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vated, weeds have choked its growth, the wind use of his acquisitions just as the ancient Roman has pervertel its original direction, and even its artist did, who was langki to cope with life-like very existence has been questioned. Maa has precision the Grecian masier-pieces-just as does been taught from his very infancy that the con. the serf of the Russian noble, at the present day, mission of wrong is alluring and pleasurable, the who is trained to execute at commerd, diffical performance of right self-denying and not pro pieces of music, or make facsimiles of paintings ductive of much happiness in this world. These of the best modern Italian or Flemish masters errors are to be dissipated, and the attractions --without the slightest advance of the operative and allurements of a course of conduct in con. or intellectual sta ture-or witbcut one power of formity with conscience, impressed upon the producing an original conception youthful mind. What a contrast between that How many of our ten thousand teacbers have intellectually educated but fiendish being in ever known that education, even a common yonder prison, and him whom a nation's love school education, should be directed to the due delights to call the "Father of his country!" I development, the symmetrical cultivation of the once was a district school master, and I look physical, the moral, and the intellectual facab back upon the efforts then made to teach my ties of every child? How many have known the pupils virtue, as the most pleasurable reminis constant, careful, practical use to be made of this cence of that period.

knowledge, if possessed, in the treatment of Says the philosopher, Dr. Rush, "The er every child? That to educate the moral powers tent of the moral powers and habits in man, is to the exclusion or total neglect of the intellecunknown. It is not improbable that the human tual, would be detrimental in the extreme, redmind contains principles of virtue, whieh have dering their subject the victim of superstition never yet been excited into action.. . I and the sport of passing delusion. To educate am not so sanguine as to suppose that it is pos- the intellect to the neglect of the moral nature, sible for man to acquire so much perfection from would be to give talent and power without prioscience, religion, liberty and good government, ciple-in other words, it would be to educate for as to cease to be mortal; but I am fully persua: the penitentiary, the prison cell, the scaffold of ded, that from the combined action of causes, the gallows, the grave of the suicide! which operate at once upon the reason, the mos! Again, how many are ignorant of the distinc ral faculty, the passions, the senses, the brain, tion between intellect and feeling, between ideas the nerves, the blood and the heart, it is possible and emotions,know not that these two classes to prodace such a change in his moral character of mental operatious are called into activity by as shall raise him to a resemblance with an. very different objects, cultivated by different pro

cesses--and that as one or the other predominates Is it the dream of an enthusiast that looks for in the mental constitution, produce very different a period in man's progression, when his moral results both in conduct and character? powers will be so highly cultivated that no one Oh, woe for those who trampie on the mind, will need the protection of law; when in the That deathles thing! They know not what they do: words of Professor Potter, (at the Rochester

Nor what they deal with! Man, perchance, may band

The tower his foot hath bruised; or ligbt anew convention) no jail, prison' or gallows shall be

The torch he quenched, or to music wind needed, to restrain mankind from the coinmis. · Again the igre string from his touch that few, sion of crime?

W. B.

But for the soul! Oh! tremble and beware Baldvinsville, Onon. co.

To lay rude hands upon God's mysteries there!

In addition to the true discernment of his daty NORMAL SCHOOLS.

i as an educator, there are other requisites, with

out which, perhaps, no one should be permitted Extracts from the Report of the committee of the

to have the care of the young. Time will not Assembly of this state, on colleges, academies

I permit us to dwell here upon the importance of and common schools, of which the Hon. Mr.

a teacher's social and moral qualifications-hus HULBURD was chairman, in regard to the dis.

mildness, his generosity, his patience, his sense tribution of the Literature Fund, and the esta

of decorum, his kindness, his cheerfulness, his blishment of a Normal School.

love of virtue, his reverence for his Maker.

These constitute the most precious traits, the It is a teacher's high prerogative to develop richest ornaments of childhood; and there is the faculties of human beings. If he mistake his parent so debased as not to desire even in calling-if he mistake the true principles of his depth of his debasement, that his child sao art, to educate, to develop and aim merely to grow up the possessor of all these quan instruct,t to instil-not only the child, but the Yet how often have the very means that 800 man, will carry to the grave the sad effects or have implanted and cherished all these grace this ignorance and incompetency. Such a course I been neglected in the unsuitable selection 0. stunts and dwarf's the whole mental and morall teacher, the constituted delegate of the parent nature; it renders the intellect a mere passive re. | How can the teacher cause his pupil to ree cipient of words and signs, and words and signs I truth and beauty of what has never touche only, instead of ideas, it will evolve-it will be entered his own soul ? clothed with a vesture of apparent informa. We are sometimes almost tempted to believe tion”-but the power--the originality-the ex. I that much of what has been written and $cus pansion of minkare enfeebled, constrained and I about our earliest moments, is but the dreaming circumscribed. It creates the form-it constructs of a beautiful fancy; and yet who that pada the mechanism of elucation--withont breathing | amid « being's busy bustle" and thinks up! into it a living soul. It prepares the child to make childhood-all its joys and its briel' tears

soft purity and its brave gentleness-its charity E- duco, lead from, draw out, &c.

