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to it, and he required to resume the proper po- the mental and bodily prosperity of the indivisition. After the expiration of the time allot-dual. For this obvious reason, the games which led to the exercise, notice should be given by require muscular exertion are not only conduthe teacher ; the pupils all finishing the lines cive to health, but, also, improve the senses and which they may have commenced, cleaning their unfold the understanding. To put things to. pens and wiping them dry, allowing their books gether and separate them, to erect and destroy to remain open a sufficient length of time for the houses built of blocks and other similar materi. ink to become dry, the pens deposited in their als, to trundle a hoop, fly a kite, or arrange and proper places, the books closed and the teacher construct little vehicles in their own way, all passing around, collects them together and de. these are diversions which ought to be sedulous. posits them in a safe place. One of the scholars ly encouraged, by procuring the articles requi. may now assist by passing around the class and site for such pursuits. These, however, should collecting the inkstards and depositing them in be simple, and of little intrinsic value, as that is their appropriate place. The exercise being now soon enhanced in the possession of the young. ended, the pupils resume their other studies and on this account also, a ball, a top, a hobby that task may be considered as finished for the horse, a little chaise, a wheelbarrow which they day. There is no more teasing or vexing the can manage without extraneous assistance, are teacher with pens to mend or copies to set : preferable to a wooden doll or the figures re. bat he can now proceed to another exercise in presenting horses and carriages, which afford the same systematic style, and in this way hel them amusement merely by their appearance. will always find time to devote to every branch Nor should girls be excluded from active ex. of study; i. e., provided he has a time for every | ercise. It is a material error in physical educathing and is careful to have every thing attended | tion, to make that ill founded distinction between to iň its proper time. The books being in his the sexes, which condemns female children, from custody during the interim, and his eyes upon their cradle, to a sedentary life, by permitting the scholars while they have them in their pos- | them scarcely any other play things than dolls session. he can hardly render a reasonable ex- and tinsel work or trinkets, while their sprightly case, if they are torn, scribbled or blotted. / brothers amuse themselves with their hoop and Much injury to other books is also prevented by other active diversions. Such premature refinehaving the pens and inkstands deposited out of ment is dearly purchased at the expense of reach of the scholars, except at such times as health and of a cheerful mind. they are required to use them. Where there are

All amusements are most beneficial to health

au large scholars in the school, they may be much in the open air ; and, were it possible to keep a benefited by taking turns and repairing the child continually in the fields and gardens, there pens. The art of making a pen is as necessary | would be no occasion to supply them with play. for them to understand, as that of using one; I things. Benign nature would present them with and they should receive instruction in this branch

la sufficient variety of objects for their amuse. also by the teacher. This method is now pur.

ment-they would find an inexhaustible source sued by a majority of our teachers, and their

of materials for constructing toys, which, being writing books present a striking contrast when works of their own creation, could not fail to compared with those of other schools, when he

when be more useful than the most expensive artificial the exercise is botched off in a careless, hap

83. nape contrivances. hazard manner. As a general rule, in ordinary

Society increases the charms of juvenile amuseschools, I think one exercise in the course of the day sufficient. I would say once a day if it be

ments. It is indeed very desirable and rational

to allow a number of children to assemble; but properly conducted ; but if it cannot be proper

le lit would be prudent to watch their conduct, ly and carefully conducted, then omit it entirely.

though without rigor or unnecessary interfe @ 0. W. RANDALI,

rence on the part of the tutor, as they are then 'County Supt. Oswego Co. in their most happy state. It has been proposed Phænit, Dec. 8, 1844.

lo establish in every large city, public pleasure grounds appropriated to the use of young people,

and likewise to appoint proper inspectors to keep AMUSEMENTS AND TOYS OF CHILDREN.

them under certain restrictions. Such regula. tions would, in various instances, be productive

of good effectr; they would prevent many ill. TAE following excellent remarks upon the

helbred boys from running about the streets, where proper amusements and toys of children, wel they are under no control, and where they learn have translated from the German of Struve. I from each other most improper practices. It is They occur in his work on Physical Education, I doubtful whether this suggestion will ever be and are recommended to the attentive perusal ol realized though a public pleasure ground exclu. every parent.

