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at present are, it is inexpedicat to introduce, ent of Tyre, with his zealous band of teachers, generally more than what are called the com. were present at the hour appointed and were soon mon branches, viz : Spelling, Reading, Geogra. succeeded by teachers of Fayette and Waterloo. phy, Arithmetic, Grammar and Writing. These Mr, McLean, the efficient superintendent of Ju. branches in schools of the average number, are nius, with his teachers, followed, and were the onall that can be thoroughly taught by one indivi. Iy town superintendents present-where were the dual. If more studies be introduced, it is at the eight? risk, of having instruction in them all but im. It was highly gratifying to see so many trus. perfectly imparted.

tees and friends of education from the country. Besides, it should be constantly kept in view, It is truly an earnest that the surrounding corn. that district schools are but Primary Schools. try is moving in school matters. There must be three orders of schools,- district A free communication was kept up between or primary schools, academies and colleges. the county superintendent and the teachers, One of these cannot properly perform the duties which was both interesting and profitable. Fre. of the other; hence for efficient action, each must quent conferences were held at which the most be confined to its proper sphere.

prominent difficulties incident to the business of Sometimes, however, another study, as Alge teaching, were thoroughly discussed by the bra, Geometry or the like, may be, without inju. teachers, the county superintendent, and the inry, introduced into district schools, in addition to structors of the institute. the studies above recommended; but seldom can The teachers became acquainted with each more than one extra study safely be permitted. other, and received a mutual consolation and en.

As to minimum standard qualification of teach couragement in this brief but delightful interers of district schools, the coinmittee recommen. change of opinions and sympathy, which will, ded that every teacher should be able,

for a long time, sweeten inany an hour of perIst-At all times to govern himself.

plexing toil, impart elevated views of the duties 21—To properly govern his school.

and responsibilities of the scholastic profession, 3d-To teach aptly.

and remove many a burden from the heart, fre4th-To teach the above recommended branch. quently depressed by the indifference of citizens es without a book ; and

and parents. When the hour for final adjourn5th-To maintain at all times an irreproacha ment arrived, all appeared reluctant at separa. ble moral character.

ting; but pleased with the hope of meeting again On motion of E, Cooper, the above report was for another and a longer drill, each affirmed a unanimously adopted.

strong determination to be the first in attendance. It being announced that ample arrangements had been made for a county institute, it was

YATES. unanimously Resolved, to unite in its exercises, We have received a valuable pamphlet entiunder the direction of a committee of business; I whereupon, Messrs. Cooper, Livingston and J.

tled “Practical suggestions to the Teachers of T. Turner, were appointed a committee of busi. Yates," from Mr. Lindsley, the efficient county ness and publication, and Messrs. Hogan, Tubbs superintendent, from which we shall hereafter and Woodworth, on finance. The exercises of the institute commenced in the evening, and

make interesting extracts. “Our Rules" are were continued through the week regularly, 10 from the same hand.-Ed.] hours per day. They consisted of a thorough!

OUR RULES. revision of those studies usually pursued in com- 1st. Whatever is worth doing at all, is worth mon schools, with frequentand familiar illustra- 1 doing well. Hence we are the masters, not the tions of the best methods of teaching them. All slaves of our lessons. the teachers described their peculiar plans of 20. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound imparting instruction and governing their pupils, of cure. Hence we review our lessons each day thus enabling each to become acquainted with

ith -and preserve them in the freshness of first re. the most approved and successful means of man. I collection. aging schools. Lectures were given on the na. 3d. Contrast develops the lights and shades tural development of mind, the best means of of fact. Hence we constantly and faithfully com. securing lasting popularity to the teacher, stu. pare the subjects of study with each other. dying and teaching History, Professional Read

4th. In union there is strength. Hence we ing, Music, Mental Arithmetic, School Govern. unite our efforts to promote the interests of our ment. Reading, &c. &c.

school. It was Resolved, on Wednesday, to appoint a 5th. In kindness there is power-in courtesy committee to present a constitution for a county there is control. Hence we practice kindness Association; and Messrs. E. Cooper, W. C. Liv.

in our intercourse with teachers, superintendents ingston and Wm. Ross, were appointed said and scholars; we exhibit courtesy to fellows, committee.

friends and strangers. (A Constitution was afterwards adopted, 6th. Take care of the minutes and the hours which we are unable to publish in this number. will take care of themselves. Hence we im.

prove the whole day and not a part of it; we E. Cooper, Esq. the able and devoted friend

24 discharge our whole duty and not a part of it.' of the schools was elected its President.)

