Page images

FECUNDITY OF PLANTS. " 'Since man is so big,' said the young ones, "how do you kill him? You are afraid of the

* The rapidity with which individual species wolf and the bear; by what power are vultures

have the power of multiplying their numbers, superior to man? Is man more defenceless than

both in the animal and vegetable world, is wel a sheep?"

worthy of observation. on"We have not the strength of man, return. " Daring the past season a single grain of poed the mother, 'and I am sometimes in doubt tato

tato oats, on the lands of the Rev. Mr. Mills, whether we have the subtilty; and the vultures | Ballywilian. near Coleraine. Ireland, produced would seldom feed upon his flesh, had not na. I thirty-two stalks, all growing from the same ture, that devoted him to our uses, infused into /root, and containing in all nearly 5.000 grains him a strange ferocity, which I never observed of cornu in any other creature that feeds upon the earth. If each of these 5.000 grains were in the en. Two herds of men will often meet and shake 1 suing year. endued with the same power of fe. the earth with noise, and fill the air with fire.

cundity as the parent seed, 25,000,000 grains When you hear a noise and see fire, with flash- I would be produced, and these multiplying once es along the ground, hasten to the place with again, in the same ratio, would yield a harvest Your swiftest wing; for men are surely destroy: lof oats which would amount to nearly 30,000 ing one another; you will then find the ground

und quarters. smoking with blood, and covered with carcasses,

But though this be a remarkable instance of of which many are dismembered and mangled fruitfulness: there are cases on record which af. for the convenience of the vultures.'

ford still greater evidence of the prolific proper. ""But when men have killed their prey,' said ties of the grain-bearing plants. Of these, sevethe pupils, 'why do they not eat it? When the ral examples are to be found in the volume on wolf has killed a sheep, he suffers not the vul. Vegetable Substances used for the Food of ture to touch it till he is satisfied himself. Is man." We select the following quotatiou from not man another kind of wolf ?'

Sir Kenelm Digby, who asserted, in 1660, that "Man,' said the mother, 'is the only beast "there was in the possession of the fathers of who kills that which he does not devour; and the Christian Doctrine, at Paris, a plant of bar. this quality makes him so much a benefactor to

| ley which they at that time kept as a curiosity, our species.'

and which consisted of 249 stalks, springing "'If man kill our prey, and lay it in our way,' from one root or grain, and in which they countsaid the young ones, what need shall we have ed above 11,000 grains or seeds of barley." of laboring for it ourselves?!

In the same volume there is another well au""Because man will sometimes,' replied the

thenticated fact relative to the power of increase mother, 'remain for a long time quiet in his den.

residing in wheat. The result, however, was The old vultures will tell you when you are to

in this instance, obtained by careful cultivation.

| As the plant tillered or sent up stalks, it was diwatch his motions. When you see men in great numbers moving close together like a flock of

vided and subdivided, till at length the original

root was multiplied' into 500 plants, each of storks, you may conclude that they are hunting,

1,5, which produced more than forty ears. The and that you will soon revel in human blood.'** "But still,' said the young one, 'I would glad.

a wheat, when separated from the straw, weighed ly know the reason of this mutual slaughter. I

forty-seven pounds and seven ounces, and mea'could never kill what I could not eat.'

sured three pecks and three quarters, the esti

mated number of grains being 576,840." 11 "My child,' said the inother, 'this is a ques. The seeds of many kinds of vegetables are so tion which I cannot answer, though I am reck. numerous that, if the whole produce of a single oned the most subtle bird of the monnlain. When plant were put into the earth, and again this I was young, I used frequently to visit the eyrie second produce were made to yield a harvest, of an old vulture, who dwelt upon the Carpa. and so on, in a very few years the entire surface thian rocks; he had many observations; he knew of the earth would be too limited for the sowing the places that afforded prey round his habita- of the seed thus abundantly supplied. The ny. tion, as far in every direction as the strongest oscyamus, or henbane, which, of all known wing can fly between the rising and setting of plants, produces the greatest number of seeds, the summer sun; he had fed year after year would' for this purpose require no more than on the entrails of men. His opinion was, that four years. According to some experiments men had only the appearance of animal lile, be- the hyoscyamus produces more than 50,000 ing rcally vegetables, with a power of motion; (seeds

