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The Gossypium arboreum, or tree cotton, is of ed why Linnæus should have bestowed on it so uch larger growth. If left without being pru. singular a title. It is cultivated in the Maari. ed to luxuriate to its full height, it has sometius. There are two varieties of this species, mes attained to fifteen or twenty feet. The in the one the cotton is extremely white, in the aves grow upon long hairy footstalks, and are other it is of a yellowish brown, and is the ma. ivided into five deep spear-shaped lobes. This terial of which the stuff called nankeen is made; brub is a native of India, Arabia, and Egypt. it may therefore be presumed that this species is Another species is distinguished by the name a native of China, whence nankeen cloths are Gossypium religiosum. No reason is assign-I obtained.
of all the species the annual herbaceous plant riod is, however, well indicated by the spoatayields the most valuable produce. The vi neous bursting of the capsule or seed-pod. The island cotton,"imported into England from Geor. plantations at this time present a very pleasing gia, bears a price double to that imported from appearance. The glossy dark green leaves fineany other country.
ly contrast with the white globular forms pro The quantity of cotton which each plant yields fusely scattered over the tree. In the East the is as various as its quality. Accordingly there produce is gathered by taking off the whole of are scarcely two concurrent opinions to be col. the pod. In other parts, and this is the more lected on this subject. The average produce per general practice, the seeds and cotton are taken English acre is reckoned by different writers at away, leaving the empty husks. The first is of various quantities, varying from one hundred course much the most expeditious method, but and fifty to two hundred and seventy pounds of it has a very serious disadvantage. The outer picked cotton.
part breaks in minute pieces and thus mixes with The cotton plant will grow in most situations the cotton, which cannot be freed from it withand soils, and is cultivated with very little trou. out much time and difficulty. Whichever meth. ble or expense. According to Humboldt, the lar. orbis pursued this work is always performed in ger species which attain to the magnitude of trees the morning before sunrise, as soon as possible require a mean annual temperature of 630 Fah. after the cotton displays itself, because long exrenheit ; the shrubby kind may be cultivated posure to the sun injures its color. The cotton with success under a mean temperature of 600 shrub does not in general last more than five or to 640. The plant is propagated by seed. six years in fall or productive bearing; the plate
When the season has been favorable, the cot- tation is therefore generally after that period ten ton is in general fit for pulling about seven or newed. eight months after it has been sowa. This pe
[Cotton, showing a pod bursting.] The separation of the cotton from the seeds is Before the invention of spinning machinery in a very long and troublesome operation, when 1787, the demand for cotton-wool in England performed by the hand ; for the fibres of the was comparatively small
. In the 17th century cotton adhere tenaciously to the seed, and some we obtained our trifling supply wholly free time is consumed in cleansing even a small weight Smyrna and Cyprus, and when we were etes of so light a material. In the greater part of receiving it from our own colonies, we find tist India, the use of machinery for this purpose is from 1763 to 1787, the average annual impul vok nown, and all the cotton is picked by hand. was barely four millions of pounds. In in A man can in this manner separate from the we imported 19,900,000 pounds ; viz, 5,800,000 seeds scarcely more than one pound of cotton in pounds from the British West Indies ; 9,100,000 a day. The nse of the machine called a gin, from the French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Datch very much facilitates the process. This machine Colonies ; and 5,000,000 from Smyrne ud in general consists of two or three fluted rollers Turkey. Net in motion by the foot in the manner of a tur. The average annual import for the last six ning lathe, and by its means one person may se years has been 777,372 packages-each bale parate and cleanse sixty-five pounds per day, weighing about 21 or 3 cwt. and thus, by the use of a simple piece of machi- of 227,760,000 lbs. of cotton wool imported pory, increase his effective power sixty-five into the United Kingdom in 1828, 151,752,000 times. But a still greater increase may be ob- lbs. were from the United States ; 29,143,000 tnined by the employment of more complex en- bs. from Braza; 32,187,000 lbs. from the East Kines. In the United States of America mills Indies ; 6,454,000 lbs. from Egypt ; 5,893,000 are constructed on a large scale, and which are i Ibs. from the British West Indies ; 726,000 lbs
. Impelled by horses, steam, or other power.- from Columbia ; and 471,000 lbs. from Tarket Isight or nine hundred pounds of cotton are and Continental Greece. cleansed in a day by one of these machines, which requires the attendance of very few per.