7th. Irregularity in business is poverty in This session of the institute, notwithstanding competence. Hence we visit the school-room the unfavorable time, was well attended, fifty- daily, and encourage others to imitate our exseven being the number of its members. All ample. parts of the county were represented. Dr. 8th. No man reaps with two sickles at once. Tubbs, the active and energetic town superintend. Hence we do one thing ata time, and at the time. 9th. The child is father to the man. Hence Neff incited the people to build a school-bouse we will give nobility to the child, that nobility in one of the districts where knowledge was attach to the mån.

most wanted ; and that proper instructors might be spread throughout these regions, so shut out

from the ordinary means of education, he per No. IV.

suaded a number of young persons to prepare EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION, themselves for teaching. These assembled in

that season when they could not labor in their FELI NEFT

stertle fields, and during that time endeavored

to qualify themselves, under their pastor's inTHE last number of this Journal contained structions. that thereafter they might become some brief details of the labors of Oberlin in the teachers at the same season of the year among work of oducation. His extraordinary and very their respective neighbors and friends. successful services extended through a period ex. The application of Neff and his pupils was ceeding fifty years. Another individual, whose astonishing, and the progress of the latter an. life was shorier, but whose success was not less swered to their diligence. The course, which extraordinary, may afford an example equally Neft took indicates the order in which all instrucanimating to those who toil for the same end in lion, that proves efficient to the intellect for its places where there is much to be done, and general cultivation, ought to be given. He em. much to discourage the laborer.

ployed fourteen or fifteen hours a day in his disPelix Neff was a Protestant clergyman in a cipline. Much less time than that may accomdreary region of the south of France, called the plish, in ordinary circumstances, all that is neHigh Alps. This tract had been the hiding place cessary to be done by those under instruction. for centuries, of Christians who had taken re. The need in this case was pressing, and zeal in fuge from Catholic persecution, in its dreary the cause demanded sacrifices rarely required, mountains and valleys. Neff had received a but beautiful when they are demanded. toterable education from the pastor of a village “We devoted much of this time," says the near Geneva, (Switzerland,) where he was born. pastor, in an account he has left of his method, He learnt the business of a nursery gardener, i to lessons in reading. The wretched manner and gained besides considerable knowledge of the in wbich they had been taught, their detestable mathematics ; at a suitable age, he became, in accent and strange tone of voice, rendered this a 1823, a teacher of religion. He was ordained most tiresome, but necessary duty." No child, in London, but returned to France, because he or grown person. that cannot read well-not like knew of a people in that country whose wants an orator, but with ability, to express and conand whose ignorance made them in the highest vey just notions of what he reads-can study degree subjects of improvement. To better their well. He will, in case he is not practised in physical condition was one part of his plan, and perfectly intelligent reading, pore over a book, then, by informing their minds, to enlighten them and even repeat the words of it, but till the genin their highest interests-those of the soul and uine sense of the printed page is transfused into of eternity.