sively appropriated for the use of children, Sedentary games may be well adapted to the would certainly be of infinitely more importance amusement of day.laborers and rustics who fa- to the health and morals of youth, than theatres, tigue themselves by hard work during the day ; ball-rooms, or places of public parade. but for children, whose principal employment On the whole, it is equally important for chil. shouid be play, they are improper. In our opin. dren to be allowed their regular play-hours, as ion, therefore, inactive amusements should be to be compelled to attend school : indeed the resorted to only in certain cases as an occasionai former would be productive of greater advanta. substitute for others, and continued but for a ges for the improvement of their physical and short time. Exercise is the very soul of all intellectual faculties, than the latter mechanical play ; because the activity of the different pow. habit, at an age when they are not yet suscepti. ers is attended with immediate consequences to ble of scholastic instruction.

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PUNCTUATION.
PUNO

| advancement of the schools. I send you a series

of articles for your juvenile department, for I We make the following brief extract from hope that the uses of the Journal are extended Boyd's Rhetoric, a work recently published by to young readers. It is especially designed for

| their benefit, and may directly contribute to their the Harpers, and worthy of the careful exami.

entertainment. A brief account of the invention nation of all interested in teaching the English and progress of letters, as the instruments of language.

knowledge, may prove useful to them.

E. R. To show the necessity of not merely using points, but of punctuating properly, examine

INVENTION OF LETTERS. the following passage : The persons inside the coach were Mr. Miller

There is nothing that young persons enjoy a clergyman his son a lawyer Mr Angelo a fo.

more than books, and old people also, when they reigner his lady and a little child.

have learned to use and appreciate them in youth. This passage, thus written without points, is The child

The child that can read can entertain himself; unintelligible : by different modes of punctua.

and the man or woman who can neither read nor ting it, several alterations may be made in its

write, is very much to be pitied. Such ignorance sense : not only as to the number of persons in

exposes a person to great inconveniences, and the coach, but, also, as to their country, profes- moreover. makes him inferior to almost every sions, and relationship to each other. By a body about him. Formerly this was not the change of points, the lady may be described as fact. In what are called the middle ages, from the wife of either one of two persons: Mr. Mil. I the fifth to the fifteenth century, reading and ler's son may be made a clergyman, or a lawyer, writing were uncommon accomplishments in at will; or his son may be taken from him and

Europe. The monks, priests who lived in congiven to a clergyman, whose name is not men. | vents, only could read and write. The larmen tioned.

(all persons who were not of the clergy,) had The following variations, by use of points,

no learning. The monasteries, or habitations of will equally amuse and instruct:

the monks, contained all the books then in ex. (1.) “ The persons inside the coach were Mr.

istence, and these books were all written. They Miller, a clergyman, his son, a lawyer, Mr.

r; were chiefly manuscripts, in rolls made of parch. Angeló, a foretgner, his lady, and a little child."

ment. Kings and nobles rarely could read. The By this mode of pointing it would appear that

great Charlemagne could not write. Grants of there were eight individuals in the coach, name.

property, and other transactions of business, ly, a clergyman, a lawyer, a foreigner and his

were recorded by professed writers, and the perlady, a little child, Mr. Millcr, Mr. Angelo, and

sons concerned affixed the mark of a cross to the clergyman's son.

their own names written in another hand. (2.) "The persons inside the coach were Mr.

All this is entirely altered at the present time. Miller, a clergy man ; his son, a lawyer ; Mr. The invention of printing occurred A. D. 1444, Angelo, a foreigner ; his lady ; and a little in Germany, and immediately after books began child."

to be written and printed, and read by all who This change in the punctuation would reduce

a reduce could acquire the art of reading, which in a cen. the parties in the coach, exclusive of the lady

wae lady tury became greatly extended. It must not, how. and child, to three persons ; and make Mr. Mil.

llo ever, be supposed that the knowledge of books Jer himself a clergyman, Mr. Miller's son, al is even now universal. In all civilized society. lawyer, and Mr. Angelo a foreigner.

in Europe and America, there are still many per (3.) 1 The persons inside the coach were Mr. l sons unable to read and write. Miller ; a clergyman, his son ; a lawyer, Mr.