tion; seeds; but assuming the number to be only and that as the boughs of an oak are dashed to 10000, the seeds would amount, at the fourta gether by the storm, that swine may fallen upon crop, to 10,000,000,000,000,000, and as the quan. the fallen acorns, so men are, by some unac. tity of solid land on the surface of the globe is countable power, driven one against another, calenlated to be abont 1.400.350.599.014,4 till they lose their motion, that vultures may be square feet it follows that each square foot must fed. Others think they have observed some. I contain seven plants, and therefore the whole thing of contrivance and policy among these earth would be insufficient to contain the promischievious beings; and those that hover more duce of a single hyoscyamus at the end of in closely round them, pretend that there is, in eve- i fourth year. ry herd, one that gives directions to the rest, and seems to be more eminently delighted with COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. a wide carnage. What it is that entiiles him to such pre-eminence we know not; he is seldom County superintendents will plea se forward the biggest or the swiftest; but he shows, by his promptly the names, towns, and post office eagerness and diligence, that he is, more than dress, of the newly elected town superinten any of the others, a friend to the vulture.'ents, as directed by Col. Young's circular.




And for sale by the Booksellers generally throughout the

United States.

MITCHELL'S AMERICAN SYSTEM OF STANDARD | gether with the eleventh and twelfth. The errors by SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY

which Theop and others have long vitiated these books, In a series; adapted to the progressively developing are corrected, and some of Euclid's demonstrations are capacities of youth.

restored. By Robert Simson, M.D., Emeritus Professor MITCHELL'S PRIMARY GEOGRAPHY,

of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow : with eleContaining 120 engravings and 14 colored maps, dements of plane and spherical trigonometry. signed as a first book of geography for children.


Accompanied with anatlas containing eighteen maps,

Guy's elements of astronomy, and an abridgement of engraved from the original drawings, and executed in a

Keith's new treatise on the use of the globes, 1 vol. clear and distinct manner.


Abridged for the use of schools, by Mrs. Pilkington; (An accompaniment to the School Atlas,)

revised and corrected by a Teacher of Philadelphia, Possessing all the advantages to be derived from map

with questions, and upwards of 100 engravings. drawing, with a great saving of time.

LIFE AND CHARACTER OF PATRICK HENRY, MITCHELL'S GEOGRAPHICAL READER, Py William Wirt; revised edition, with headings to Designed as a reading book for classes using the arch chapter, and notes, rendering it suitable for a School Geography, or pupils farther advanced.

Mass book for academies and schools.

PARLEY'S COLUMBUS. To the study of the maps, comprising his Atlas, in a The life of Christopher Columbus, adapted to the use series of lessons for beginners in geography.

first hools, with questions for examination, and numer MITCHELL'S HIGH SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY, Uri ngravings. With an atlas, (in press,) will contain about 800 pa.

PARLEY'S WASHINGTON. ges, and comprise a complete system of mathematical, h ite of General George Washington, adapted to bhysical, political, statistical and descriptive modern thin .cof schools; with questions for examination, and geography, together with a compendium of ancient ge- n orous engravings ography, illustrated by engravings executed by the first

PARLEY'S FRANKLIN. artists of the country. The atlas to accompany the

The life of Benjamin Franklin, adapted to the use of above, will contain not less than thirty maps, con

ils, with questions for examination, and numerstructed particularly for the work, and designed to cor

gravings. respond with and illustrate it in the most precise man.!