his mind, his labor upon any science in print will The difficulties Neff had to encounter were be almost in vain. Hence follows the necessity greatly augmented by the distribution of his of procuring from the beginning, and successiveflocks. His parishioners dwelt, some sixty, iy, such books as shall both interest and furnish others thirty, and others twelve miles, from his the understanding, quickening in their influence fixed habitation, at the point most central to the all processes of the mind. greatest number. The dwellings of these poor Language is before Grammar. Neff, when people were separated by mountains covered his pupils could read readily, taught them Gramwith snow, and valleys choked up by masses of mar. No person properly understands the conrock. To the inhabitants of these detached struction of a sentence till he has a preconceived spots Neff was the best of benefactors-he notion of its logical meaning from the reading visited all-taught in all and was welcome in of it. Mechanical parsing throws no real light all. He planned the rotation of his visits, and upon a written truth. The science of Grammar, was expected and received with delight every Neff, of course, found it exceedingly difficult to where. To his parishioners he was not only a teach. Speaking of his pupils, he says, conspiritual monitor, but a secular friend and councerning grammar, * There is scarcely any way sellor. “Could all their children read? Did of conveying the meaning of it to ihem. All they understand what they read? Did they the usual terms and definitions, and the means offer up morning and evening prayers? Had the which are employed in schools, are utterly uninparents, or any person whatever, doubts he could telligible here." He did not, perhaps, know remove-afflictions, wherein he might be a com. how little intelligible, how little profitable they forter?" It was by such inquiries, such tender conare, almost everywhere. Dictation," he cern in their interests, that he found his way to continues, " was one of the means to which I . their hearts. When he had gained their affec. had recourse: without it they would have made rions he endeavored to improve their condition. no progress in orthography and grammar, but, He pointed out a mode of tillage that increased they wrote so miserably and slowly, that this the quantity of their scant crops; taught them consumed a great deal of time. This was, to practise a better medical treatment of the however, the only way in which he, or they, sick ; instructed them to make an abundant dis could be satisfied whether they could spell, and tribution of water for purposes of cleanliness express themselves properly. Principles are and comfort, and more than all this, urged upon nothing to him who receives them or rather rethem the duty, and taught them the way to edu cifes them, unless he can at the same time decate their children.

| monstrate them. Letters and grammar rules,

OF THE STATE OF NEW.YORK.

309

until they can be turned into representations of education the cheering intelligence pertaining to ideas by him who has learned them in form the subject of popular education in this state. only, are an undigested leap in the mind, very You are aware that very few states in the Union unlikely to germinate at all. The memory, it is contain so many adults that can neither read nor true, may sometimes be stored in advance, but write, in proportion to the whole population, as its stores, if not soon turned to intelligent use, this ; a blot upon her statistics that she is deterare only so much lumber in the brain. Thence mined to efface,'ha jó follows the necessity of teaching the right thing! She has availed herself of the labors of a gen. at the right time, by means of the right instru:

tleman of distinguished ability-Henry Barnard, ment.

Esq.of Conn.-lo superintend her public schools, "Observing," proceeds Neff, “ that they were

whose efforts are seconded by a number of gen. ignorant of the signification of a great number

tlemen in different parts of the siate, especially of words of constant use and recurrence, I made in the southern portion, where I am more intia selection from the vocabulary, which I re

re-mately acquainted. Here are her Updykes, her quired them to set down in little copy books. | Hazards, her Potters, and her Babcocks, devoThe explanations in the dictionary were not l ting their time and talent, to awaken public feel. enough, and I was obliged to furnish new, anding to the importance of educating her whole sometimes inore, ample dennitions, which they pomilation. From such efforts, too much can could understand ; and to make them transcribe

hardly be anticipated as a result. these. We are not, fortunately, without one or two rational voch vularies of this sort. They l.

It seems to be a peculiar feature in the cha.

lacter of Rhode Islanders, that when their inte. ought to be in all schools before the full Dic. lack tionary is put into the learner's hands. Arith."

Arith rest is clearly and convincingly presented, they metic had its place in their studies, and Geogra.

cordially embrace it, and liberally contribute the phy was a matter of recrcation to Ner's pupils. means to accomplish such object. Especially so. His method of teaching Geography, and the

the is it, with regard to popular education, when use he made of it, are especially interesting.

sectarianism and politics become wholly ab “ They pored over the maps," says he, " with