It is curious to enquire what people first inAngelo; a foreigner, his lady, and a little child."

vented the alphabet and its mbinations in wrikHere Mr. Miller's son becomes a clergyman, ten words and sentences. Savages never have Mr. Angelo a lawyer. and the lady and child letters or written characters. When the Spa. aose ofl oreigner wnois nameiess.

niards first discovered Mexico, the natives of that (4.) “The persons inside the coach were Mr.

country used hieroglyphics, or rudely drawn picMiller ; a clergyman, his son; a lawyer; Mr. tures upon cloth or tablets of wood, to express Angelo; a foreigner, his lady; and a little any intelligence they would convey. This picchild."

ture-writing was used in ancient Egypt. "The Mr. Angelo here ceases to be a lawyer ; there origin of written or visible language is lost in a is no longer a foreigner who is the husband of the remote antiquity, nor can it now be ascertained lady and the father of the child ; but the lady as what nation is entitled to the honor of the disdescribed as being a foreigner, and Mr. Angelo's covery." Some writers, however, have contend. wife; and the child is not understood as being ed that the Phænicians, and others the Egyptians, akin to any person in the coach.

were the inventors of letters. Perhaps differ. Other alterations might be made in the sense ent characiers or letters were invented by each. of this passage by altering the punctuation; but Moses, the legislator of the Jews, was bred sufficient has been done to show the necessity of up" in all the learning of Egypt," and to him pointing a passage so as to accord with the fact were committed the “ oracles of God,”-that is, it is intended to relate.

the will and purposes of God-in writing, which

he was to read to the Hebrew people. This was MR. DWIGHT-I am greatly obliged to you before Christ 1490, or fifteen centuries almost. for a number of the Journal lately received." It This event is related in the book of Exodus, is a gratification to know that the superintendents chapter 31, as follows: When the Hebrew peoand inspeetors of towns, as well as the teachers, I ple had come out of Egypt, and were sojourning are awake to the improvableness--the perpetuaí | in the Arabian wilderness, Moses, their leader

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was called up into Mount Sinai to receive the Mr. Page comes among us so strongly recom. laws which God was pleased to bestow upon the mended. that the Executive Committee have redescendants of Abraham, in preparation for their establishment in Palestine. "And the Lord said posed this important trust in his hands, with unto Moses, come up to me into the mount, and I entire confidence that he will make this school there will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and a blessing and an honor to the state. commandments which I have written, that thou! mavest teach them." By this account it appears. We take the following brief notice or Mr. that the commandments, &c., were written by Page, from the "Salem Observer:” the Deity himself. Moses, to whom they were DESERVED COMPLIMENT.-D. P. PAGE, Esq., entrusted, already knew how to read this sacred for many years at the head of the High School writing-he had learned reading and writing from in Newburyport. has recently been appointed the Egyptians, among whom he had been educated.

Principal of the Normal School, which is about The countrymen of Moses had priests who

going into operation in the city of Albany. The were to read the Law to the people, and the

state of New York has made very liberal approwhole tribe of Levi were a class of learned men.

I priations for the establishment and support of By means of the writers among the Hebrews,

this institution, and we think the Board of Trus. all the sacred Books of the Old Testament were

tees have been exceedingly fortunate in securing preserved for future generations of men. But

the services of Mr. Page. We know of no man the Phænicians, a people of western Asia, in

so well fitted for the situation, and though his habitants of the territory adjacent to that of the

removal from our county must be a source of deep Hebrew nation, are described by Lucan, a latin

regret to his numerous friends, they must feel poet, who wrote about seventy years after Christ gratihed to know that he has been invited to ocas the inventors of letters.

cupy a position so honorable and important.

He has, for many years, been an active and use Phænicians first, if ancient fame be true, The sacred mystery of letters knew;

ful member of our County Teachers' Associa. They first by sound in various lines designed,

|tion, and has won the respect and esteem of all Exprest the meaning of the thinking mind.

who have met with him.
The power of words by figures rude conveyed, | Mr. P. has labored in Newburyport about 16
And useful science everlasting made.
Then Memphis, ere the reedy leaf was known,

years with eminent success and favor, and his Engraved her precepts and her arts in stone

loss to that community must be severe indeed. While animals in various order placed,

His recent and former pupils have expressed The learned hieroglyphic column graceed.

their gratitude for his services and sense of his Rowe's Translation of Lucan.

