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cation of moral instruction, interest felt by pa. are here offered, in the hope that further obser. rents as shown by their visitations to the school, vations on the same subject may be drawn from and usually concludes by such suggestions of abler writers. improvement as their experience or reflection Each town superintendent should provide may authorize. Thus the real situation of these himself with a blank book, in which he should primary seminaries is portrayed in vivid and keep a record of all his official acts; and the in. truthful colors. The citizens of the town are formation obtained in his visits to the schools rethus made acquainted with the manner in which specting their condition, management, studies the school fund is rendered useful or squander. pursued, progress of the scholars and various ed. A spirit of wholesome emulation is also other points should be carefully noted down. in this way stimulated into activity between the "Henry's Field Book for Town Superintendents" respective teachers and schools. Each school, exhibits a good plan for recording, in a tabular as a whole, will strive to stand high when como form, the information obtained in visiting. On pared with others; each teacher will put forth the first view, I was inclined to think this form strenuous efforts to acquit himself honorably. might be considerably abridged, without detriNo harm will ever arise from this species of ment; but a “sober second thought," has conemulation.
vinced me that the inquiries of the inspecting of. "The teachers' reports may be in writing, ficer should extend to all the points named in the and preserved in the town clerk's office, as a "Field Book." I should be pleased to see this permanent history of the schools in the town. "Field Book," or something like it, in general Such a depository would be invaluable."
It may be asked, what is the advantage of such COMMUNICATIONS.
a record? I reply by asking, what is the advan. tage of visiting the schools at all? Isit not to in.
quire into their condition and management? And The following timely and judicious sugges. \ if the information is worth inquiring for, is it not tions, should be carefully considered and ener- worth preserving? getically carried out. This is the commence. I. Such a record would furnish the town super. ment of a new school year, and such measures the recommendation of the Department, to make
intendent with a ready means of complying with should now be taken as will make it a year of annually to the county superintendent, "a deuniversal and inestimable blessings. The means
tailed report of the character and condition of the
several schools within his town." By comparing are provided by our admirable school organiza- the record of different years, we could judge, tion, and the united and cordial co-operation of with a great degree of accuracy, whether the its officers, might secure greater benefits to the schools were improving. On going out of office, state, than if they had power to give untold the town superintendent should hand over his
record to his successor, and thus would be fur. wealth to every family within its borders. nished an unbroken and minute history of primary
If each County Superintendent will arrange an| education in the several towns, No doubt the early meeting of these town officers, and adopt |
course here recommended would act as a stimulus
to teachers; for when we are conscious that our such a plan of supervision, examination, drills
pan di supervision, examination, ariisdeeds are to be recorded in a particular manner, and celebrations as shall wisely combine their it is very natural to desire that such record should joint labors, then, one year of well-planned, ani.
present us in a favorable light. ted effort will accomplish more than a decade of
1 The town and county superintendents of each
county should hold a regular annual meeting: partial and independent exertions. Shall it not County conventions should not be a transient af be done?
fair ; the practice of holding them, at least once Similar measures to those here recommended,
a year, should always be continued. The time
of such meeting should remain the same from have already been partially tested in the county 1 year to year; the day would then obtain notorie. of Albany, and we ask attention to the outlines ty, and would not be easily forgotten. The conof the plan there adopted. as given under our edi. | vention should be held within a few weeks anter torial head, hoping that it may excite attention to then in the beginning of their term of office, and
town meeting. The town superintendents are the means of giving the greatest possible efficien. they would have time, before its expiration, to do cy to an excellent school organization.
much towards carrying out the plans adopted by We need hardly add, that we concur in the opin. Theld near the close of their term, those officers
the convention. But if the meeting should be ion expressed of the value of Henry's Field Book, might not be inclined to adopt very extensive and wish it were in the hands of every town su. schemes of improvement, on the ground that they perintendent.
might go out of office before much progress could
be made in the execution of them.
(For the Journal.] TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS.
