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FECUNDITY OF PLANTS. " 'Since man is so big,' said the young ones, "how do you kill him? You are afraid of the
* The rapidity with which individual species wolf and the bear; by what power are vultures
have the power of multiplying their numbers, superior to man? Is man more defenceless than
both in the animal and vegetable world, is wel a sheep?"
worthy of observation. on"We have not the strength of man, return. " Daring the past season a single grain of poed the mother, 'and I am sometimes in doubt tato
tato oats, on the lands of the Rev. Mr. Mills, whether we have the subtilty; and the vultures | Ballywilian. near Coleraine. Ireland, produced would seldom feed upon his flesh, had not na. I thirty-two stalks, all growing from the same ture, that devoted him to our uses, infused into /root, and containing in all nearly 5.000 grains him a strange ferocity, which I never observed of cornu in any other creature that feeds upon the earth. If each of these 5.000 grains were in the en. Two herds of men will often meet and shake 1 suing year. endued with the same power of fe. the earth with noise, and fill the air with fire.
cundity as the parent seed, 25,000,000 grains When you hear a noise and see fire, with flash- I would be produced, and these multiplying once es along the ground, hasten to the place with again, in the same ratio, would yield a harvest Your swiftest wing; for men are surely destroy: lof oats which would amount to nearly 30,000 ing one another; you will then find the ground
und quarters. smoking with blood, and covered with carcasses,
But though this be a remarkable instance of of which many are dismembered and mangled fruitfulness: there are cases on record which af. for the convenience of the vultures.'
ford still greater evidence of the prolific proper. ""But when men have killed their prey,' said ties of the grain-bearing plants. Of these, sevethe pupils, 'why do they not eat it? When the ral examples are to be found in the volume on wolf has killed a sheep, he suffers not the vul. Vegetable Substances used for the Food of ture to touch it till he is satisfied himself. Is man." We select the following quotatiou from not man another kind of wolf ?'
Sir Kenelm Digby, who asserted, in 1660, that "Man,' said the mother, 'is the only beast "there was in the possession of the fathers of who kills that which he does not devour; and the Christian Doctrine, at Paris, a plant of bar. this quality makes him so much a benefactor to
| ley which they at that time kept as a curiosity, our species.'
and which consisted of 249 stalks, springing "'If man kill our prey, and lay it in our way,' from one root or grain, and in which they countsaid the young ones, what need shall we have ed above 11,000 grains or seeds of barley." of laboring for it ourselves?!
In the same volume there is another well au""Because man will sometimes,' replied the
thenticated fact relative to the power of increase mother, 'remain for a long time quiet in his den.
residing in wheat. The result, however, was The old vultures will tell you when you are to
in this instance, obtained by careful cultivation.
| As the plant tillered or sent up stalks, it was diwatch his motions. When you see men in great numbers moving close together like a flock of
vided and subdivided, till at length the original
root was multiplied' into 500 plants, each of storks, you may conclude that they are hunting,
1,5, which produced more than forty ears. “The and that you will soon revel in human blood.'** "But still,' said the young one, 'I would glad.
a wheat, when separated from the straw, weighed ly know the reason of this mutual slaughter. I
forty-seven pounds and seven ounces, and mea'could never kill what I could not eat.'