sorbed in the people's cause." a feeling of delight and amusement that was An evidence of this was clearly manifested at quite new to them. I busied myself in giving the meetings of the "Washington County Asthem some notions of the sphere, and of the sociation for the promotion of public schools, form and motion of the earth of the seasons held on the 3d Dec. last, at Westerly, and on the and the climates, and also of the heavenly 4th inst, at Wickford, where the discussions and bodies I was forced to use the simplest modes exercises were listened to with deep interest by of demonstration, which amused and instructed largę and respectable audiences. (A notice of them at the same time. A ball made of box the latter I send you.) wood, with a hole through it, and moving on an It cannot be denied that the public schools in axle, and on which I had traced the principal this state are very far behind those of her sister circles ; some large potatoes hollowed out, a states around her, yet it must be admitted that, candle, and sometimes the skulls of my scholars, like the "oasis in the desert, she has her green served for the instruments by which I illustrated and flourishing spots. She can point to her pub the movements of the heavenly bodies, and of lic schools in this city, under the general superthe earth itself. Proceeding from one step to vision of N. Bishop, Esq., and present a system another, I pointed out the situation of different of education second to none with which I am countries on the chart of the world, and took acquainted. The proper organization, the ex. pains, to give some slight ideas, as we went on, cellent order and thorough instruction of these of the characteristics, religion, customs and his schools, bear honorable testimony to this assertory of each nation. These details fixed topics

tioa. of moment in their recollection." Not only the method but the scope of Neff's

The school-houses are well constructed, coninstructions is admirable, and, moreover, inita.

veniently arranged, in which you will find "a ble. His mind was too enlarged to fear that he

place for every thing," and, to the credit of the should be teaching too much. It was his aim

teachers, " every thing in its place." A perfect to prove that the humblest condition of life may

neatness prevails throughout every department.

Here the system of gradation is admirably carbe exalted by whatever exalts the moral and in

ried into practice. The six grammar shcools, telligent nature, and that he who possesses any und in the treasury of truth, in defects of all

each have their primary, their intermediate and

"I higher departments. In the latter scholars are other treasure, is truly “The rich poor man." The unremitting labors of Neff shortened his

sufficiently instructed for common business purdays,'and he died at Geneva in 1829. But death

suits. Such scholars as are desirous of pursuing did not destroy his work, Men's good deeds are

the study of the naturalsciences or to take a course

of instruction preparatory for college, are advanimmortal-they perish not with the agent.

ced from the grammar to the high school, where The oak may fall by the lightning; the acorns that have penetrated the soil around him will

the same system of gradation is most successfully

pursued. The building of the high school, its rise in a forest of strength and beauty.

arrangements, and its occupants, will bear an

honorable comparison with any institution of !! RHODE ISLAND.

the kind I have visited. I might name some

schools in the villages or Pawtucket, Bristol, PROVIDENCE, R. I., 10th Jan., 1840, (FRANCIS DWIGHT, Esq.-Dear Sir.Permit

and in some other villages, giving promise of an

Permit elevated character. I close this communication me througla the medium ot your District School with an invitation for you to come and see what Journal,' to present to the friends of popular

Rhode Island is doing. If you find any thing 310

DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL,

above written over-rated, I will allow you to that no-system became so glaring, that the whole charge it to my account.

village rose, almost to a man, and determined Very truly yourse

to have a reform, The advantages of our pre. PHILLIP, sent system are found to be important. It is

democratic. All our children are brought to

gether. The children of the poor and the rich From the Hartford Journal.

stand side by side, and merit alone decides the BRATTLEBORO SCHOOLS.

rank of each. The expenses are paid by the property of the district, so that children of the

poor have equal advantages of education with The following account of the Brattleboro those of the wealthy. The influence, the tal. School, is embraced in a letter to HENRY BAR. ents, and the pecuniary resources of the village NARD, Esq., of this city, from H. E. Parker, are concentrated on the system of popular edu. Esq., of Hanover. We take pleasure in laying cation ; and this affords one subject of common it before our readers, confident that the informa interest for all sects, all classes, and all parties, tion it contains will be received with interest.- and does not a little to smoothe down the asper(Eds. Journal.]