1 I need not dwell on the advantages of these conventions. If the superintendents meet annu.
ally for consultation and discussion, they will MR. DWIGHT-The substitution of one school have the benefits of each other's obsery officer for five, in each town, will not produce all and experience, they will become better s the advantages expected from the measure, un. in the performance of their official duties ; pas less the town superintendents perform their dul of improvements embracing a whole sa ties with faithfulness and energy. Some hints could be concerted, and united action relating to the duties of Town Superintendents, secured.
The convention should appoint one of its num. pline that had unconsciously formed her habits ber, Recording Secretary. He should be provi. Jöf mind-that to do good, she must first please; ded with a substantial blank book, at the ex. that she must predispose those whom she would pense of the members, and in this, all the reso-serve, to the reception of benefits. “It is high lutions, discussions, and proceedings should be treason against virtue to be good and disagree. recorded. The convention would then present able," said the accomplished Elizabeth Smith. the appearance of a permanent body, assem- " Trumpery etiquettes are going out of use," bling at stated intervals, to deliberate upon the said Sir Walter Scott, and he was right. But great subject of popular education. Its endu. hollow forms of artificial society make no part ring records might furnish valuable materials for of that inbred civility, which truly grows out of the future historian.
brotherly kindness--that forbeareth in love I cannot doubt that each town is able to fur- that seeketh not its own, but being clothed in nish at least one competent individual, who has humility, postpones its own claims, in all small public spirit enough faithfully to attend said matters, to others better entitled to precedence. conventions. And if a person chosen to the of. So careful are the French in this matter, that fice of town superintendent, has so little regard for two centuries they have used a little book for the cause of education that he will not at called “Civilité du premier age." It teaches tend, the people should turn him out, and fill his the child how to conduct himself at table, at place with some one who is more worthy.
church, and in all the ordinary intercourse of
Á. R. life. It may be urged that example and oral in. Dutchess County, N. Y.
struction ought to do this without books, and
we admit the obligation. But if neither the (For the District School Journal.] example nor instruction of home are afforded, GOOD MANNERS.
as they are not, to multitudes of children, may
not the school-book, and the school-master, or By the Author of the School Friend." " Popular
school-mistress, do something for the neglected Lessons," &c.
child ?-Or, if he be not neglected, will line
upon line, and precept upon precept," be super THE cultivation of good manners is an essen- fluous to him, whose early virtue has been fos. tial part of education. “Evil communications tered where character, of necessity, takes its corrupt good manners," says the Apostle. He first impressions ? probably meant, by "good manners, the whole We remember that forty years ago the little outward life. His notions of virtue were ex. children of the country doffed their hats, and tended beyond dispositions and principles, to dropped their curtsies on meeting a stranger in outward manifestations; for when he says, " Be the highway. This practice has long been dis. pitiful," he adds, "be courteous.” In truth, I continued; but there was something amiable in the outward act--the observance--operates upon it. Under instruction of the good Oberlin, the the inward mind, as the disposition does upon people of the Ban de la Roche, though they althe ordinary demeanor. Europeans universally ways remained extremely poor, became remarkremark upon the want of veneration, common able for their graceful politeness. An English: to the Americans. Veneration is not mere awe traveller who visited them, was charmed with and admiration for proper objects of religious the polish, the mutual deference of their mansentiment, but it is respect to superiority. In a ners. The teacher of a school, who disciplines republican country, we do not recognise any in the manners of his pupils, does much for their feriority of one person to another on account of hearts, and for the beauty of society. He sets the station or the wealth of the more favored; , up a rule of action above and beyond self-love. but who contends that all men and women, and “ Are there none whom I can please, or dis. all ages of life, and all modifications of charac- please can serve, or injure ?" is an inquiry ter dependent on condition, are equal?
constantly to be set before the mind of a child; "We live by admiration, hope, and love,"
and Miss Hannah More has answered this ques. »
tion, in saying, says Mr. Wordsworth. All elevated and wor. thy life, is exalted by the former sentiment, in
. "Few can save or serve, but all can please." higher or lower degrees. “Honor all men' To all who live in society, the good opinion “in honor preferring one another," are among of others is necessary-necessary in some sort, the good counsels of the great teacher above to success in life-necessary to a cordial and quoted, and we wish to urge upon the cultiva. satisfactory reception among men-necessary to tors of the young, to make practical use of his give efficacy to virtue. “ Abstain from all ap. injunctions.