NOTICE TO PUBLISHERS. sons.
A Committee has been appointed by an EduEntirely to cleanse the cotton from any remain cational Convention of Teachers, Town Super. ing fragments of seed, it is subjected to another intendents and others, of the county of Seneca, process. This consists in whisking it about in consisting of De Witt Clinton Van Slyek, George a light wheel, through which a current of air is H. Bottsford and Watts Livingston, to select a made to pass. As it is tossed out of this win. full series of Text-Books, and report the same nowing machine it is gathered up and conveyed to the "County Institute” which convenes in to the packing house, where, by means of screws, this village on the 15th of October next. it is forced into bags, each when filled weighing Authors are requested to furnish copies of about three hundred pounds. These are then such works as are published by them, directed to sewed up and sent to the place of shipment, the care of E. R. Lundy, Waterloo. All works rewhere they are again pressed and reduced to half ceived, will be duly appreciated by the committee. their original size.
W. C. LIVINGSTON, Pres't. Com.
VALUABLE SCHOOL BOOKS,
PUBLISHED BY HUNTING TON & SAVAGE, 216 PEARL-STREET, NEW-YORK. The Geography of the Heavens, and Class Book of i A Dictionary for Primary Schools. By Noah WobAstronomy, 1 vol. 18mo., accompanied by a Celestial ster. I vol. 16mo., 330 pp. Atlas, imperial 4to, neatly colored.
The Child's Picture Defining and Reading Book, by Contents of the Atlas.
the Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet. 1. Plan exhibiting the relative magnitudes, distances, The Malte Brun School Geography and Atlas, 289 and positions of the different bodies which compose the pages royal 18mo. and 32 engravings from original deSolar System. 2. The Visible Heavens in January, signs. By S. Griswold Goodrich. February, and March. 3. The Visible Hearens in Oc- A practical Grammar of the English language, or an tober, November, and December. 4. The Visible Hea introduction to Composition; in which the construcvens in July, August, and September. 6. The Visible tions of the language are classified into Predications Heavens in April, May, and Jane. 6. The Viaible Hea- and Phrases, by Edward Hazen, author of "The Synvens in the south polar regions for each month in the bolicae Spelling Book," " The Speller and Definer, year. 7. The Visible Heavens in the north polar regions and" Popular Technology, or Professions and Trades." for each month in the year. 8. The Planisphere of the Peter Parley's Geography for Children; illustrated whole Heavens, on Mercator's Projection. By E. A. with 9 maps and 75 engravings. Burritt, A. M., with an Introdaction by Thomas Dick, Peter Parley's History of the World, 75 engravings. LL. D., author of the Christian Philosopher. Written A New Introduction to the Science of Algebra; deexpressly for this work.
signed for Students in Colleges and the higher Schools Astronomy for Beginners, with a Map and twenty. and academies. By Silas Totten, M. A., Presidentof seven Engravings. By Francis Fellowes, A. M.
Washington College, Connecticut. Familiar Lectures on Botany; practical, elementary,
The Ecclesiastical Class Book, or History of the and physiological; with an appendix containing descrip. Church, from the birth of Christ, to the present time; tions of the Plants of the United States, the Exotics, adapted to the use of Academies and Schools. By &c.; also a Dictionary of the Symbolical language of Charles A. Goodrich. 1 vol. 18mo. Flowers.-1 vol. imperial 12mo., by Mrs. Almira H. Elements of Criticism by Henry Home, Lord Kaimes, Lincoln.