worth in a most substantial and flattering manThese verses affirm that after the Phænicians ner. On the evening of the 10th inst. (the day had practised the art of writing, in Memphis, I before his departure,) a large number of his a city of ancient Egypt, useful truths were young friends visited him at his residence and engraved upon stone, as were the laws of the presented him with an elegant and costly SILVER Hebrews on Mount Siani; and that in the samel PITCHER,-a beautiful gold pencil and some country, hieroglyphics of different animals were valuable books,--the value of all exceeding $100. cut in obelisks, or tall taper columns of stone, I The presentation and acceptance of the articles some of which yet remain in Egypt. And this were accompanied with very appropriate and in. was before the leafy reed was known," before teresting remarks, and the counterances and the reed papyrus was made into the substance moistened eyes of many indicated that the oce called paper, which the Egyptians afterwards casion was not one of mere ceremony. An ob employed to write upon.

server could not fail to see that many a young The art of writing seems long to have been heart was deeply pained at the thought of partconfined to Egypt, Phænicia and the country of ing with him, who, for so long a period had been the Hebrews, for the Greek poet, Homer, who their teacher and friend. lived six centuries after Moses, sang or recited Mr. Page leaves our county with the best his own verses, which were afterwards written wishes of all who knew him, and with proper by command of Pisistratus, the Athenian, four encouragement and facilities he will meet every centuries after the death of Homer. It was, I reasonable expectation of the friends of educa. however, in the course of time introduced into tion within the sphere of his future influence. Europe, probably by those Egyptian and Greek colonists who migrated to Greece, and civilizing

YON

PHYSICAL EDUCATION its natives, in the descendants of both, formed the

BY S. S. RANDALL, most enlightened and creative people in art and science of all antiquity.

Man has a three-fold nature--physical, intel

lectual and moral : and it is the due developNORMAL SCHOOL.

ment, proper cultivation and judicious direction

of his whole nature, which constitutes educaDAVID P. PAGE, of Newburyport, Mass., has tion. The connection between the mind and been appointed Principal of the State Normal

body is, in this life, indissoluble—the former School. GEORGE R. Perkins, of Utica, has te

cannot manifest itself independently of the lat.

ter-and all its energies are dependent for their charge of the Mathematical Department. healthy and vigorous action, upon the healthy

Mr. PERKINS is widely and favorably known performance of those organic functions, which as the author of several Mathematical works,

are necessary to physical well-being. If the

body is diseased--from whatever cause—the and has gained an enviable distinction for his mind is weakened and rendered in a greater or eminent success in teaching,

less degree incapable of effieient and vigorous action. The immediate seat of the mind is the own earliest remembrances, and to which, we brain : it is there and there only that all the ope. look back with sensations which contrast so rations of thought, reason, imagination and re. powerfully with those which make up our preflection are carried on : and it is there that all sent experience. Had we relained the innocen. the various emotions of the mind, such as love cy of childhood, we should have secured for and fear, benevolence, veneration, conscience, ourselves its happiness. But each successive hope, anticipation, and all the passions and departure from the simplicity and harmony of propensities such as pride and vanity, selfish nature-each heedless, ignorant, or intentional ness, envy, malevolence, covetousness, dupli. violation of the physical law of our beingcity have iheir source. Hence upon the sound leads by almost imperceptible gradations to ness and healthy action of this important por- habitual and systematic disregard of the consti. tion of our animal economy, is dependent, in an tution impressed upon our nature by the hand of essential degree, the strength, vigor and effici• the Almighty Architect; and we might as reaency of all our mental operations. In the brain sonably and justly look for the highest results of also, terminate all those nerves of motion, of the finished mechanism of a time-piece, when sensation, and of feeling which affect the con- its complicated and delicately adjusted parts have dition of the whole body-so that is any portion one after the other become deranged, broken and whatever, of that wonderful and complicated destroyed, as expect the continued enjoyment of organization which constitutes life, becomes in health and happiness from the disordered play any manner deranged and incompetent to the l of the still more complicated organization of our performance of its requisite functions in the animal economy, when all its nice adaptations economy of our being, the brain partakes of to the external world have been overlooked or this derangement, and it is through that organ | disregarded-its finest susceptibilities of plea. only that information of such derangement is ! sure perverted and deadened-its energies pa. transmitted to the mind. The first requisite ralyzed or weakened-and its most important therefore to a sound education, is to become ac- functions thoughtlessly misapprehended or crimi. quainted with the nature and constitution of our nally misapplied. physical organization : to learn the conditions uron which alone health is to be preserved and to obey the laws which the Creator has impres.

