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material. Evolution, from this point of view, appears as the will seeking self-realization in the face of a resisting, external, objective world ; selfactivity appears as the momentum of the spiritual.

This resistance of the external, objective world should not be conceived as a hostile factor in the evolution of the will. It affords, rather, the necessary fixed points of support which render the operation of the will possible. The disturbance of the will by the resistance of the external world reveals the instinct of expansion in sensation, and lifts the will into consciousness. Thus, by the very limitations forced upon the will by the objective world, the will becomes aware of itself, of its freedom, and of its power. Unresisted will would result in nirvana. From this it is rescued by the necessities born in resistance from without.

On the other hand, in its purpose, in its conscious attitude and selfdirection with reference to surrounding necessities, in its steady onward march toward the realization of the ideals summed up in whatever the soul may hold of faith, of hope, and of charity — in these the will is free. These proceed wholly from within. These the soul may hold fast in every hindrance and defeat. Indeed, it their continued and continuous assertion that constitutes the evolution of man. Without them man is unthinkable; without them he must sink back into hopeless, loveless animality.

I have thus far looked upon will as practically identical with selfactivity. Now, for the purpose of our discussion, it is necessary to view it in its two phases of outward and inward activity. In its inward life it appears as sensation ; in its outward life, as spontaneity. In this view, sensation and spontaneity appear as the opposite poles of conscious selfactive life. Sensation is analytic; spontaneity is synthetic. Sensation is primarily passive; spontaneity is primarily active. Sensation reveals the outer, spontaneity the inner world. Sensation is inductive, separates the general from the particular; spontaneity is deductive, applies the general to new particulars. Sensation discovers necessity; spontaneity overcomes it and conquers freedom -- subjects necessity to its own inner law.

Sensation is the consciousness of the present; its income is stored in knowledge, which is the consciousness of the past; spontaneity applies the latter to its present in the relatively free control of a future. Yet the two are essentially one, distinct only as opposite polar phases of the one conscious life of the self-active soul. Self-activity in self-preservation

appears as sensation; in self-expansion, as spontaneity. In sensation the self-active will discovers itself thru external opposition ; in spontaneity it unites itself, creatively, with the outer forces, with the will of the world.

In this unfolding life of the self-active soul the term “purpose" desig. nates the more or less definite, conscious aim of intelligent action or conduct. It is the more or less deliberate, more or less conscious tension of

the soul toward certain objects of achievement. In a narrower sense the term may apply to the intended outcome of even the most trivial actions; in a wider sense it includes the deepest attitudes and the highest aspirations of the soul.

Every phase of soul-activity is concerned in the formation of purpose. Every sensation holds its germs. Under the genial influence of love and hope it develops into a controlling factor of life. It stands revealed in thought, which sees and wills the blessings of its achievement.

Thus purpose appears as a mode of thought, of anticipating reason, of imagination turned into the future, of attention directed to some attainable object ; in short, as the deliberate straining of self toward the realization of an idea or an ideal.

The high value of purpose in life is still further revealed when we consider the relation of individual purpose to universal purpose in the evolution of humanity. In individual purpose universal purpose attains consciousness, as it were. Thru individual purpose universal purpose accomplishes its end. The evolution of humanity is but the development of this end of universal purpose in its play with individual life. In the measure in which the individual realizes in his consciousness this end he sees God. In the measure in which he follows such consciousness in his life he does his duty to God, and his life becomes simply conscious evolution.

Thus we may say that with the birth of purpose, of conscious selfdirection in the soul, man was born as distinguished from mere animal creation. Blind evolutionary forces were dethroned; the survival of the fittest took a back seat; foresight came to the front; and educationwhich is simply purposeful self-direction as applied to the race - assumed the reins of further development.

The sinking of the purpose tensions of the soul into the depths of instinct life, in habit or automatism, does not remove them from the field of purpose. Purpose, it is true, is born in the soul, whereas habits, automatisms, and heredities rest in the physical organism. But it is the constant and natural tendency of purposeful living to become established in the habits, automatisms, and heredities of the physical organism. Indeed, , this constitutes the soul's method of self-actively controlling the organism in its further evolutionary development. The soul fixes, as it were, its evolutionary gains in habits, automatisms, and heredities, that it may be free for further conquests.

The importance of purpose as a paramount objective point in the education of the child is manifest from these considerations. Knowledge and skill are, indeed, indispensable; yet they are but ladder and sword in the hands of purpose. Purpose uses them as it may list, for good or ill; it is, with reference to them, “the man behind the gun.”

Knowledge - the accumulated experience of the race — and skill — the individual's acquired ability to use it for definite ends are not by this lowered in value and importance. Without them “the man behind the gun" would cut but a sorry figure, would be powerless of achievement. To knowledge, purpose owes its ideas and ideals; to skill, the power and joy of achievement. With their combined help individual purpose rises to the heights of humanity.

Yet knowledge and skill are in themselves vain and ephemeral, the children of a day. But purpose is the first-born of the eternal will; if need be, it will secure knowledge and create skill in order to gratify the yearnings of the soul.

With commendable zeal and with great profit in its work, the profession has of late years discussed the value of apperception. Apperception is a phase in the process of mental assimilation, in which the mind, on the basis of former gains, assigns to new experiences their proper places in its treasure-house of living knowledge, and arrives at clearer, more definite, and more abstract conceptions of things and relations.

These apperceptional results, however, are very superficial and ephemeral affairs, unless they become rooted in the heart-life of purpose and find fruitage in living achievement. In order to become permanently and profoundly valuable mental possessions, they need to be intensified in another, deeper process of mental assimilation, for which I have proposed the name of introception.