Judge of the Court of Sessions in Scotland, &c. &c., Botany for Beginners; an Introduction to Mrs. Lin. with Analyses and Translations of the Illustrations. coln's Lectures on Botany, for the use of Common Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of ladependSchools and the Younger Pupils of Higher Schools and ence, with an Introduction, giving a short sketch of the Academies. By Mrs. Lincoln Phelps, 1 vol. royal 18mo. causes which led to the Declaration of Independence,
Familiar Lectures on Natural Philosophy, for the use containing seven beautiful engravings on steel, among of Schools and Academies, 1 vol. 12 mo.
which is one taken from Col. Trumbull's celebrated Natural Philosophy for Beginners; designed for Com. picture of the “Signing of the Declaration of Inde mon Schools and Families. By Mrs. Phelps, author of pendence." I vol. imperial 12ino. pp. 479. " Familiar Lectures on Botany,” &e. 1 vol. 18mo.
Townrow's Stenography; prepared expressly for Familiar Lectures on Chemistry, for the use of Schools Schools and private instruction. and Academies. By Mrs. Phelps (formerly Mrs. Lin
A number of recommendations from the highest coln,) I rol. 12mo.
Chemistry for Beginners; designed for Com. Schools sources, could be appended to each of the above menand the Younger Pupils of Higher Schools and Acade- tioned works; but, from their extended and very genemies, with Engravings. By Mrs. Phelps, 1 vol. 18mo.
ral use, the publishers deem this unnecessary. A Dictionary of the English Language : Abridged A. & S in addition to their own publications, keep an from the American Dictionary, for the use of Primary assortment of School, Miscellaneous, and Classical Schools and the Counting-House. By Noah Webster, Books, and Stationery, which will be sold on the most LL. D. I vol. duodecimo, 650 pp.
GLOBES, MAPS AND SCHOOL BOOKS,
Roe Lockwood and Son,
411 BROADWAY, NEW-YORK. The snbscribers keep constantly for sale " MITCH- They have also just published two certificates for the ELL'S OUTLINE MAPS," together with all of Tanner's district schools, beautifully engraved on steel, one for and Mitchell's complete maps, both general and local. monthly and the other for semi-annual distribution They would particolarize but one, and that was got up | The last is surmonnied by a tasteful vignette, in which especially for the schools of this state; viz: Burr's the arms of the state are blended with the einblems of new and beautiful map of the State of New-York--size, education. 4 feet by 4 feet 10 inches.
The subscribers also beg leave to say, that their ns. They have globes of 5, 6, 10, 12, and 13 inches diame sortment of sehool books is not surpassed, if it is equalter; and all except the first are made in the most per. led, by any other in this state. And it is their intention fect'minner, as it regards both firmness and accuracy. to sell for cash, at the lowest prices possible.
Some of the maps are offered at prices greatly reduc- School committees and others wanting school books, ed, and the globes are sold at the manufacturers' low are respectfully solicited by the subscribers, to favox est rates. They are carefully packed in boxes, and can them with orders. safely be transported to any part of the country.
The 13-inch Globes are of a new edition, with corrections, &c. to 1844.
i?.*** TO TEACHING!-PRICE FIFTY CENTS!
WORS E’S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY,
Badkang tao sa e sarà du le Vap, Questions on the Map, and description wwwsand by low vol de les pays a on pages directly opposite, enabling the poglasi w wavi wcbuild rest we the oder, without the inconvenience of two books
, ered wide vastung the leal.
otho Lunghe di un'us sed generally on a larger scale, than in any other ਕੋਝਲ ਵੱਸੇ * wbegepaya
" basit ve de Nup u* se framed as to present a connected view of tbe Where Pusle
web viaire :"hv ove's egin turke sure the series of short paragraphs, written in concise style, dsind now and in a tu eres und characteristic matter.