1. Charles A. Goodrich; designed as a first book of FROST'S UNITED STATES.

1:' v for schools; illustrated with numerous engrav. History of the United States for the use of schools and

anecdotes. acamioa, by John Frost, illustrated with forty engra:


PAINTING; FROST'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, ''ar series of progressive studies intended to eluFor the use of common schools, condensed from the

teart of flower painting ; with twelve beautifulauthor', larger History of the United States.

j is ad illustrations; rules for mixing colors, &c. FROST'S AMERICAN SPEAKER,

PARLEY'S Embellished with engraved portraits of distinguislied

ica, Europe, Asia, Africa, Rome, Greece, Isl. Ay rican orators, on steel.

Li , Lies of the Sea, Winter Evening Tales, Juvenile

Ar cdotes, Sun, Moon, and Stars-all adapted DR. GOLDSWITH'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND,

use of schools. ..sock's improved edition, T ., 9.tion of Julius Cæsar to the year 18

YT'S LIFE OF PATRICK HENRY, 12 mo. i? ! th thirty engravings.

les or the Life and Character of Patrick Henry,

Hann Wirt, revised cdition, with headings to each di i DSMITH'S HISTORY OF GREECE, (ungock's improved edition,)

c, and such an arrangement of the notes contain. ons for examination at the end of ea.

he former edition, as to render the book eminent. engravings.

ble for School Libraries, or as a Class Book in

wies and Schools.
ock's improved edition,

'ER'S NAVAL HISTORY-SCHOOL LIBRARY ons for examination at the end of each !

EDITION. rings.

listory of the Navy of the United States of AmeIPS ARITIIVETIC;

I vol. 12 mo., by J. Fenimore Cooper. This is

ment of the original work of Mr. Cooper, by sef-explanatory; by an experien

mitting documents, &c., matter of least inte. wasic",

reader, and as a narrative possessing more LEICE'S ALGEBRA.

ihr original. The order of events is prc1.- fine ots of Algebra, by the

on, and the description of Battles, At"Tressor ofte

&c., are retained in full, while at the bistory is brought down to a later period .. work.





Price $20 Including a Case—$19 without a Case.

American Biography. By Jeremy Belknap, D.D. Withi tory. By Andrew Crichton, LL.D., and Henry Whea. Additions and Notes, by F. M. Hubbard, Esq.

ton, LL.D. With a Map and Twelve Engravings. No. 146. Lives of Byron. -Madoc.-Zeno.-Christopher 166. The Natural History of Selborne, By the Rev.

Columbus.-James Cartier.-Ferdinando de Soto. Gilbert White, A.M. With numerous Engravings. Humphrey Gilbert.-Walter Raleigh, and Richard 167. Von Wrangell's Expedition to Siberia and the Polar Grenville.

Sea, in 1821, 1922 and 1923. Map. 147. Lives of John de Fuca.-De Monts, Poutrincourt, 168, 169. Indian Biography; or, an Historical Account

Champlain.-Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason. of those Individuals who have been distinguished
Sir Thomas Smith. Thomas Lord Delaware, Sir. among the North American Natives as Orators, War.
Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, Capt. Cristopher riors, Statesmen and other remarkable characters.
Newport, Sir Thomas Dale, Sir Ferdinando Wain. By B. B. Thatcher, Esq.
man. --Sir Samuel Argal, Sir George Yeardley-Sir 170. Essays, Moral, Economical and Political. By
Francis Wyat.-Bartholomew Gosnold, Martin Pring, Francis Bacon. And the Conduct of the Understand.
Bartholomew Gilbert, George Weymouth.-John Rob ing. By John Locke, Esq. With an Introduction, by
inson.-John Carver.

the Rev. Dr. Potter, 149. Lives of William Bradford. William Brewster.- 171, 172. Journal of an Expedition to explore the Course Robert Cushman.--Edward Winslow.Miles Stan- and Termination of the Niger. By Richard and John dish.- John Winthrop, John Winthrop, Jr.-George Lander. With Portraits.ya Calvert, Cecilius Calvert (Lords Baltimore), Leonard 173. Memoirs of the Empress Josephine. By John S. Calvert.-William Penn.

