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importance of the social aspects of education. Professor Natorp, of Marburg, in his Sozial-Pädagogik," has made a very valuable contribution to the literature of this subject, and one which deserves attention in the United States. The insight which sees in education the inter-working of the individual and the influences which have shaped the social whole, and which therefore seeks light in the study of Culturgeschichte, receives strong support from Natorp, whose book may be safely singled out as the most striking German publication of the year on educational theory. In his Herbart, Pestalozzi und die heutigen Aufgaben der Erziehungslehre, a book made up of lectures delivered at Marburg during the summer of 1898, Natorp has made another contribution of importance. It is in the form of the liveliest possible attack on Herbart's philosophy as the basis for an educational theory, and it has already roused Willmann, Flügel, Just, and Rein to vigorous replies. The controversy is of more than academic importance to American students of education, who have themselves recently passed thru a similar debate.

The drawing together of teachers whose work and interests, superficially viewed, lie far apart is much needed in Germany, and a promising beginning has lately been made in Greifswald, under the leadership of Professor Rehmke, of the university. The establishment of the Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie, edited by Dr. Kemsies, of Berlin, marks the advance in Germany of a movement already well under way in the United States.

It seems, on the whole, apparent that the year has been one, not of change only, but of progress. The conviction of the importance of real education is stronger than ever before, and the efforts to attain it are more widespread and more earnest. That questions of educational organization and administration should be everywhere most prominent just now is significant of the importance of the demand for efficiency and effectiveness, as well as of the readjustment of the entire educational scheme to the present needs and capacities of the public. These matters are as important in their way as topics touching education on the more philosophical side are in theirs. The conception of education as a process based on the history of civilization, and making demands upon the whole power of the community as well as upon the entire capacity of the child, is not now seriously challenged. This conception of education alone stands the test both of experience and of philosophical scrutiny. It is the characteristic insight of the closing years of the nineteenth century. It remains for the twentieth to apply it in all its fullness.

Stuttgart: Frommann's Verlag, 1898. 352 pp. M. 6.
2 Stuttgart: Frommann's Verlag, 1899. pp. M. 3.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON RELATIONS OF

PUBLIC LIBRARIES TO PUBLIC SCHOOLS

MAY 31, 1899. To the Council of the National Educational Association.

GENTLEMEN : We have the honor to submit the following report:

It was impossible for your committee to begin active work until December 30, 1898. We have been unable, consequently, to make very full investigations. There have been sent out, however, by the members of the committee, several thousand circulars, letters of inquiry, and requests for aid. The results of this work are incorporated in the report, in part; in part they have appeared in an increased interest shown by educational and other journals, and by associations of teachers and librarians, during the past year, in the relations of schools and libraries.

J. C. DANA,
FRANK A. HUTCHINS,
CHARLES A. MCMURRY,
SHERMAN WILLIAMS,

M. LOUISE JONES,
Committee on Relations of Public Libraries to Public Schools.

PREFATORY NOTE

BY JAMES H. VAN SICKLE, SUPERINTENDENT OF THE NORTH SIDE SCHOOLS

OF DENVER, AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF
EDUCATION

(WRITTEN FOR THIS REPORT AT THE REQUEST OF THE COMMITTEE] Since the National Educational Association adopted the policy of using a part of its income to investigate and report upon matters of importance in education, it has greatly increased its influence and its usefulness. The report of the Committee of Ten on Secondary Education, the report of the Committee of Fifteen on Correlation of Studies, Training of Teachers, and City School Systems, and the report of the Committee of Twelve on Rural Schools have been widely read and discussed. Educational practice the country over has been

largely influenced thereby; yet the service of these reports has but just begun.

If it is important to the development of the individual that he let his thought go over into action, how true also of an organization like the National Educational Association! Its annual meetings are delightful and inspiring; the volumes of proceedings form a cyclopædia of education of untold value; the papers and discussions, while in the main expressing individual opinion, yet show the general trend of public sentiment as it changes and advances from year to year.

But valuable as are the addresses and discussions, the carefully prepared reports of the few special committees thus far authorized by the association have been of far greater service in unifying school work. The more careful investigation made possible by adequate financial support insures conclusions which are likely to be accepted as reliable. In this way more than in any other is the National Educational Association becoming a reforming agent of gigantic power. The new rule requiring the approval of the National Council of all investigations carrying appropriation, and placing such investigations under the auspices of the Council, insures a careful weighing of values, and is a needed and sufficient check upon unwisse or needles expenditures.

