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upon chocolate-coated cayenne pepper he was considered a worthy member."
I realize that this case, which I have ventured to give at length, is exceptional perhaps. Yet it well typifies many of the cases of children's group activity. It is only the typical to which I shall refer. Here we have the interplay of the suggestions of instinct and those of the environment. Among the former we detect traces of the social and sympathetic sense, of sorcery, pugnacity, hunting, migration, construction, torture, etc. Among the latter a variety of actions, products, laws, purposes, and the like, belonging strictly to the boys' environment. The former unquestionably furnished the mainsprings of interest and action. The latter dominated, in this case on the whole fortunately, the circle of ideas and experiences.
Is there not a lesson for education in this? Is it possible wisely to circumvent even the rougher, cruder instincts in human nature ? And is not the method of treatment rather one in which education supplies an environment favorable to adaptations, leaving to the child, within reasonable bounds, the full force of his heredity? I know that this cannot be done in every instance. Some instincts do not seem always to be amenable to the better suggestions of environment. But the majority of them, I believe, which are not directly in harmony with the present social environment, yield to a process of transformation. The thought of transformation, therefore, should be kept uppermost in the effort of parent or educator to control or modify the instinctive side of development. The power of suggestion and of favorable environment, therefore, should be applied chiefly in the control of the group for educative purposes.
Again, this recognition of the force of the group in education will not necessarily stand in the way of individual development. Especially is this true when the group can be given greater or less freedom of move. ment. As the study of children in groups has shown, the natural selection of individual forces proceeds here as elsewhere. Leaders
arise thru force of character; the better moral ideals may dominate ; There are trials of individual merit, endurance, and strength; con. test and fellowship are constantly disciplining, not only socially, but individually.
Finally, the force with which ideas and actions develop within the group suggests that its interests may be made points of departure in instruction. Whatever feelings and instincts appear here are marked by intensity and strength. It is just for this reason, in part, that the experiences they develop become lasting impressions. Why not, then, following the suggestion of Colin Scott with respect to fears, draw the theme in art, literary, or practical instruction at times from the activities of childhood which are so strong and prominent in the group? The case cited
above suggests this. Sheldon has reported many cases suggestive in the same way. In many of the cases that have come to my notice I have found the group strengthening the interest in the story and exercising the faculty of language, furthering the scientific interest; training to the appreciation and exercise of law and order and fellowship; stimulating native wit, invention, self-help, and construction. All this is possible, I believe, largely because group activity deals with those primeval interests upon which, after all, human nature is built, and because thru them it awakens in the individual a deeper sense of strength.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
FIRST SESSION.- WEDNESDAY, JULY 12, 1899
The meeting was called to order in Turner Hall at 2:30 P. M. by Dr. W. O. Krohn, Hospital, II., the vice-president.
After invocation by Rev. William Cleaver, an exhibition of class exercises in German gymnastics was directed by Mr. C. J. Rohde, Los Angeles, Cal.
Following this came the address of the president of the department, G. W. Fitz Harvard University, on the “ Conditions and Needs of Physical Education of Today."
The next paper was read by Dr. Frederic L. Burk, superintendent of schools Santa Barbara, Cal., the subject being “Some Influences which Affect Growth.”
After a vocal solo by Mrs. Matthewson, Professor W. W. Hastings, of the University of Nebraska, gave a paper on “Anthropometric Studies in Nebraska."
T. A. Story, of Leland Stanford University, led in the discussion of Mr. Burk's
Robert Krohn, Portland, Ore.
SECOND SESSION. — FRIDAY, JULY 14
The meeting was called to order at 2:30 P. M. by the vice-president, Dr. Krohn. After a violin solo by Mr. C. J. Fox, a class in wand exercises was led by Mr. Rohde.
The first paper was on the subject of " Play Interests of Children,” by Will S. Monroe, of the State Normal School, Westfield, Mass.
After music by the Imperial Quartette, a paper on the subject, “How may Fatigue in the Schoolroom be Reduced to the Minimum?” was presented by Superintendent H. E. Kratz, Sioux City, Ia. The same was discussed by Dr. W.O. Krohn, Hospital, Ill., followed by Superintendent Powell, Washington, D. C., and Mrs. Rolfe.