Memes, LL.D. With a Portrait. 149. Manners and Customs of the Japanese, in the 174, 175. The History of Philosophy, being the Work

Nineteenth Century. From the Account of recent adopted by the University of France for Instruction Dutch residents in Japan, and from the German work in the Colleges and High Schools. Translated from of Dr. Ph. Fr. Von Siebold.

the French, with Additions, and a continuation of the 160. 161. History of the Expedition to Russia, under History from the time of Reid to the present day. By

taken by the Emperor Napoleon in the year 1912. By C.S. Henry, D.D., of New York. Gen. Count Philip de Segur.

176. History of Charlemagne. By G. P. R. James, Esq. 162. The Martyrs of Science; or, the Lives of Galileo, Portrait.

Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. By Sir David Brewster, 177, 178. Popular Technology; or, a Concise View of K.H.

the Professions and Trades. Illustrated with eighty 163, 164. American Adventure by Land and Sea. Being Engravings. By Edward Hazen. remarkable Instances of Enterprise and Fortitude 179. Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft. By Sir among Americans; Indian Captures, Shipwreck, Ad Walter Scott. ventures at Home and Abroad, &c.

180. History of Louisiana, from its first Discovery and 165. An Historical and Descriptive Account of Iceland, Settlement to the present Time. By E. Bunner. Greenland, and the Faroe Islands. Maps and En. 181. Court and Camp of Bonaparte. With Portrait. gravings.

182. History of Poland. By James Fletcher, Esq. With 156. Lives of the Ancient Philosophers; translated from a Portrait of Kosciusko.

the French of Fenelon, with Notes, and a Life of the 183. Principles of Eloquence. By the Abbe Maury, Author. By the Rev. John Cormack.

With an Introductory Essay, by the Rev. Dr. Potter, 157. Outline History of the Fine Arts. By Benson J. of Union College, N. Y. Lossing. With numerous Engravings.

184. Woman in America ; being an Examination into 168. Perilous Adventures; or, Remarkable Instances of the Moral and Intellectual Condition of American

Courage, Perseverance and Soffering. By R. A. Daven Female Society. By Mrs. A. J. Graves. port.

185. Nubia and Abyssinia; comprehending their Civil 153. History of Michigan. From the earliest settle History, Antiquities, Arts, Religion, Literature and

ment to the present time. By James H Lanman. Natnral History. By the Rev. Michael Russell, L.LD 160, 161. Ruins of Ancient Cities: with General and With Engravings.

Particular Accounts of their Rise, Fall, and present 186. Description of Pitcairn's Island and its inhabiCondition. By Charles Bucke.

tants; with an account of the Mutiny of the Ship 162. Essays on Property and Labor, as connected with Bounty, &c. By J. Barrow, Esq. Natural Law and the Constitution of Society. By | 187. History of Persia from the earliest Ages to the preFrancis Lieber, LL.D. With an Introduction by Pro- i sent Time. By James B. Frazer, Esq. With Map fessor Potter of Union College, N. Y.

and Engravings. 163. Beaulies, Harmonies and Sublimities of Nature. By 188. Xenophon's Cyropædia; or, Institution of Cyrus.

Charles Bucke. Edited and revised by the Rev. Wil Translated by the Hon. M.'A. Cooper. liam P. Page.

199. History of the Italian Republics, being a View of 164, 166. Scandinavia, Ancient and Modern; being all the Rise, Progress, and Fall of Italian Freedom. By

History of Denmark, Sweden and Norway; compre. J. C. L. de Sismondi. hending a Description of these Countries; an Account 190. History of Switzerland. From the Cabinet Cycloof the Mythology, Government, Laws, Manners and pædia. Institutions of the early Inhabitants; and of the pre-191, 192, 193, 194, 195. History of Spain and Portugal sent State of Socjety, Religion, Literature, Arts and By S. A. Dunham, o Commerco. With Illustrations of their Natural His.