PSYCHOLOGY, OR THE SCIENCE OF MIND. sed upon the human constitution It is from ig. norance, neglect and violation of these laws that WHEN Germany groaned under a foreign yoke, most, if not all, the physical evils which have it was in the schools of Kant that was first preso long encompassed mankind, take their origin. pared her resistance. It was the word of her The fearful ravages of disease in all its forms- Ideologues" which first drew the sword of her from mere general debility and languor to the deliverance. From this sacred source, remote most aggravated shapes of pestilence which as it may appear from objects of sense, even have from time to time scourged the race-are physical discovery has drawn its origin. Bacon, the legitimate and necessary consequences of the Descartes, Leibnitz, Newton-were all profound partial or more extensive violation of the laws metaphysicians. Lavoisier never could have of our being: and we have the most abundant rescued chemistry from the chaos in which he reason for believing that by a general systematic found it, were it not that he had derived from and faithful adherence under all circumstances his metaphysical studies that elevation of viewto those laws, our world, instead of the scene that precision of idea-that fertility of inven. of wretchedness and misery-protracted suffer. tion-which give such value to his magnificent ing and premature death, which it now exhibits labors. Even mathematics themselves depend would become the extended theatre of unmiti upon its aid. If its influence then, has, even in gated happiness and enjoyment-and that the the material world been so very visible, in its final dissolution of our being, when all its ob- own peculiar province, the spiritual, it must be jccts and uses were accomplished, instead of unbounded. In its application to morality, it is forming any exception to the benevolent dispen the very basis of legislation and theology : with. sations of creative wisdom and goodness, would out a preliminary knowledge of its leading prinbe universally regarded as its crowning blessing. ciples, high as either of these sciences may ap.

This view of the subject, and this alone, is pear to rank, they must be devoid of that spiritconsistent with all our ideas of the benevolentual and inward power which gives them not only designs of the Creator, with reference to the their dignity and grandeur, but their true practi. present world. The most ample provision has cal grasp upon the souls and actions of men. been made for our happiness and welfare. Eve-Lower the tone of mental science in any counry faculty of the mind and every bodily organ try, and proportionally with it must moral science has been so constituted, as to be capable of con descend. Where moral science falls into disre. ferring the greatest possible amount of pleasure pute, there religion wanes off into ceremony and consistent with our nature : and the external outward ritual; and morality, left to its own guid. universe of matter as well as of mind has been ance, insensibly degenerate into the vulgar, and beautifully and even magnificently adapted to takes the tinge of the material with which it is the promotion of our highest enjoyment. So perpetually combined. We require something long as we conform to the intentions of Provi. lio win us back from such sordid interests—somedence and live in harmony with its ordinances thing to keep in fealty and obedience the physi. written upon thHery tablets of our mind, and cal man. Moral science has little direct relation open to the rensi simple comprehension, so long with mere physical wants : She deals with a do we recein abundant profusion the rich rc. loftier world; she uses thought, not as an inwards of o bedience in that vivid enjoyment strument of enjoyment, but as a creator or puri. of existenc which the healthy, happy child ex. fieras a deliverer—as the means to obtain that hibits and tels, which is incorporated with our independence from the debasing and gross of our

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nature, without which the hope even of material host of the high ones that are on high, and the perfection is in vain. She turns us in upon our kings of the earth upon the earth." To allow selves : and from this self-study--this solemn such a power to be abroad, and not to seek its exploring of the inward man, we come back to tutorship and guidance--not to spend with a lay. the material world, with far juster measures ish earnestness all our means upon that object even of these earthly relations than we could to which all others are as nothing-is indeed a possibly have had before. Morality gains new folly which not even the most prosperous governand nobler motives-religion a higher and purer ments should be allowed to commit. Unless we morality. Indifference to such inquiries is cha- seek to purify, to ennoble, to illuminate societyracteristic, and productive of a selfish civiliza- unless we give a discipline to its strength, and tion. If such an age throws out occasional | a wisdom to its daring-we intrust our insti. blossoms of moral excellence, or that to these tutions to builders who may pull down, but blossoms succeed fruit, it is attributable not so will never be able to build up any thing but a much to its own moral vigor, as to the sap of worse description of Babel in their places. This another generation working in it still. Such per- renovation is in our hands. It is so to-day-but haps has been too much the case with our own who can assure us that it will be so to-morrow country. The want of moral and mental science Wyse on Education Reform. is conspicuous, even in our virtues. We require to handle every thing-to materialize every