pearance of evil,” even that appearance of it' “Good breeding has been well described, as which a reckless, self-engrossed, careless de. the art of rendering to all what is socially their portment presupposes-the evil of egregious due." Selfishness, or more properly, exagge. self-consideration, and of consequent disregard rated self-importance, and a pathy, are occasions and oversight of the convenience and approval of rudeness and incivility. Politeness is the of others. lowest form of virtue; but it is, nevertheless, al What can education do for a people? This form of virtue ; an expression of respect and is a question for the profoundest minds to inves. concern for others. Madame Roland, a French tigate, and reply to. But all of us have a prac. woman of the last century, distinguished by the tical answer to give to it, whether we will or largest benevolence, and the highest sell.cul. not; for we all have responsibilities, of our ture, thus briefly describes herself in her child. Maker's appointment, to the rising race and hood." My only desire was to please, and to the next age. We do not create the moral laws, do good.” She knew intuitively-or she did not they are propounded to us by Him who cannot distinguish first nature from the early disci. I err; but in our ripeness, we may not discharge
ourselves from our obligations to the young. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.
Extracts from the last Annual Report of Hon. H. Mann. lective virtue and happiness of the present and future generations; we may cultivate in them the principles, and induce the habits, which I HAVE uniformly made inquiries respecting socialize a people; and may prepare them to the use of corporal punishment as a means of become, what the Creator has designed them to order, and an incitement to progress, in schools. be. No part of this preparation is more impor- In Holland corporal punishment is obsolete. tant, than that which inculcates respect for several teachers and school officers told me others, founded on sell-respect. E. 'R. there was a law prohibiting it in all cases.
Others thought it was only a universal practice (For the District School Journal.]
founded on a universal public opinion. The ab
sence of the Minister of Public Instruction, DISTRICT SCHOOL ASSOCIATION when I was at the Hague, prevented my obtain
ing exact information on this interesting point. FOR WAWARSING, ULSTER COUNTY.
But whatever was the cause, corporal punish
ment was not used. In cases of incorrigible. The friends of common school education in
ness, expulsion from school was the remedy. the town of Wawarsing, Ulster county, impress. One of the school magistrates in Amsterdam ed with the importance of good schools, and be told me, that last year, about five thousand chillieving, that the low condition of the common dren were taught in the free schools of that schools throughout the state generally, is in city. Of this number, from forty to fîty were consequence of the indifference felt and mani. expelled for bad conduct. This would be about fested by the people in regard to these primary one per cent. institutions; and believing also, that frequent At Haarlem Mr. de Vries told me he had and close examinations, and a thorough super. kept the same school for about twenty years, vision by the friends of education, is all that is that its average number had been six hundred necessary to make them “the boast and pride scholars, that not an instance of the infliction of of the state;' have recently organized an asso- corporal punishment had occurred during the ciation, known as the “Common School Asso. whole time, and that two only, (boys,) had been ciation of the town of Wawarsing," adopting a expelled from it, as hopelessly incorrigible. He constitution, requiring monthly, quarterly, and added, that both those boys had been afterannual meetings, at which addresses, discus-wards imprisoned for crime. On seeing the sions, &c., are to be had, all relating to the in- manner of Mr. de Vries, his modes of instructerests of popular education, by suggesting and tion, and the combined dignity and affection discussing new and improved methods of teach with which he treated his pupils, I could readiing in the schools.