[blocks in formation]

For one copy, in all cases, (per annum,)... 50 cts. The State Convention of County Superinten" twelve copies, each,.. ............... 37

dents will meet at RocHESTER on the rool 16 one hundred copies, each, .............. 311

TEENTH' day of May inst. Payable in advance, in all cases,

N. B.-Postmasters will forward silver without we are gratified in announcing that the Hon. charge. The legal postage on this sheet is one cent to SAMUEL YOUNG will probably be present at the any office within this State.


Invitations have been extended to the friends OFFICIAL.

of education in our own and sister states ; and

there is reason to anticipate the co-operation of STATE OF NEW-YORK-SECRETARY'S OFFICE. many distinguished advocates of general and DEPARTMENT OF COMMON SCHOOLS.. sound education.

The town superintendents are earnestly reTO TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS.

quested to attend and share in the business of The commencement of a new and enlarged the Convention. Could a delegation be sent volume of the District School Journal, affords a from each county, it would give great additional fit opportunity forcalling your attention to its

interest to its proceedings. reception and preservation in the several dis A general attendance is anticipated. tricts. The efficiency and success of the system depend so materially upon its faithful adminis.

Members of the Convention are requested to tration and upon the prompt and punctual per. make their arrangements to be in Rochester OR formance of the various duties devolved upon Monday evening, or as early on Tuesday as those charged with that administration, that a possible, in order that the Convention may have rigid adherence in future to the requisitions of at least a FOUR DAYS' PESSION, and be enabled the law, will in all cases be insisted upon, where carefully to mature its business...! no unavoidable necessity exists for a departure

The several committees appointed at the Al. from its strict provisions. It is therefore essen. I bany Convention, to report on the subjects then tial to the districts that the directions, decisions, allotted to them, are respectfully, reminded of and orders of the Department should be known

their duties. and preserved : and you are directed to take im.

We have the pleasure of informing the mem. mediate measures to secure the regular reception

bers of the Convention, that the citizens of Ro. and preservation of the Journal, in the library

chester, through their county and city superinof every district, by specially calling the atten.

tendents, have courteously and cordially invited tion of the clerk of each district to his duty, I and to insist upon its punctual performance,

er formance | homes during the session, under the penalty prescribed by the sixth section

By order, of the act of 1839. (No. 166.)

WILLIAM WRIGHT, of Washington,

E. J. SHUMWAY, “ Essex,
Supt. Com. Schools.

Secretaries. REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTE * By resolution, the Convention at Albany adjourned These valuable reports will be forwarded with

to meet at Rochester on the fifteenth day of May,

(Wednesday :) but in order to secure a longer session, the Session Laws, to the County Clerks--one the time has in this notice been anticipated one day,

and the convention will therefore meet on Tuesday the copy for each county and_town superintendent. 144h, instead of Wednesday,