In this phase of mental assimilation the new experience, after having in apperception assumed its proper place in the light of previous acquisition, enters the purpose-life of the soul, adding new vigor, new definiteness and ideality to whatever related purpose it may find in its new home. Thus it becomes an integral factor in the self-expansive, outward life of the mind-heart of man, reinforcing the movement by which this mind-heart of man steadily lifts itself out of mere seeing and doing into insight and foresight, and into creative self-assertion, the crown and glory of life.

I would not deprecate apperception; for in mental life both -- apperception and introception--are equally indispensable. Mental life, which has it roots in experience, finds its completion or fruitage in achievement. Purpose mediates between the two, determines the direction of life, utilizes experience in conduct. On the side of experience, thought is apperceptive and results in knowledge or apperceptive ideas; on the side of achievement or conduct, thought is introceptive and results in conscious purpose or introceptive ideas. In apperception the mind forms pictures of its successive income froin experience in terms of whatever related experience it may possess; in introception the mind places its apperceptive capital at the disposal of related purposes with a view to their better achievement. In apperception the mind adapts itself, as it were, to experience and environment; in introception the mind controls experience and environment in the service of its self-active spontaneity. In apperception the world is revealed, in introception it is conquered.

The two are not antagonistic, but polar, phases of the same one mental process of assimilation; the one turned inward, subjective, analytic; the other turned outward, objective, synthetic. Thus the two are mutually interdependent; they reinforce one another. They are to each other, if a different figure is admissible, like the depressions and elevations of waves. As in the disturbed sea depression and elevation follow each other in endless mutual interdependence, so in the agitated soul new knowledge stimulates and intensifies purpose, and new purpose increases and illumines the stores of knowledge.

This should constantly be kept in mind in our discussion, in order that we may escape the snares and pitfalls of one-sidedness. For every neglect of apperceptional life, every weakening of knowledge, or closing of the avenues of knowledge, must lower energy, clearness of purpose, and scope of achievement, as surely as the neglect of purpose and achievement in the traditional school is notoriously arresting development and dragging education steadily to lower depths of inefficiency, to flatter plains of mediocrity.

Similarly, as between purpose and achievement, it should be kept in mind that achievement is the logical outcome of purpose and its reason for being. Achievement, or the hope of achievement, adds joy to purpose and fills the soul with that serenity which insures vigorous, all-sided growth thruout the entire field of mentality. Purpose steadily deprived of achievement succumbs to the resulting depression, dies of inanition, and drags mind and man into its ruin.

These considerations indicate with sufficient clearness the road which education should go, if it would lead the life of humanity to purposeful efficiency. Resting its work upon the hereditary and cultural acquisitions of man, and dealing consciously and deliberately with the possibilities revealed in his nature and history, education becomes conscious evolution or, rather, as referred to mankind as a whole, conscious self-evolution. It seeks physical strength and vigor, intellectual sensibility and thoroness, earnestness and cheerfulness in work, a sympathetic and helpful attitude toward men and man, in order to secure the purposeful, beneficent efficiency in life which is the glory of human development. To this end all its measures and activities must tend. This is the educational king. dom of heaven to which, if it be gained, all else will be added.

For, by virtue of a natural reaction and because of the elemental oneness of the soul, this purposeful beneficent efficiency implies and, therefore, enhances that sympathetic and helpful attitude, that earnestness and cheerfulness in work, that keenness and thoroness of intellect, that physical strength and vigor, which education would seek as proximate ends of its efforts. Beneficent efficiency consecrates these things by placing them in the service of duty, of devotion, of ethical and religious aspiration; by establishing them in the innermost as indispensable factors in the process of man's self-revelation as the child of a purposeful, beneficient Creator.

The fundamental requirement in the development of purpose is sense of power. Unless one feels that his purpose lies within his powers of achievement, he will not hold it fast. Purpose postulates faith in self and in the power of self, clear vision, the absence of doubt. These kindle in the soul the feeling of joy, the feeling which German seers have significantly termed Werdelust the joyous sense of becoming, of growing mastership, of increasing freedom, the dawn of a better state.

In due time there is added to this sense of power a moderating prudence which guards achievement against the dangers of rashness and ignorance, teaching what may be done, if success is to crown effort. There is added, furthermore, a due subordination of measures to the compelling "you must" of outer necessity. At last, under the benign influence of sympathy, the sense of the imperative ought enters the soul, and man is ready under the sway of reason and love to do whatsoever he wills.

Thus these five-I can, I may, I must, I ought, I will —- name the successive rounds of the ladder by which man rises into his divine heritage of freedom.

Self-activity implies, seeks, freedom. Freedom is the essential condition of growth. Therefore, the first requirement of rational education is to set free the youthful forces in purposeful play and purposeful work, in a wisely chosen and wisely guarded environment. Neglect of this breeds discouragement, stubbornness, hypocrisy, wretchedness, a practically suicidal life.

The very complexity and preponderance of the muscular machinery in the human organism, and the intimate blending of its ultimate fibers with the nervous tissue, declare plainly the yearning of the soul for self-expression, for self-assertive activity. The immediate muscular response to any stimulus in earliest infancy reveals the soul's thirst for activity. “Let me do it!" is the first and most persistent request of childhood, as it begins to realize its creative possibilities.

Joyful activity-and this alone can secure growth-implies freedom to do, the achievement of purpose. Ideally speaking, therefore, restraini is unpedagogic. In the vocabulary of ideal pedagogy there is no such word as “don't.” Whenever the teacher uses this word, he may be sure that it is forced upon him by lack of knowledge or skill on his part, or by stubborn conditions which he cannot control.

Ideally, education with reference to the child is following rather than prescriptive, suggesting rather than commanding. It controls thru environment. From this proceed its opportunities and invitations to do. In this, too, in its inherent necessities and compulsions, lie the countless

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