1 ly believe the statement. The officers of the assoeiation, are a presi. The schools of Holland were remarkable for dent, seven vice-presidents, a secretary, and a good order,-among the very best, certainly, treasurer. The town is divided into seven dis. which I have any where seen. Nor does this tricts, over cach of which a vice-president has arise from any predominance of phlegm in the jurisdiction, assisted by two individuals, who constitution, or any tameness of soul; for the accompany him in his examinations of the Dutch are certainly as high-toned and freeschools under his charge, and advise with, and spirited a people as any in Europe. This fact assist him in all his duties. Thus a committee may be read in their organization and natural of three is formed in every section of the town, language, as well as learned from their history. whose special duty it is to visit and examine In Hamburgh I visited an institution of a nothe schools under its charge, at least once in vel character. It was a Punishment-School, or each quarter, and report the result of such exa. school-prison,-a place of instruction and re. mination at each quarterly meeting, including straint for those children belonging to the poor. their statistics, general appearance, condition, schools of the city, who commit any aggravaimprovement, &c.
ted offence. In Hamburgh many poor people The association has held two monthly, and receive assistance from the city. One of the two special meetings, and three addresses have conditions of the succor is, that those who rebeen given by its members.
ceive it shall send their children to the schools Alvan B. Preston, President; Foster D. Bird provided for them. If a child in these schools sall, Secretary
commits any trivial or ordinary offence, he is A committee has also been appointed, con punished in the school in the usual way. But sisting of the president of the Association and if the transgression is gross, or if he persists in the town superintendent, for the purpose of a course of misconduct, he is sentenced by the communicating with the county, and the several competent authorities to a Prison, or Punishtown superintendents in the county, in order to meni-School, (Strafschule). Here he must take measures for the formation of a County at eight in the morning, and remain until eign Association, having the same objects in view.' in the evening. A part of the day is spent i GEO. A. DUDLEY,
study, a part in work. I saw the children pickTown Sup't Wawarsing. ing wool. There were twenty-one boys in one
room, and eleven girls in another. The school Truth can only be discovered by peaceful was in the third story of a building! and near minds ; it is only adopted by kindred spirits. If the schoolrooms were small and wretched bed. it change the opinions of men, it is only by in-rooms, where those whose sentence covered the sensible gradations-a gentle and easy descent night, as it sometimes did, were compelled to conducting to reason.
The children were usually sentenced to so In some of the proprietary and endowed many stripes, as well as to so many days' con- schools of England, the practice of solitary confinement, and the teacher kept a book, as a finement still prevails. In large establishments jailer keeps a record of his prisoners, in which at Birmingham, Liverpool, &c., I saw cells, or the case of each child was recorded. At the ex. solitary chambers, four or five feet square, for piration of the sentence, the children return to the imprisonment of offenders. These were not the school whence they came. Instances of a for mere children, but for young men. I have second, and even of a third commitment some- seen a lad fifteen or sixteen years of age, dress. times occur.
ed in a cap and gown,--the scholastic uniform While I was stopping at the punishment of England,-a prisoner in one of these apartschool, the hour of dinner arrived. All the ments: boys left their schoolroom for one of the adja. In some of the private establishments at Pa. cent rooms, and all the girls for another. They ris, an extent of surveillance over the conduct of arranged themselves in groups of four each, on students prevails, of which we have no idea. the opposite sides of a long table. A bowl of This is intended to supersede the necessity of bean-porridge was set in the centre of each punishment, by taking away all opportunity for group, and to each child was given a large, transgression. Some of the private schools are round, coarse wooden spoon. The teacher en subsidiary to the colleges,-that is, the master tered a sort of pulpit and said grace, after of the private school has the general charge which the children ate their homely meal. and superintendence of the students, maintains There was very little of indecorous behaviour, them at his own house, instructs them himself such as winking or laughing in a clandestine or by his assistants, at home, but takes them manner, but the sobriety appeared to me to come daily to the college, where their lessons are more from fear than from repentance. One of finally heard by professors. I attended, one the rules was, that during the twelve hours of morning, the opening of the College Bourbon, daily confinement the children should have no in Paris. At eight o'clock the private teachers communication with each other ; but it happen-came, followed by their pupils marching in pro. ed here, as it has in many other cases where all cession. All entered a large square or court, communication is interdicted, that it is carried enclosed on all sides, except the gate-way, by on clandestinely, or by stealth,--an evil much the college buildings.' Soon aster, the roll of a greater than any which can result from allowed drum was heard, at which all the students ar. intercourse.