ities of feeling, and to harmonize diversities of "Brattleboro, east village, is comprised with

prised with conflicting interests. in one school district. It contains about 1500 in. "Employing our teachers for a longer period, habitants ; not far from four hundred of whom they become attached to us; we take a greater are from four to eighteen years of age. The ave. personal interest in them; we begin to learn rage attendance at our schools, is about 300. their social importance in society ; to regard We have five public schools, four taught by fe. their station as the first in the community ; and males, the other by a male teacher. They con. I their influence next to that of parents, as having tinue through the year, with exception of vaca. the greatest bearing on the character and desti. tions amounting to two months or more. Child.ny of the young. By having a course of studies ren are admitted into the primary schools, those pointed out for our children, so that they can ad. taught by females at the age of four years, and vance regularly from branch to branch, they remain there until eleven years of age. or until make much more rapid progress than formerly, qualified to enter the central school, which is un. / obtain the same amount of knowledge in a much der the charge of a male teacher. The houses of shorter period, and acquire a far better education the primary schools are located in difierent parts in the same length of time. But perhaps the of the village. to accommodate the children in greatest benefit produced by our school system, every section of the district. The buildino for is the moral influence it exerts. We already the central school is near the centre of the vil. I perceive a decided improvement in the manners Jage, so that the children at the extreme of the and conduct of the pupils in all our schools, district are but little more than a mile from it. I much of which we attribute to the introduction The children in the primary schools are required of singing as a part of the daily exercises. The to go through a prescribed course of preparatory instructor of the central school has taken great studies, previous to an examination for admis. pains to interest his pupils in ennobling and elesion to the central school. This examination vating useful pursuits. He has turned their takes place when they are eleven years of age. attention to the study of geology, mineralogy, If the examination is unsatisfactory in any indi. and chemistry, to the cultivation and care of vidual case, the child continues in the primary ornamental trees, &c., which occupies their school until he or she can pass a satisfactory ex. thoughts out of school, and inspires them with amination. All, however, be the character of purer and higher desires and aims. By the strict their examination what it may, at fourteen years order and method introduced into the schools, of age are admitted to the central school. In by the punctuality and promptness required, and this school, besides the common branches, the by the propriety of conduct enforced, much has higher branches of an English education are already been done, by all our teachers, lor the taught. The prudential committee, assisted by promotion of good inanners and good morals. a special committee chosen for the purpose, are It is thought by good judges that the additional authorized by the district to recommend ihe books value which our present system of education to be used in the schools, to point out the course has given to the property of the village, is more of studies to be pursued, and to classify the than enough to counterbalance the additional ex. scholars.

penses required.” “Formerly we had four public schools, taught in summer by females, in winter by males, or AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. partly by males and partly by females. We had also about the same number of private or select schools under the charge of male and female

The annual report of the commissioner of pa.. teachers, all of which are now discontinued. I ens

d. tents (the Hon. Henry L. Ellsworth,) was a few There was, under that system, or rather no sys. / days since

days since laid on the desks of the House of Reptem, a constant change of teachers, and of course! resentatives. Mr. Ellsworth estimates the agria frequent change of books, of the course of stu. | cultural products of our country as follows: dies, and of the modes of instruction and disci. / Wheat, bu. 100,310,856|Hay, tons, 15,419,807 pline. The interest of the parents was distrac. | Corn, " 494,618,306 Toba'co, lbs 185,731,564 ted, each naturally earing more for the school Oats, " 145,929,969 Cotton, "6 757.660,090 where his children were instructed : invidious | Rye, " 24,280,271|Rice, " 89,879,146 distinctions were created, money was wasted, no Barley, " 3,220,721Silk, " 315,360 good moral influences were exerted, and little | Bu'kw't," 7,959,410 Sugar, " 66,400,310 was done even for the intellect. The evils of Potatos," 105,756,133 Wine, gal'ns, 139,240

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TEACHERA' INSTITUTES.

years. That state has the most manificent fand

devoted to the cause of popular education that Extract from the Eighth Annual Report of exists in the world. It has a far more compreHon. HORACE Mann, Secretary of the Board hensive and efficient code of laws for regulatof Education of the State of Massachusetts.

ing public instruction than any other of the

twenty-six states; and its system, with but few " In addition to the Normal Schools,--some

exceptions, is most wisely arranged, and is 20 W evidence of the success of whose pupils will be

worked with a vigor and spirit unequalled in lald before the board by Mr. May, late princi.

any other part of our republic. ple of the Normal School at Lexington, -I wish

Why cannot this plan of teachers' institutes, to suggest another expedient,-one which has

originating in New York, be adopted in Massabeen adopted in the state of New York, for

chusetts? We have borrowed her system of two or three years past, and which has proved