* WE WERE x Alicet sumes is indicated by dividing into syllz
en tot el meu rokas were compareizas views at the end of the volume are on the plan Bak wided by the author in 1820, and since adopted in many other School Geographies. They se regarded as well átted to exercise and strengthen the judgment
7. Tho Ncwane w srograping is applied for the first time to the illustration of a work of this kund, and caables the publishers to sell it at a very low price.
The whole work is the result of long and careful study, and is intended to impress upon the mind of the student such outlines of geography as will form the best foundation for farther and extensive acquisitions.
0+Confident of the superiority of MORSE'S SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY prer every other work of the kind, the publishers respectfully inform editors, teachfoiw, and superintendents of schools, that they may obtain gratrilously a copy of ihe work for examination from the principal booksellers throughout the United States. ** vgraphy of the work, and its peculiar adaptation to teaching, together will ll, intrame oloupness, can hardly fail to command for it a general, if not a universal A well in the schools of our country.
NEW YORK : HARPER & BROTHERS, 82 CLIFF-STREET
VALUABLE SERIES OF SCHOOL BOOKS,
unanimously approved by the Board, and the book COBB'S " SPELLING BOOK.
adopied. Philadelphia, April 9, 1944. COBB'S JUVENILE READER, NO. 1.
At a meeting of the Association of Teachers of the CORB'S JUVENILE READER,
the Public School Society of the city of New York, held COBB'S JUVENILE READER, "
Feb. 171h, 18:4, aftrr a full discussion of the merits and COBB'S « SEQUEL, " READER, “
peculiarities of Cobb's New Series of Reading Books, a COBB's NORTH AM. READER,“
unanimous expression was made favorable to the said PRACTICAL ADVANTAGES OF THE CLASSIFICA
works, and a committee appointed to communicale to TION OF COBB's NEW SPELLING ROOK.
Mr. Cobb their entire and hearty approbation of them.
At a previous meeting of the same Association, the Words of similar terminition, combination, qi her repori from which the following extract in relation to single or double consonants, diu, being classed, the Cobb's New Spelling Book is taken, was adopted. scholar is aided in spelling other words of the same ** The work is strictly a Spelling Book fur Schools, class or common basis hy their similarity, thus leam. and in the opinion of your Committee, is better calcuing the differences between the several words, insteadlated, from its strict regard to system throughout, to of constantly learning an entirely new, different, and overcome the difficulties that beset the way of the dissimilar word.
young learner of the ori bography of our language, then In this Spelling Book, and in this Spelling Pook only. J any other book that has come under our observation." all the varieties of sowel and consonant sounds, and com. From the Priucipals of the Public Schools in Rochester, dina ions of sends are so classed as to make the scholar "We have no hesitation in hazarding the opinion that practically and familiarly acqnainted with them, and for alltie purposes for which a Speeling Book is need. also have theon permanently impressed 11 pon bis mind. ed, this is far the most valuable one extant.
The easy words are separaled from the dif cult ones, Of a series of Reading Books by the same aathor, we thus giving the teacher an opportunity to drill or prac can also speak in terms of approbation. He has adapt: tise the scholar a picatrs length of time on the difficult ed his selecijous to the capacities of every class of than easy words, thereby saving from a THIRD Lo a half readers, con mencing with words of one syllable, and of the time of the scholar and teacher. usually wasted gradually rising lo he higher order of coni position, ev. or throun away by studying, pronouncing, and spelling ery word in ench lesson, that requires explanation, beover and over, again and ag iin, words which require no ing duiy accentualrd and defined. *wdy, spelling, or repetition of the letters to impress Proceedings of the College of Teachers of the city of their orthography on the mind, as, from their analogy
Philadelphia. thry are never spelled wrong.