sured three pecks and three quarters, the esti
mated number of grains being 576,840." 11 "My child,' said the inother, 'this is a ques. The seeds of many kinds of vegetables are so tion which I cannot answer, though I am reck. numerous that, if the whole produce of a single oned the most subtle bird of the monnlain. When plant were put into the earth, and again this I was young, I used frequently to visit the eyrie second produce were made to yield a harvest, of an old vulture, who dwelt upon the Carpa. and so on, in a very few years the entire surface thian rocks; he had many observations; he knew of the earth would be too limited for the sowing the places that afforded prey round his habita- of the seed thus abundantly supplied. The ny. tion, as far in every direction as the strongest oscyamus, or henbane, which, of all known wing can fly between the rising and setting of plants, produces the greatest number of seeds, the summer sun; he had fed year after year would' for this purpose require no more than on the entrails of men. His opinion was, that four years. According to some experiments men had only the appearance of animal lile, be- the hyoscyamus produces more than 50,000 ing rcally vegetables, with a power of motion; (seeds
tion; seeds; but assuming the number to be only and that as the boughs of an oak are dashed to 10000, the seeds would amount, at the fourta gether by the storm, that swine may fallen upon crop, to 10,000,000,000,000,000, and as the quan. the fallen acorns, so men are, by some unac. tity of solid land on the surface of the globe is countable power, driven one against another, calenlated to be abont 1.400.350.599.014,4 till they lose their motion, that vultures may be square feet it follows that each square foot must fed. Others think they have observed some. I contain seven plants, and therefore the whole thing of contrivance and policy among these earth would be insufficient to contain the promischievious beings; and those that hover more duce of a single hyoscyamus at the end of in closely round them, pretend that there is, in eve- i fourth year. ry herd, one that gives directions to the rest, and seems to be more eminently delighted with COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS. a wide carnage. What it is that entiiles him to such pre-eminence we know not; he is seldom County superintendents will plea se forward the biggest or the swiftest; but he shows, by his promptly the names, towns, and post office eagerness and diligence, that he is, more than dress, of the newly elected town superinten any of the others, a friend to the vulture.'” ents, as directed by Col. Young's circular.
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Sea, in 1821, 1922 and 1923. Map. 147. Lives of John de Fuca.-De Monts, Poutrincourt, 168, 169. Indian Biography; or, an Historical Account
Champlain.-Ferdinando Gorges and John Mason. of those Individuals who have been distinguished
the Rev. Dr. Potter, 149. Lives of William Bradford. William Brewster.- 171, 172. Journal of an Expedition to explore the Course Robert Cushman.--Edward Winslow.Miles Stan- and Termination of the Niger. By Richard and John dish.- John Winthrop, John Winthrop, Jr.-George Lander. With Portraits.ya Calvert, Cecilius Calvert (Lords Baltimore), Leonard 173. Memoirs of the Empress Josephine. By John S. Calvert.-William Penn.
Memes, LL.D. With a Portrait. 149. Manners and Customs of the Japanese, in the 174, 175. The History of Philosophy, being the Work
Nineteenth Century. From the Account of recent adopted by the University of France for Instruction Dutch residents in Japan, and from the German work in the Colleges and High Schools. Translated from of Dr. Ph. Fr. Von Siebold.
the French, with Additions, and a continuation of the 160. 161. History of the Expedition to Russia, under History from the time of Reid to the present day. By
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the French of Fenelon, with Notes, and a Life of the 183. Principles of Eloquence. By the Abbe Maury, Author. By the Rev. John Cormack.
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By order, of the act of 1839. (No. 166.)
WILLIAM WRIGHT, of Washington,
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Secretaries. REPORTS OF COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTE * By resolution, the Convention at Albany adjourned These valuable reports will be forwarded with
to meet at Rochester on the fifteenth day of May,
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of " moral suasion," and in ninety-nine cases of corporal punishment is necessary or even justifi. an hundred, he will melt and dissipate his pupils' able; that the very idea of influencing intellec obduracy, as is the hoar frost liquidated and eva. tual and moral action, by means of coercion and porated by the vertical rays of an equatorial sun. physical suffering, is a relic of barbarism which Now if a teacher has secured the confidence of has been transmitted to us from the dark ages. his pupils—if he is thoroughly qualified to teach On the other hand, it is maintained that it is in whatever is required of him-if he always asks, dispensably necessary to the salutary discipline instead of commanding his pupils—if he never of families, schools, and to society itself; that manifests any peevishness by scolding and storm. the power to inflict corporal punishment, in cer. ing—if he never makes laws before they are tain cases, should be possessed by parents," necessary—if he makes the studies perfectly in. teachers, and civil magistrates, and that without telligible to his pupils—it he keeps