ranged themselves in classes. At a second The highest tension of authority whịch I any drum beat they marched to their recitation where witnessed, was in the Scotch schools. rooms. The teachers then returned home, but There, as a general rule, the criminal code at the end of the college exercises they were to seemed to include mistakes in recitation as well be in attendance again, to take back their charge as delinquencies in conduct; and, where these in the same way as they had conducted them were committed, nothing of the law's delay" thither. To us this would seem singular, be. intervened between offence and punishment. If|cause many of the students had already passed & spectator were not vigilant, there might be an the age which we call the age of discretion. erroneous answer by a pupil, and a retributive By the invitation of one of the teachers, I ac. blow on his head by the teacher's fist, so instan. companied him home. The collegians were taneous and so nearly simultaneous, as to elude only the older pupils in his school, and I wished observation. Still the bond of attachment be. to see the rest of his establishment. It was tween teacher and pupils seemed very strong. laid out on a most liberal scale as to play. It was, however, a bond founded quite as much grounds, schoolrooms, dormitories, kitchen, &c., on awe as on simple affection. The general and was in an excellent condition of order and character of the nation was distinctly visible in neatness. The arrangement was such that he the schools. Could the Scotch teacher add could inspect all the play.grounds while sitting something more of gentleness to his prodigious in his study,-in this particular resembling energy and vivacity, and were the general influ. those prisons where all the wards can be in. ences which he imparts to his pupils modified in spected from a central point. But this was not one or two particulars, be would become a mo.all. As I passed round to see the several del teacher for the world.
schoolrooms, I observed that a single pane of In England, as there is no National system, glass had been set into the wall of each room, nor any authoritative or prevalent public opinion so that the principal, or any one deputed by towards which individual practice naturally gra. him, could inspect both the class and its teach. vitates, a great diversity prevails on this head. er without a moment's warning. This was In some schools talent and accomplishment have pointed out as one of the distinguishing excel. wholly superseded corporal punishment; in oth lences in the construction of the rooms. It was ers, it is the all in all of the teacher's power, stated also, that, in order to save the younger whether for order or for study. I was standing from contamination by associating with the old. one day, in conversation with an assistant teacher, there was not only an entire separation of er in a school consisting of many hundred chil. them in the schoolrooms, but also in the play. dren, when, observing that he held in his hand grounds and sleeping apartments; and it was a'lash or cord of Indian rubber, knotted to added further, that if two brothers of different wards the end, I asked him its use. Instead of ages and belonging to different classes, should answering my question in words, he turned round attend the school at the same time, they would to a little girl, --sitting near by, perfectly quiet, not be allowed to see each other. I asterwards with her arms, which were bare, folded before saw the same contrivances for inspection, not her and lying upon her desk,-and struck such only in other schools, but in the Royal College a blow upon one of them as raised a great red or Versailles,-a very distinguished institution. wale or stripe almost from elbow to wrist! | I feel unable to decide whether, in such a
state of society and with such children, this with the masters of the Pensions. For this purpiercing surveillance is not the wisest thing that pose careful inquiries are made ; and, somecan be done ; but with us the question certainly times, agents are employed to search out lads arises, whether the cause of school morals of promise, and bring them to the school. In would gain more in the end by a closeness of some instances, not only tuition, but the whole inspection, designed to prevent the outflow of expense of board, lodging, &c., is gratuitously all natural action; or by allowing more freedom furnished ; and, in extraordinary cases, a pecu. of will, with a careful training of the conscience niary bounty beyond the whole expenses of the beforehand, and a strict accountability for con- pupil, has been given. It may be said that this duct afterwards.
has a good effect, because it searches out the At all times, and in all countries, the rule is látent talent of the country, and suffers no ge. the same ;-the punishment of scholars is the nius to be lost through neglect. But here, as complement of the proper treatment of children every where else, the great question is, whether by parents at home, and the competency of the the principle is right, for no craft of man can teacher in school. Where there is less on one circumvent the laws of nature, or make a bad side of the equation, there must be more on the motive supply the place or produce the results other.