From the Boston Courier. thing—we seem to know of no such thing as mere mind. This passion for the corporeal and

TEACHERS' INSTITUTES. active, this dislike to the mental and contempla- HATING received an invitation to attend a tive has got into the spiritual itself. We must Teachers' Institute in the western part of Newnot only have an end, but it must be at arm's York. and being desirous to see how the cause length. We cennot canceive the beauty of an of education flourished in the Empire State, I unseeing and untouching faith-a hope which started, in company with a distinguished teachstretches through generations, is to us folly.er from this city, who had received an invitaOur imagination-our religion-breathe of the tion from the superintendents of Allegany and positive. Our institutions are all "redolentof Wyoming counties to visit them, and render this banking spirit. Our Midas touch turns such assistance as might be in his power.. every thing into ingots and finance; and wher As some accounts of these Institutes may be our piety seeks for a paradise, it is in a Jerusa- both interesting and useful to the friends of edu. lem

red with precious stones, that our money.cation in this quarter, I freely furnish such de loving generation delights to luxuriate. But out tails as occur to me, and I hope such as may of this mammon thraldom there is surely a re- lead to the adoption of similar measures in our demption. There are means of imbuing society own State. with a more perfect spirit with a pride more About three years since, a Mr. Denman, su. intrinsical, issuing more from the man himself, perintendent of one of the counties, feeling the less from the accessories around him. These necessity of more uniformity and thorough pracmeans are to be sought in mind and the study of tical knowledge in the art of teaching, among mind; and if ever they ought to be sought, it is the teachers of his county, proposed a conven. in this day, " when the earth reels to and fro tion of all the teachers in the county, for the like a drunkard,"—when society is yet in stern purpose of spending two weeks in receiving and and universal strife ; when law and rule and imparting instruction in the branches taught in judgment, however irrevocable, however un the schools, and also in acquiring the art of com. changeable they may seem, are only transitions--municating this knowledge more practically to links between the old and new ; when all men their pupils. The experiment was successful, feel, however humble, old systems gradually and fully realized the highest anticipations of dissolving around them, and each is called, how the projector. Teachers, coming together from ever reluctant, to bear his part in the construc. all parts of the county, became acquainted with tion of the new. The interests of mankind have each other, and freely communicated such know. 9 become large and lofty, and awful: they are not ledge as they possessed, becoming in turn both to be studied in the battle field, nor in the money teachers and pupils, thus rendering the institute mart-least of all in the ante-chambers of princes; in fact, for the time being, a Normal school, other counsellors, other parties, of far more ama and school of mutual instruction. The benefits ple influence are to be consulted. New and arising from these institutes must be incalcula. mightier masses, little dreamt of informer ble. struggles or adjustments, not merely with their On our way to Wyoming, we stopped a day at physical energies, but with their minds, and the Auburn, where we found a Teachers' Institute weapons of mind, have crowded into the con- in session, consisting of about one hundred and fliet. Physical energy was of old, the only lever thirty teachers. They were in the second week of the multitude; but they knew not how to use of their session, and the zeal and enthusiasm it; they either grasped it too long, or too short- they manifested, indicated an increased ardor in expended too much motion, or too much power: the cause in which they were engaged. After but mind is now amongst them, economising and giving them a lecture, and tuning their voices in systematising their forces--to good, if well di- the art divine, we started for Wyoming and Al rected; but if to ill, enhancing the evil and perillegany, the seene of our principal labors. At a thousand fold. Truly it is a war of opinion: Perry, in Wyoming county, w found about sixty but of opinion which is not satisfied with teachers, who appeared devotel in their profesthoughts and words-its very whispers are more sion, and ready and anxious to clarin all the ini fearful than in other days the commands of conformation they could in the short side they were querors. In an hour they "thunderstrike” the to be in session, strongest from their seats--they punish thel Judge Stevens, the superintena at in this

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