No investigation yet undertaken promises greater returns than the one embodied in this report upon the relation of public libraries to public schools. The past few years

have witnessed a remarkable movement, confined to no one part of the United States, looking toward organizing and directing the reading of children; yet the general and departmental programs of the National Educational Association gave no indications previous to 1897 that the association recognized its opportunity to direct the movement. In 1896, in response to a circular letter prepared by Mr. J. C. Dana, then librarian of the Denver Public Library and president of the American Library Association, a petition to the Board of Directors of the National Educational Association was numerously signed, resulting in the creation of a Library Department, with Hon. Melvil Dewey, of New York, as president. Librarians and teachers worked together in the department from the first with a few definite purposes, among which were the following: to find out whầt had been done by teachers toward the direction and study of the reading of children; to find out what librarians had done to encourage and assist teachers in this work; to bring teachers and librarians into more mutually helpful relations; to determine the best books for various purposes and their adaptability to children of different ages. The following quotation from the remarks of Mr. Melvil Dewey before the Board of Directors at Buffalo gives very clearly the aim of the department :

By law the children are put under your influence in their earlier years, when, if ever, they can be taught to love good books so well that in all their lives thereafter they will seize on every opportunity to read them. If the librarians, with their wing of the educa. tional army, can select and catalog and provide free of cost the best on every subject, the schoolmen, with their wing and with their immensely larger resources both of money and men — and still better, of devoted women -must send out from the schools, year by year, boys and girls who will be lifelong patrons of the public library, andewill

, in due time, help to send their own children along the paths which have proved for them so profitable and pleasant.

but its great work should be the partial recognition that education is no longer for youth and for a limited course, in a school to which they give most of their time, but that it is really a matter for adults as well as youth, for life, and not for the course, to be carried on at home as well as in the schools, and to be taken up in the hours or minutes of leisure, as the proper accompaniment of their regular business or labor. This means that education must be carried on by means of reading, and that, if the librarians are to furnish the books and give all necessary help in their proper field, the schools must furnish the readers.

At the Milwaukee meeting, 1897, two committees were appointed-one, with F. A. Hutchins, of Wisconsin, as chairman, to prepare and recommend lists of books and editions suited for the reading and reference use of pupils in the several grades of the public schools; and the other, with J. C. Dana as chairman, to report on the relations of public libraries to public schools, indicating methods of co-operation by which the usefulness of both may be increased. At the Washington meeting, 1898, these two committees reported. (See Proceedings of the National Educational Association, 1898, pp. 1014-28.)

On the recommendation of the Committee on Reading Lists and Editions, the department decided to create a committee of five members instead of two, as before, the new committee, called the Committee on Relation of Public Libraries to Public Schools, to be charged with the duties of the two former committees. An appropriation of $500 having been made by the Board of Directors for carrying on the work, the members of this committee were appointed by the National Council of Education.

It seems to be true that the greatest amount of reading is done by children between the ages of twelve and fourteen, and that by the end of the high-school course pupils settle down to one class of reading matter, whatever that may be. (Proceedings of the National Educational Association, 1897, p. 1019.) The importance of deciding what books are suited to children at this period, and of placing such books within their reach, will be readily conceded. Children will read what they like. If we can find out what they like and then provide it for them from literature true to life, now accessible, we may be reasonably certain that the class of reading settled down to later will never drop below the level of the taste thus formed.

But to begin our selection for the child at the age of twelve is too late for best results. We must begin as soon as he learns to read, or even before, if possible, by reading to him and by story-telling. Not the least of the difficulties is the selection of a few appropriate books from the vast number available. In this matter the report will be found to be of great service. It covers the entire field of home and school reading. In the city the problem is comparatively easy, provided teachers are alive to their opportunities. Here much has been done. In the country and in the small village the problem is more difficult. This report gives valuable experience to aid the teacher in this great work, wherever his lot may be.

1. PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS

The education gained at school must, with the great majority of people, be meager at the best. This may be, and should be, supplemented by extensive reading after the school life is finished. If this work is to be done well, and under favorable conditions, the pupil must, while in school, not only be trained to like good literature, but also, if possible, to use a public library intelligently. This demands cordial relations and intelligent co-operation between school and library authorities, between teachers and librarians.

The library must be regarded as an important and necessary part of the system of public education. It is said that not more than one in five hundred of the inhabitants of Massachusetts are without library facilities. This should be the condition everywhere, and may be at no very distant time if those who should be most interested the teachers of the country --- will make a unanimous, persistent, and continued effort in this direction. There is nothing that appeals to people more generally, or to which they will respond more readily and liberally, than an effort to establish free public libraries, if the work is carried on with good judgment.

The teachers of a town should know the public library, what it contains, and what use the pupils can make of it. The librarian must know the school, its work, its needs, and what he can do to meet them. He must be able to supplement and broaden the work of the teacher of geography, science, history, or literature. He should meet the teachers from time to time and become generally familiar with their work, and they should meet with him and become familiar with the library, what it contains, and its methods.

The librarian should make frequent bulletins for school use. He should make lists for collateral reading in history, not merely works on history, but biography, historical fiction, and poems treating of historical events.

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