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Trustees hold in safe-keeping, all moneys paid to the association; shall expend the same only upon the order of said board; shall keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, with vouchers for the latter, which accounts, ending the ist day of July each year, he shall render to the Board of Trustees, and, when approved by said board, he shall report the same to the Board of Directors. The Treasurer shall give such bond for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be required by the Board of Trustees; and he shall continue in office until the first meeting of the Board of Directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association next succeeding that for which he is elected.

Sec. 8. The Board of Directors shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body; shall have in charge the general interests of the association, excepting those herein intrusted to the Board of Trustees; shall make all necessary arrangements for its meetings, and shall do all in its power to make it a useful and honorable institution. Upon the written application of twenty active members of the association for permission to establish a new department, it may grant such permission. Such new department shall in all respects be entitled to the same rights and privileges as the others. The formation of such department shall in effect be a sufficient amendment to this constitution for the insertion of its name in Art. II, and the Secretary shall make the necessary alterations.

Sec. 9. The Board of Trustees shall consist of four members, elected by the Board of Directors for the term of four years, and the President of the association, who shall be a member ex officio during his term of office. At the election of the trustees in 1886, one trustee shall be elected for one year, one for two years, one for three years, and one for four years; and annually thereafter, at the first meeting of the Board of Directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association, one trustee shall be elected for the term of four years. All vacancies occurring in said Board of Trustees, whether by resig. nation or otherwise, shall be filled by the Board of Directors for the unexpired term; and the absence of a trustee from two successive annual meetings of the board shall forfeit his membership therein. The Board of Trustees thus elected shall constitute the body corporate of the association, as provided in the certificate of incorporation under the provisions of the Act of General Incorporation, Class Third, of the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia, dated the 24th day of February, 1886, at Washington, D. C., and recorded in Liber No. 4, “Acts of Incorporation for the District of Columbia."

Sec. 10. It shall be the duty of the Board of Trustees to provide for safe-keeping and investment of all funds which the association may receive from donations; and the income of such invested funds shall be used exclusively in paying the cost of publishing the annual volume of proceedings of the association, excepting when donors shall specify otherwise. It shall also be the duty of the board to issue orders on the Treasurer for the payment of all bills approved by the Board of Directors, or by the President and Secretary of the association acting under the authority of the Board of Directors; and, when practicable, the trustees shall invest all surplus funds exceeding one hundred dollars that shall remain in the hands of the Treasurer after paying the expenses of the association for the previous year.

Sec. 11. The Board of Trustees shall elect the Secretary of the association, who shall also be secretary of the Executive Committee, and shall fix the compensation and the term of office for a period not to exceed four years.

ARTICLE V- MEETINGS

Section 1. The annual meeting of the association shall be held at such time and place as shall be determined by the Board of Directors.

Sec. 2. Special meetings may be called by the President at the request of five directors.

Sec. 3. Any department of the association may hold a special meeting at such time and place as by its own regulations it shall appoint.

Sec. 4. The Board of Directors shall hold its regular meetings at the place and not less than two hours before the assembling of the association.

Sec. 5. Special meetings may be held at such other times and places as the board or the President shall determine.

Sec. 6. Each new board shall organize at the session of its election. At its first meeting a committee on publication shall be appointed, which shall consist of the President and the Secretary of the association for the previous year, and one member from each department.

ARTICLE VI- BY-LAWS

By-laws not inconsistent with this constitution may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the association.

ARTICLE VII -AMENDMENTS

This constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting by the unanimous vote of the members present; or by a two-thirds vote of the members present, provided that the alteration or amendment has been substantially proposed in writing at a previous meeting.

BY-LAWS

1. At the first session of each annual meeting of the association there shall be . appointed by the President a committee on resolutions; and at the third session of such meeting there shall be appointed a committee on nominations, consisting of one member from each state and territory represented, the same to be appointed by the President on the nomination of a majority of the active members in attendance from such state or territory; provided, however, that such appointment shall be made by the President without such nomination, when less than three active members from a state or territory are in attendance, and also when a majority of the active members in attendance from any state or territory shall fail to make a nomination.

The meetings of active members to nominate members of the nominating committee shall be held at 5:30 P. M. on the first day of the annual meeting of the association, at such places as shall be announced in the general program.

