics (including hydrostatics), light, heat, sound, and electricity (with magnetism). At least ten of the exercises selected should be in mechanics. The exercises in sound may be omitted altogether; but each of the three remaining divisions should be represented by at least three exercises.

The division of the list into a first part and a second part is intended to facilitate and encourage beginning the study of physics very early in the school course. Most of the exercises in the first part have proved to be within the power of boys of fourteen or fifteen years, altho older pupils can do them more readily, as they can do all other work except tasks of pure memory. The cost of apparatus for the exercises of the first part is very small.

FIRST PART

PRELIMINARY EXERCISES

11

[Recommended, but not to be counted)
A. Measurement of a straight line.
B. Lines of the right triangle and the circle.
C. Area of an oblique parallelogram.
D. Volume of a rectangular body by displacement of water.

[ocr errors]

a

MECHANICS AND HYDROSTATICS 1. Weight of unit volume of a substance, 2. Lifting effect of water upon a body entirely immersed in it. 3. Specific gravity of a solid body that will sink in water. 4. Specific gravity of a block of wood by use of a sinker. 5. Weight of water displaced by a floating body. 6. Specific gravity by flotation method. 7. Specific gravity of a liquid: two methods. 8. The straight lever: first class. 9. Center of gravity and weight of a lever. 10. Levers of the second and third classes. 11. Force exerted at the fulcrum of a lever. 12. Errors of a spring balance. 13. Parallelogram of forces. 14. Friction between solid bodies (on a level). 15. Coefficient of friction (by sliding on incline).

LIGHT

16. Use of Rumford photometer. 17. Images in a plane mirror. 18. Images formed by a convex cylindrical mirror. 19. Images formed by a concave cylindrical mirror. 20. Index of refraction of glass. 21. Index of refraction of water. 22. Focal length of a converging lens. 23. Conjugate foci of a lens. 24. Shape and size of a real image formed by a lens. 25. Virtual image formed by a lens.

SECOND PART

MECHANICS 26. Breaking strength of a wire. 27. Comparison of wires in breaking tests. 28. Elasticity: stretching. 29. Elasticity: bending; effect of varying loads. 30. Elasticity : bending ; effect of varying dimensions. 31. Elasticity: twisting. 32. Specific gravity of a liquid by balancing columns. 33. Compressibility of air : Boyle's law. 34. Density of air. 35. Four forces at right angles in one plane. 36. Comparison of masses by acceleration test. 37. Action and reaction : elastic collision. 38. Elastic collision continued : inelastic collision.

HEAT

39. Testing a mercury thermometer.
40. Linear expansion of a solid.
41. Increase of pressure of a gas heated at constant volume.
42. Increase of volume of a gas heated at onstant pressure.
43. Specific heat of a solid.
44. Latent heat of melting.
45. Determination of the dew-point.
46. Latent heat of vaporization.

SOUND

47. Velocity of sound in open air.
48. Wave-length of sound.
49. Number of vibrations of a tuning-fork.

ELECTRICITY AND

MAGNETISM

50. Lines of force near a bar magnet.
51. Study of a single-fluid galvanic cell.
52. Study of a two-fluid galvanic cell.
53. Lines of force about a galvanoscope.
54. Resistance of wires by substitution : various lengths.
55. Resistance of wires by substitution : cross-section and multiple arc.
56. Resistance by Wheatstone's bridge: specific resistance of copper.
57. Temperature coefficient of resistance in copper.
58. Battery resistance.
59. Putting together the parts of a telegraph key and sounder.
60. Putting together the parts of a small motor.
61. Putting together the parts of a small dynamo.

Professor Carhart suggests forty experiments similar to these. Twentyfour of these coincide exactly in title with items in the above list. The following fourteen are new, but many of them are probably implied in the list of sixty-one:

The Jolly balance.
Laws of the pendulum.
Pressure.
Curve of magnetization.
Action of current on needle.
Fall of potential in conductor.
E, M. F. of cell.
The tangent galvanometer.
Velocity of sound in solids (Kundt).
Law of length for strings (sound).
Law of diameter for strings (sound).
Law of tension for strings (sound).
Law of reflection (light).
Measurement of angle of prism (light).

PARTIAL LIST OF THOSE WHO HAVE ASSISTED IN THE

PREPARATION OF THIS REPORT

HERBERT B. ADAMS,

Professor of American and Institutional History, Johns Hopkins University, Bal

timore, Md. GEORGE B. AITON,

State Inspector of High Schools, Minneapolis, Minn. Edwin A. ALDERMAN,

President of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. E. H. BABBITT,

Instructor in German, Columbia University, New York city. Cecil F. P. BANCROFT,

Principal of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. CHARLES R. BARNES,

Professor of Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago, III. FRANKLIN W. BARROWS,

Central High School, Buffalo, N. Y. W. H. BARTHOLOMEW,

Principal of Girls' High School, Louisville, Ky. G. W. BENTON,

High School, Indianapolis, Ind. J. Y. BERGEN, JR.,

High School, Boston, Mass. CHARLES E. BESSEY,

Professor of Botany, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. J. REMSEN BISHOP,

Principal of Walnut Hills High School, Cincinnati, O. B. L. Bowen,

Professor of Romance Languages, University of Ohio, Columbus, O. E. R. BOYER,

Assistant to Superintendent of Schools, Chicago, Ill. H. C. G. BRANDT,

Professor of German, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. ALBERT PERRY BRIGHAM,

Professor of Geology, Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. JOHN T. BUCHANAN,

Principal of Boys' High School, New York city. WILLIAM H. BUTTS,

Instructor in Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. JAMES H. CANFIELD,

President of Ohio State University, Columbus, O. H. S. CARHART,

Professor of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. W. H. CARRUTH,

Professor of German, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan.

FRANKLIN CARTER,

President of Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. EDWARD B. CLAPP,

Professor of Greek, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. COLLIER COBB,

Professor of Geology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. G. L. COLLIE,

Professor of Geology, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. David Y. COMSTOCK,

Principal of St. Johnsbury Academy, St. Johnsbury, Vt. E. G. CONKLIN, Professor of Comparative Embryology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadel

phia, Pa. R. H. CORNISH,

Assistant in Physics, Girls' High School, New York city. John M. COULTER,

Professor of Botany, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. E. G. Coy,

Principal of the Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, Conn. E. W. Coy,

Principal of the Hughes High School, Cincinnati, O. J. G. CROSWELL,

Principal of the Brearley School, New York city. S. W. CUTTING,

Associate Professor of German, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill. CHARLES BENEDICT DAVENPORT,

Professor of Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ELLERY W. Davis,

Professor of Mathematics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. W. M. DAVIS,

Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Melvil DEWEY,

Secretary of the Board of Regents and State Librarian, Albany, N. Y. W. L. DUDLEY,

Professor of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. A. M. ELLIOTT,

Professor of Romance Languages, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. ARTHUR FAIRBANKS,

Yale University, New Haven, Conn. WILSON FARRAND,

Associate Principal, Newark Academy, Newark, N. J. HENRY B. FINE,

Professor of Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. GEORGE L. Fox,

Principal of the Hopkins Grammar School, New Haven, Conn. P. C. FREER,

Professor of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

« PreviousContinue »