of a good one. The teachers do not supply EMULATION.
these facilities, or encourage this talent, from In the Prussian and Saxon schools, emulation benevolence. It is speculation. It is pecuniary is still used as one of the motive-powers to stu. speculation ; and if they did not anticipate a dy ; but I nowhere saw the passion inflamed to richer return for their outlay, when invested in
insupportable temperature. I was uniformly this manner than when used in a legitimate told that its employment was becoming less and way, they would not incur such extraordinary less, and that the best authorities throughout
trouble and risk. Hence they devote them. the country were now discountenancing, rather
selves in an especial manner to the training of than encouraging it. Just in proportion as the
these prize-fighters, while other pupils suffer a qualifications of teachers had improved, it had
proportional neglect. The very children, therebeen found less necessary to enlist this passion fore, who are attracted to the school in conse
their service and as the great idea of edu. quence of its celebrity, are defrauded of their cation,-that of the formation of Christian cha. share of attention, in order that the reputation racter and habits,-had been more and more
of the school, for which they have been made developed, emulation had been found an adverse victims, may induce others to join it, to be made and not a favoring influence.
victims in their turn. "Thus the system pros. France and Scotland are the two countries in pers by the evil it works. There is the same Europe, where emulation between pupils, as
ambition among the colleges to win the prizes one of the motive-powers to study, is most vi.
of the university. The day of examination, gorously plied. In France the love of approba.
when these prizes are awarded, is one of great tion, of conspicuousness, of éclat, of whatever
pomp and ceremony. The Minister of Public ministers to the national passion of vanity, holds Instruction, and other high official dignitaries, pre-eminence. In Scotland rivalry is more fre usually attend ; the king himself has sometimes quently stimulated by the hope of reward. been present in person ; and it is a standing rule,
In one of the Pensions, or Boarding Schools, that the successful competitors are invited to of Paris, I was struck by the sight of a large dine at the royal table. number of portraits of young men. These were! Who that is conversant with the history of hung around the walls of the Principal's room. France does not see how much of her poverty, which was a large apartment, three of whose her degradation and her suffering, even in the sides were nearly covered by them. They were proudest periods of her annals, is directly attri. the portraits of those pupils of the school who 1 butable to this inordinate love of praise ; and had afterwards won prizes at a college exami. especially, how much of the humiliation of later nation. The name of the pupil, the year, and times, when the charm of her invincibility was the subject matter on which he had surpassed broken, and she was obliged to ransom herself his competitors, were inscribed respectively be. | from the grasp of her conquerors, by gold wrung neath the portraits. In the room of the lead from her toiling millions,- is directly traceable of the Royal College at Versailles, I also saw to the predominance in her character of this love the portraits of those students of the College of applause. It was this blind passion for glory who had won prizes at the University. This which created Bonaparte, and which sustained display and the facts connected with it, speak him not less faithfully in all his vast schemes of volumes in regard to the French character and I wickedndss than in his plans for improvement. the motive powers under which not only the "Had the Romans not been sheep, Cæsar had scholars, but the nation 'works. A brief ac. | not been a wolf!" count of a single phasis of this system.-for it! Among all the nations of Christendom, our is reduced to a system, if not particularly in. own is perhaps second only to France, in the teresting, may be instructive:
love of approbation as a prompter and guide to The Pensions, or Boarding Schools, are equi. action. Ought we then to cultivate this pas. .valent to our Select or Private Schools. Their sion, already of inordinate growth, by the use patronage depends upon their reputation; and of emulation in our schools ? that reputation is mainly graduated by the num. ber of distinguished scholars they send out. LOGARITHMS.-Logarithms in calculation are Hence to send pupils to the college who gain like the steam-engine in mechanics. They ena. prizes for scholarship, brings celebrity to the ble the calculator to overcome every obstacle, school and emolument to the master. To obtain and render the most intricate combinations of talented boys, therefore, becomes a grand object numbers comparatively easy.