2. The President and Secretary shall certify to the Board of Trustees all bills approved by the Board of Directors.

3. Each paying member of the association shall be entitled to a copy of its proceedings.

4. No paper, lecture, or address shall be read before the association or any of its departments in the absence of its author, nor shall any such paper, lecture, or address be published in the volume of proceedings without the consent of the association, upon approval of the Executive Committee.

5. It shall be the duty of the President, Secretary, and Treasurer of the association to appoint annually some competent person to examine the securities of the Permanent Fund held by the Board of Trustees, and his certificate, showing the condition of the said fund, shall be attached to the report of the Board of Trustees.

ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

The establishment of a special fund from surplus receipts, after the expenses of the association have been paid, to be known as the "Emergency Fund,” was recommended by the Board of Trustees, submitted to

the Board of Directors at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 12, 1892, and the following resolution was adopted :

Resolved, That there be established, as soon as the current expenses of the association will warrant, an Emergency Fund not to exceed $4,000. Said fund shall be subject to expenditure by the Board of Trustees in accordance with votes of the Board of Directors at any regularly called meeting. The said fund may be used for the purpose of meeting deficiencies of income of the association, and for such additional investigations and publications as may be determined by said Board of Directors.

ACT OF INCORPORATION

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association, held at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., July 14, 1885, the following resolution was passed :

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to secure articles of incorporation for the National Educational Association, under United States or state laws, as speedily as may be.

N. A. Calkins, of New York; Thomas W. Bicknell, of Massachusetts, and Eli T. Tappan, of Ohio, were appointed such committee.

Under the authority of the resolution quoted above, and with the approval of the committee, and by competent legal advice, the chairman obtained a

CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION

We, the undersigned, Norman A. Calkins, John Eaton, and Zalmon Richards, citizens of the United States, and two of them citizens of the District of Columbia, do hereby associate ourselves together, pursuant to the provisions of the Act of General Incorporation, Class Third, of the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia, under the name of the “National Educational Association,” for the full period of twenty years, the purpose and objects of which are to elevate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the cause of popular education in the United States. . . . . To secure the full benefit of said act, we do here execute this our certificate of incorporation as said act provides.

In witness whereof we severally set our hands and seals this 24th day of February, 1886, at Washington, D. C.

NORMAN A. CALKINS. [L. S. ]
JOHN EATON, .

[L. S.]

ZALMON RICHARDS. [L. s. ] Duly acknowledged before Michael P. Callan, notary public in and for the District of Columbia, and recorded in Liber No. 4, Acts of Incorporation for the District of Columbia.

CALENDAR OF MEETINGS

1864.-OGDENSBURG, N. Y.

W. H. WELLS, President, David N. Camp, Secretary. 2. RICHARDS, Treasurer.

1865.-HARRISBURG, PA.

S. S. GREENE, President,
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.
Z. RICHARDS, Treasurer.

1866.-INDIANAPOLIS, IND.

J. P. WICKERSHAM, President,
S. H. WHITE, Secretary.

S. P. Bates, Treasurer.
1867.-No sessiou.
1868.-NASHVILLE, TENN.

J. M. GREGORY, President.
L. VAN BOKKELEN, Secretary.

James CRUIKSHANK, Treasurer. 1869.-TRENTON, N. J.

L. VAN BOKKELEN, President.
W. E. CROSBY, Secretary.
A. L. BARBER, Treasurer,

1870.-CLEVELAND, 0.

DANIEL B. HAGER, President.
A. P. Marble, Secretary.
W. E. CROSBY, Treasurer.

NAME CHANGED TO

1876.–BALTIMORE, MD.

W. F. Phelps, President.
W. D. HENKLE, Secretary.

A. P. MARBLE, Treasurer. 1877.-LOUISVILLE, KY.

M. A. NEWELL, President.
W. D. Henkle, Secretary,
J. ORMOND WILSON, Treasurer.

1878.-No session.

NATIONAL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION

1857.-PHILADELPHIA, PA. (Organized.)

James L. Enos, Chairman.
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.

1858.-CINCINNATI, O.

2. RICHARDS, President.
J. W. BULKLEY, Secretary.
A. J. RICKOFF, Treasurer.

1859.-WASHINGTON, D. C.