" Me, LYMAN Core, By the use of this Spelling Book the words of similar Dear Sir:- Ala stated meeting of the College of orthography and sound being classed together, the eye 'Teachers of Philadelphia, held on the evening of the and ear aci in concert or unison without confusion or 27:h of March, 1844-li was doubt, thus enabling the scholar to spell right instead Kesolved, That in the opinion of this College, Mr. Ly. of wrong, or continually guessing at the orthography of man Cobli's Spelling Book, possesses superior merit; cach word; as to spell wrong makes just as deep nd and the arrangeinent of il, is be!ler suited lor facilitaimpression upon the mind of the scholar as to spell ting the progress of the pupil, than any other they have right, hence ihe great importance of having a correct seen. repetition of the let ers always, instead of spelling right Resolved, Secondly, that Mr. Cobb's Series of Read. a part of the time, and wrong a part of the time. ers, though not without objectionable points, are cer.
it is believed that a scholar will learn to spell by this Lainly arranged on an admirable plan; and they believe system of classification in ONE HALJ the time required by them calculated to make a child read more understand. any other system of classification ever devised inxly, than any other books, of similar description they PRACTICAL ADVANTAGES OF COBB'S NEW have met with." SERIES OP READING BOOKS.
From the Proceedings of the Chenango County ConAll the new words contained in each Peading Lesson January 171 h. 1844.
veption of Superintendents and Friends of Education, of these books are formed into a spelling Lesson, and placed immediately before each Reading Lesson, each intr's department
"Cohb's New Spelling Book is regarded as the best word being divided accented, pronounced, defined, and the part of speech designated.
Cobb's New Series of Reading Books are recommend. By this system the scholar becomes acquainted with and progressive improvement of scholars, in this
ed as unquestionably the hest, for securing the early the 'dirision dccentuation, pronunciation, and definilios brunch." of crery word be'ore he reads it. The different shades of the meaning of words and
The following recommendation has been signed by a their proper use and application can bet he learned in great masy Practical Teachers (over three hundred,) connexion with oihr words. as in a cading lesson
in the State of liew Jersey. By this system a scholar.ill forin a fixed hubit yf in ving examined Cobb's New series of School Books, con
"We, the undersigned, Teachers in New Jersey, ba. quiring in alter life, into the meaning of every new sisting of a Spelling and a Reading course, are of the word which may oocur in his daily or occasional read ing.
opinion ihat they are far superior to any series with By this system the worse than useless practice of learn which we are acquainted; and therefore shall introIng the dernitions of words in the abstract culumus orace them into our respective schools as speedily as a dictionary, onconnected with the sentences or para
the circumstances of the case will admit." graphs in which the words are properly used, is entire ciety, held June 7th, 1844, Cohb's New Spelling and
At a meeting of the New Jersey State Education So. ly done away.
By this system the scholar is constantly exercised in Reading Rooks, were adopted by a large majority which in the ordinary plan of teaching the scholar : private schools of the cities of New York, Philadelphia, read is nearly or wholly omitted.
Albany, Ulica, Rochester, Ruffalo, Reading, Harris. I br.pirts of speech are designated so as to enable the burgh, Burlington, Trenton, &c. &c., and have been reschool it to know the precise accrnt und pronunciation commended and adopted by a great number of County take place when words are one or the other part of coming more popular, the subscriber is prepared to of every word as well the change of orthography which convrations in this state.
In adaition to the above books, which are daily be. speech.
supply Teachers, School Committees, Country Mer. EXTRACTS FROM RECOMMENDATIONS. chants and the Book Trede, with every variety of School (From th- Proceedings of the Board of Comptrollers of Books of any value, together with a general assortment the cty and connty of Philadelphia )
of Stationery adapted to the book husiness. He also "The simplicity of Mr. Cobb s arrangement and she respectfully calls the attention of Teachers, &c., to a accuracy manisessed in carrying it oui, commend bis
naw and fprlling Rook at once to those who give their attention
IMPROVED SCHOOL SLATE, 1o an carmination of it, and well entitle it to a place which for beauty, durability and cheapness, is unequalled on the list of books in he used in our Public Schools." i by any other
slate in use. The report from which the above is an extract, was
CALEB BARTLETT, 228 Pearl-st., cor. Plati.