The Committee on Nominations reported the following:
PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS
BY PROFESSOR G. W. FITZ, HARVARD UNIVERSITY, CAMBRIDGE, MASS.
While deeply regretting my inability to be in Los Angeles, I heartily appreciate the privilege granted me of briefly addressing you upon the condition and needs of the physical education of today.
The present position of physical education offers much of encouragement. Educators and teachers are becoming more generally appreciative of the educational value of exercise. Physicians and parents recognize its hygienic value in promoting growth, and in producing that indefinable quality which characterizes the physically active, and which we call vigor. School system after school system is placing physical training in its curriculum. It would seem as tho now were the time when the physical director and the teacher of gymnastics could look forward with confidence to coming into his own.
But the present situation contains a threat as well as a promise. The growing demand for the teaching of physical training has been more than met by the rapidly increasing supply of trained teachers. With the consequent rise of competition have come those rivalries of schools which threaten the unity of purpose and heartiness of co-operation upon which our future progress rests. The need for physical training is so great and so varied in its aspects that but few appreciate it in its fullness. One becomes impressed with the poor carriage of school children, and indeed of the majority of mankind, and feels that physical exercise and training should aim at the improvement of the carriage. Another notices the awkward restraint of movement, and is impelled to devise a system of culture which shall give freedom and grace. Another notices asymmetry and poor development, and devises such measurements and training as shall make for normal development. Still another is interested in athletics, and thinks that it is the panacea which will bring about human physical perfection. The lover of childhood finds in spontaneity the great organ note of human life which harmonizes all activity, and so believes games and plays to be the truest training for school children.
As a result of this diversity of claim, school officers and superintendents are beginning to hesitate about the introduction of physical training, overwhelmed by the necessity for a careful consideration and just valuation of the various systems, each one of which in its struggle for
supremacy claims to be alone in its completeness and adaptation to the needs of the schools, and too often does not hesitate to condemn its rival as ignorant, careless, poorly equipped, and blind to the great underlying principle of gymnastic progression.
This spirit of the schools of physical training has seriously militated against a calmly critical study of the essential problems of physical education. Were the opportunities now possessed by physical trainers utilized for a scientific investigation of these problems, we should not now lack a concordant physiology and hygiene of physical exercise, a co-operative synthesis of effort in defining the physical needs of children in kindergarten, primary, grammar, and high schools, or a just, mutually helpful emulation in furnishing the means for the physical activity thus defined. We should have a clear idea of the relation of physical activity to growth, to the development and healthful action of the brain centers, and to the fatigue consequent upon school work, so that we should be enabled to judge more accurately of the kind and amount of exercise most effective as a constructive and remedial agent, and the conditions which determine its effectiveness. This can only come thru comparative studies made upon the results produced by the training offered in the various systems. At present Dr. Foster, of Bryn Mawr, is the sole contributor to this comparative study.
It seems to me that this movement can no longer be delayed. Disagreement, sharp criticism, and conflicting claims cannot but make our cause ridiculous and delay a full recognition of physical education. We must unite all conflicting factions into an earnest and efficient body of students who will be eager to grasp the truth, unmindful of its source, unprejudiced by its bearing upon preconceived ideas. This is no time for sentiment, for blind following of leaders, or the blinder application of cutand-dried rules. It is no time for political methods, for the bribery of school and college officers to introduce a special form of gymnastics by offers of free instruction or even of gymnasia. It is a time for loyal, conscientious work and study, and for the re-examination of the foundations of the theory and practice of physical training. The continued existence as a theoretical entity of any system depends today upon a careful study and adaptation of the newer results of physiological and psychological work. It is not too much to say that our ideas of the relation of physical exercise to school work may be radically modified within the next five years.
Some advance toward this co-operation has already been made. The American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education at its convention in Boston, in April, considered the question of establishing a uniforın system of examinations upon the basal studies of the curricula of normal schools in physical training, including anatomy, physiology, hygiene, physiology of exercise, and pedagogy, and of giving its certificate