them con. the existence of this power, in the present state stantly amused and employed, and above all, if of virtue and intelligence, order in any depart. he administers reproof in the spirit of gentleness, ment of civilized and social life, could not be kindness and love, and always in private if pos- preserved for a single hour.' sible, and yet does not succeed in governing his To determine which of these two opposite school, what is to be done? In ninety-nine opinions is conformable to reason and to right, schools of an hundred he will succeed; and with will be the object of a few moments' inquiry. ninety-nine scholars of an hundred of the hun- Were human beings of every age and condi. dredth school he will also succeed. But what tion generally well informed and virtuous, no must be done with the hundredth scholar of the sufficient reason could be assigned for imposing hundredth school ? An " extreme case.” Re. Iany restraints upon their liberty of action; and sort to corporal punishment ? No. He will were they universally rational and moral, they make him "two-fold more the child" of Diabo. would need no other mode of government than lus "than he was before;' for if fair, mild and that which they would voluntarily institute for judicious means will not subdue him, neither themselves, by their prompt obedience to the will he be permanently subdued, though he were principles of reason and morality. But by combeaten from head to foot, into physical callous. mon consent, men, even in the most enlightened ness. Those scholars that are conquered through and cultivated states of society, are not thas gene the instrumentality of the rod. are those that rally intelligent, reasonable and moral; and were perfectly retrievable by milder means. In other means for establishing order, without these “ extreme cases" let the teacher solicit the which society could not exist, have necessarily interference of the parents; request them to cor- been resorted to. A law to be universally obey. rect him for misdemeanors at school, and leted must have means of enforcement which can them punish him corporeally if they please. If be apprehended and felt by all. While intellithis means has not the desired effect, ask the gence, reason and virtue, are obeyed, as has trustees to expostulate with him, and as a dernier been seen, but by a part of mankind, the senses resort, expel him the school-house.
exert a perpetual influence over all; through Thus I have endeavored to portray the evils the senses, therefore, must the observance of the of “ corporal punishment as a means of school | law be enforced upon all who are not sufficientdiscipline," and have imperfectly suggested the ly enlightened and virtuous to obey it from pridremedy. Now in conclusion, I wish to enforce ciples of reason and morality. It is, therefore, upon teachers the necessity of their studying a fundamental and universal principle of govern. thoroughly the work entitled "The School and ment, that, until the principles of intelligence the Schoolmaster.” It is said if a person wishes reason, and morality are so far developed and to become a good prosaic writer, he must spend brought into activity as to become of controlling his days and nights in reading the works of influence, order must be enforced by an appeal to Addison: in like manner, if a person wishes to physical pleasures and pains. On this principle become a good disciplinarian, and in every re. exclusively, to a certain extent, the authority of spect a good teacher, he must spend his days and the parent over the child is founded; until a cernights in reading “ The School and the School tain age, all appeals to reason and morality, on Master."
the part of the parent, are wholly inoperative
upon the conduct of the child, and for the very (Extract from the Report of Jas. Henry, Co. Superin.
good and sufficient reason that both the princi. tendent of Herkimer.)
ples of reason and morality, and the obligation The present age is remarkable for the boldness to obey them, are necessarily unknown to the and universality with which it interrogates and child. It is true that this power to inflict phy examines all laws, customs, and usages of the sical pain may be, and often has been abused ; past, and for the rapidity with which it pronoun- but it is believed, few would have the boldness ces its decrees of approval, or condemnation, on to propose, for the purpose of restraining the all institutions of former times. A question of abuse, the abolition of the power itself. But much practical importance, in relation to the it will be said that the power of the parent to order and discipline of schools, is now dividing inflict corporal punishment has never been deni: the opinions, and eliciting the discussions of ed, or even questioned. Let this be granted great numbers of virtuous and enlightened men, then, and it is confidently believed that it will who are nobly engaged in promoting a general be no difficult task to prove that the very same and thorough reformation in the system of pub- power, and for the very same reason, is invest lic instruction ; that question is, whether corpored in the teacher. ral punishment is a necessary part of school! The office of a teacher is a parental one. The discipline. On one hand, it is asserted that the object of its institution was to perform a part use of the rod, in any case whatever, is brutal of the parental duty, for the obligation on the and degrading to both teacher and pupil; that parent to educate the child, is not less imperative there can never be found an instance in which 'ihan to provide food and clothing. If therefore