A. J. RICKOFF, President.
J. W. BULKLEY, Secretary.
C. S. PENNELL, Treasurer.

1860.-BUFFALO, N. Y.

J. W. BULKLEY, President.
Z. RICHARDS, Secretary.
0. C. WIGHT, Treasurer.

1861, 1862,- No session.

1863.-CHICAGO, ILI..

John D. PhilBRICK, President.
James CRUIKSHANK, Secretary.
O C. WIGHT, Treasurer.

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION

1871.-5 LOUIS, MO.

J. L. PICKARD, President,
W.E. CROSBY, Secretary.

JOHN HANCOCK, Treasurer. 1872.-BOSTON, MASS.

E. E. WHITE, President.
S. H. White, Secretary.

JOHN HANCOCK, Treasurer. 1873.-ELMIRA, N. Y.

B. G. NORTHROP, President,
S. H. WHITE, Secretary.

JOHN HANCOCK, Treasurer, 1874.-DETROIT, MICH.

S. H. White, President,
A. P. MARBLE, Secretary.

JOHN HANCOCK, Treasurer. 1875. -MINNEAPOLIS, MINN.

W. T. Harris, President.
W. R. ABBOTT, Secretary,
A. P. MARBLE, Treasurer.

1879.-PHILADELPHIA, PA.

JOHN HANCOCK, President.
W. D. Henkle, Secretary.

J. ORMOND Wilson, Treasurer. 1880.-CHAUTAUQUA, N. Y.

J. ORMOND WILSON, President,
W. D. HENKLE, Secretary.
E. T. TAPPAN, Treasurer.

1881.-ATLANTA, GA.

JAMES H. SMART, President.
W. D. HENKLE, Secretary.

E. T. TAPPAN, Treasurer. 1882.-SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y.

G. J. ORR, President.
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.

H. S. TARBELL, Treasurer. 1883.–SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y.

E. T. TAPPAN, President.
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.

N, A. CALKINS, Treasurer. 1884.–MADISON, WIS.

Thomas W. BICKNELL, President.
H. S. TARBELL, Secretary.

N. A. CALKINS, Treasurer. 1885.--SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y.

F. Louis SOLDAN, President.
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.
N. A. CALKINS, Treasurer.

1890.--ST. PAUL, MINN.

J. H. CANFIELD, President,
W. R. GARRETT, Secretary.

E. C. HEWETT, Treasurer. 1891.-TORONTO, ONTARIO.

W, R. GARRETT, President.
E. H. Cook, Secretary.

J. M. GREENWOOD, Treasurer. 1892.-SARATOGA SPRINGS, N. Y.

E. H. Cook, President,
R. W. STEVENSON. Secretary.

J. M. GREENWOOD, Treasurer. 1893.--CHICAGO, ILL.

(International Congress of Education.)
ALBERT G. LANE, President.
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary.

J. M. GREENWOOD, Treasurer. 1894.--ASBURY PARK, N. J.

ALBERT G. Lane, President,
Irwin SHEPARD, Secretary.

J. M. GREENWOOD, Treasurer. 1895.-DENVER, COLO.

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER, President,
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary.

I. C. McNeill, Treasurer, 1896.-BUFFALO, N. Y.

NEWTON C. DOUGHERTY, President,
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary,

I. C. McNeill, Treasurer. 1897.- MILWAUKEE, WIS.

CHARLES R. SKINNER, President,
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary.

I. C. McNeill, Treasurer, 1898.-WASHINGTON, D. C.

J. M. GREENWOOD, President,
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary.
I. C. McNeill, Treasurer,

1886.-TOPEKA, KAN.

N. A. CALKINS, President.
W. E. SHELDON, Secretary.
E. C. HEWETT, Treasurer.

1887.-CHICAGO, ILL.

W. E. SHELDON, President.
J. H. CANFIELD, Secretary.
E. C. HEWETT, Treasurer.

1888.-SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

AARON GOVE, President.
J. H. CANFIELD, Secretary.
E. C. HewETT, Treasurer.

1839.-NASHVILLE, TENN.

ALBERT P. MARBLE, President,
J. H. CANFIELD, Secretary,
E, C. HEWETT, Treasurer.

1899.-LOS ANGELES, CAL.

E. ORAM Lyte, President.
IRWIN SHEPARD, Secretary.
I. C. MCNEILL, Treasurer.

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