of " moral suasion," and in ninety-nine cases of corporal punishment is necessary or even justifi. an hundred, he will melt and dissipate his pupils' able; that the very idea of influencing intellec obduracy, as is the hoar frost liquidated and eva. tual and moral action, by means of coercion and porated by the vertical rays of an equatorial sun. physical suffering, is a relic of barbarism which Now if a teacher has secured the confidence of has been transmitted to us from the dark ages. his pupils—if he is thoroughly qualified to teach On the other hand, it is maintained that it is in whatever is required of him-if he always asks, dispensably necessary to the salutary discipline instead of commanding his pupils—if he never of families, schools, and to society itself; that manifests any peevishness by scolding and storm. the power to inflict corporal punishment, in cer. ing—if he never makes laws before they are tain cases, should be possessed by parents," necessary—if he makes the studies perfectly in. teachers, and civil magistrates, and that without telligible to his pupils—it he keeps them con. the existence of this power, in the present state stantly amused and employed, and above all, if of virtue and intelligence, order in any depart. he administers reproof in the spirit of gentleness, ment of civilized and social life, could not be kindness and love, and always in private if pos- preserved for a single hour.' sible, and yet does not succeed in governing his To determine which of these two opposite school, what is to be done? In ninety-nine opinions is conformable to reason and to right, schools of an hundred he will succeed; and with will be the object of a few moments' inquiry. ninety-nine scholars of an hundred of the hun- Were human beings of every age and condi. dredth school he will also succeed. But what tion generally well informed and virtuous, no must be done with the hundredth scholar of the sufficient reason could be assigned for imposing hundredth school ? An " extreme case.” Re. Iany restraints upon their liberty of action; and sort to corporal punishment ? No. He will were they universally rational and moral, they make him "two-fold more the child" of Diabo. would need no other mode of government than lus "than he was before;' for if fair, mild and that which they would voluntarily institute for judicious means will not subdue him, neither themselves, by their prompt obedience to the will he be permanently subdued, though he were principles of reason and morality. But by combeaten from head to foot, into physical callous. mon consent, men, even in the most enlightened ness. Those scholars that are conquered through and cultivated states of society, are not thas gene the instrumentality of the rod. are those that rally intelligent, reasonable and moral; and were perfectly retrievable by milder means. In other means for establishing order, without these “ extreme cases" let the teacher solicit the which society could not exist, have necessarily interference of the parents; request them to cor- been resorted to. A law to be universally obey. rect him for misdemeanors at school, and leted must have means of enforcement which can them punish him corporeally if they please. If be apprehended and felt by all. While intellithis means has not the desired effect, ask the gence, reason and virtue, are obeyed, as has trustees to expostulate with him, and as a dernier been seen, but by a part of mankind, the senses resort, expel him the school-house.

exert a perpetual influence over all; through Thus I have endeavored to portray the evils the senses, therefore, must the observance of the of “ corporal punishment as a means of school | law be enforced upon all who are not sufficientdiscipline," and have imperfectly suggested the ly enlightened and virtuous to obey it from pridremedy. Now in conclusion, I wish to enforce ciples of reason and morality. It is, therefore, upon teachers the necessity of their studying a fundamental and universal principle of govern. thoroughly the work entitled "The School and ment, that, until the principles of intelligence the Schoolmaster.” It is said if a person wishes reason, and morality are so far developed and to become a good prosaic writer, he must spend brought into activity as to become of controlling his days and nights in reading the works of influence, order must be enforced by an appeal to Addison: in like manner, if a person wishes to physical pleasures and pains. On this principle become a good disciplinarian, and in every re. exclusively, to a certain extent, the authority of spect a good teacher, he must spend his days and the parent over the child is founded; until a cernights in reading “ The School and the School tain age, all appeals to reason and morality, on Master."

the part of the parent, are wholly inoperative

upon the conduct of the child, and for the very (Extract from the Report of Jas. Henry, Co. Superin.

good and sufficient reason that both the princi. tendent of Herkimer.)

ples of reason and morality, and the obligation The present age is remarkable for the boldness to obey them, are necessarily unknown to the and universality with which it interrogates and child. It is true that this power to inflict phy examines all laws, customs, and usages of the sical pain may be, and often has been abused ; past, and for the rapidity with which it pronoun- but it is believed, few would have the boldness ces its decrees of approval, or condemnation, on to propose, for the purpose of restraining the all institutions of former times. A question of abuse, the abolition of the power itself. But much practical importance, in relation to the it will be said that the power of the parent to order and discipline of schools, is now dividing inflict corporal punishment has never been deni: the opinions, and eliciting the discussions of ed, or even questioned. Let this be granted great numbers of virtuous and enlightened men, then, and it is confidently believed that it will who are nobly engaged in promoting a general be no difficult task to prove that the very same and thorough reformation in the system of pub- power, and for the very same reason, is invest lic instruction ; that question is, whether corpored in the teacher. ral punishment is a necessary part of school! The office of a teacher is a parental one. The discipline. On one hand, it is asserted that the object of its institution was to perform a part use of the rod, in any case whatever, is brutal of the parental duty, for the obligation on the and degrading to both teacher and pupil; that parent to educate the child, is not less imperative there can never be found an instance in which 'ihan to provide food and clothing. If therefore

« PreviousContinue »