District School Libraries, and it bas found al. eminently successful ;-I refer to

most universal favor amongst our citizens. She TEACHERS' INSTITUT68.

has borrowed our system of Normal Schools,-These are constituted and sustained in the having appropriated at the last session of her following manner :

Legislature, by a unanimous vote of both hou. In the spring and autumn of the year, those ses, the sum of $50,000 for that purpose ; and persons, male and female, who propose to keep her Normal School is to be opened at Albany, school, the ensuing season, assemble at some on the 18th of the present month. Let us now convenient and central place ; and not only adopt the system of Teachers' Institutes, which form classes for mutual improvement, but they she has projected ; and thus raintain that noble employ some distinguished teacher or teachers, rivalry of benesactions which is born of' a phi. to preside over their meetings and give them in. Wanthropy that cares more for the good that is struction. Here they are indoctrinated, not done, than it does who are the devisors, the merely in the general principles of school gov. agents, or the recipients of it." ernment, the means and modes of order, disci. pline, classification, motive-powers, &c., but

CONNECTICUT. they go through the actual drill of classes and routine of the school.room. These teachers elect form themselves into classes, in all the

EDUCATION. branches they expect to leach ; they study les.

It will be remembered that the last General sons and perlorm recitations, just as is done in Assembly instituted a commission to act upon a school. The exercises are interspersed with this subiect, and to report to the next General discussions, and the evening is generally occupi. | Assembly. The committee for this purpose ap. ed by lectures on some topic connected with pointed by his excellency the Governor, are the great cause of education. The institutes John T. Norton, Esq., and I. W. Stuart, Esq., hold regular sessions from day to day, usually lof Hartford county - Wm. T. Russell, Esq. of for a fortnight, though for a longer or shorter New Haven. Rev. Samuel Nichols, of Green. period, according to the ability and zeal of the field. Hon. Charles W. Rock well, of Norwich, parties.

Hon. Seth P. Beers, of Litchfield, Hon. Ed. During the autumn which has just closed, award Eldridge, of Pomfret, Prof. John John. large number of such institutes were held in son. of Middlelown and Lorin P. Waldo, Esq. the interior and western part of the state of of Tolland. New York. Several of them, having made pressing application to a distinguished teacher

Here follows an extract from the report of the belonging to the city of Boston, to attend and

joint standing committee on education, and the preside at their meetings, he complied with

resolutions thereupon of the last General As. their request, and spent about a month, in dif.

sembly. ferent places amongst them. He reports that|

It is true the committee might express gener. their members were animated by a inost ear. ally an opinion upon the state of the common nest and praiseworthy spirit ; ardent for im. schools, and if called on now to do this, they provement and grateful for any aid that could I would have no hesitation in saying that they be. increase their fitness for the responsible duties lieve many defects and irregularities now existthey were about to assume ,--that male teach

that there is not that attention given to the subers, who are to receive but ten dollars a month. Iject which it demands that there is a disposi. for their services during the winter, travelled tion to relax effort-and to regulate the amount filty or more miles on foot, to spend a fortnight of education too much by the capacity of the of their time in attending these meetings, and school fund to pay for ii-that the proper facili. that they contented themselves with any fare lies are not yet offered to those persons who however meagre, and with any accommodations wish to become teachers, to prepare themselves however rude,- finding their compensation in by an appropriate course of study, particularly the mental and literary advantages to be there by the establishment of Normal Schools—that obtained. This is a noble spirit. It is a spirit there is still notwithstanding the praiseworthy which predestines the glory of the state and the and liberal efforts of the late indefatigable secrewelfare of its individual citizens. It is a spirit tary of the board of commissioners (or common which, at present, pervades the state of New. schools, great want of information respecting York more generally, and is acting more effi. the schools, school systems and progress of popciently, than in any other state in the union. ular education generally, in other states and I think our own people are not generally aware countries-that there is a great want in com. what and how much have been done for the lion schools of the apparatus deemed indispencause of common schools, by the legislature sable in the best conducted private schools—that and people of New York, within the last few 'there is still a want of sufficient uniformity in

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