that thinketh no evil-its hope that believeth au In-struo, build on or over, &c.

things does not fed as well as know that it IS

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the one green spot to which manhood often looks public school will be patronized; if only at the back, and sighs that but once only through it runs high or select school, then such school will be the thoroughfare of individual existence. How patronized at the expense of the common school. rarely too is the evening of any life so dark that As stated in another part of this report, the the dimmed eye of age, sightless though it be to normal teacher in Massachusetts is found on trial all things present, does not fix and fasten upon to be able to put a school forward much more that far off Auroral brightness? How easily are rapidly than teachers who have not had equal we thus by observation and experience brought advantages. And must there not be something to believe that

in having trained teachers in schools to accona "Heaven lies about us in our infancy."

plish such results? How else is it that at 14

years of age the Prussian scholar is discharged If thus pure and precious and permanent are

are from school with attainments far superior to the impressions of childhood, how inappreciably I those our youth of 16 years possess? important the character of the agents that pro. This large saving of time, of clothes, of duce them. The parent, the mother, is the first books. of school mon

first books, of school money, will not, does not, este natural observant of these glimpses of a higher cape the observant eve. nature; how easily we can excuse that beautiful

Motives of public economy, besides the imsuperstition which teaches her that the smiles of nerative necessity and obligation of doing some her sleeping infant are “ gleams of fairy visit:

thing to bring the public schools up to the select ings or angel ministrations."

and high schools, require that we should in If the mind were as Locke and others of that earnest

earnest set about taking the incipient steps to school supposed, like a sheet of paper on which obtain a permanent supply of competent teach. might be inscribed whatever characters we pleas. Lers. ed, how immeasurably important that an intelli. The committee do not indulge an expectation gent artist should be selected who had studied that an adequate supply of well-trained teachers long and well, not only the mysteries of his art, for our schools can be furnished in a very brief but the precepts of its great masters! But tar) period:. thiswhenever undertaken, and under different is the mind from being a passive reci. The most favorable auspices, must be the slow pient of ideas, it is rather "a germ with distinct work of years. tendencies folded up within it." The earliest As already seen in a former part of this re. unfolding of this germ, the virtuous and intelli-l port, the state long ago

port, the state long ago set apart a specific fund gent mother, watches and fosters

for educating the teachers of its common schools. 46 Till, fold after fold, to the fainting nir, The plan adopted to ensure such education had

The soul of its beauty and love lays bare." so failed of the object, that the Regents of the Too soon by the force of circumstances, the University last year suspended all appropriations child is removed from maternal guidance and in aid of it. There now remains in the treasufaithfulness, and placed under the care of the ry, unexpended last year, the sum of $4,800; at schoolmaster. Shall that most " sensitive plant” the end of the current year, unless otherwise ape blossom with culture or droop by neglect-shall propriated, there will be an equal additional it expand in part and be blighted in part-shall sum. The wisdom and forecast of former legisit grow up with noxious excrescences, unsightly lation, having made an appropriation, the rev distortions, or exhibit the graceful proportions enue, of which this annual sum of $4,800 constiof symmetrical beauty? Under God, these are tutes a part, to educate common school teachers questions that for answer depend almost wholly -no one, it is presumed, will have the hardihood upon the character, the qualifications of the to seek to resume for the state the use of it for teacher.

general purposes, or to divert it to any other obTaking such a child, from such a mother, an ject, however meritorious, than that of educating intelligent teacher would aim by suggestive edu teachers, nor can it reasonably be expected that cation to carry the mental and moral powers the Regents will restore it to the teachers' defrom one process of development to another. partments. The vicious child of a neglectful or immoral | Having then in the treasury available means mother, would require an opposite training; con. that in good faith can be appropriated in further. science would need first to be awakened, enlight. ance of but one object, the committee believe ened and invigorated-first to cultivate the in. they do no wrong to other institutions, and least tellect of such a child, would produce a knave, of all to the "specific fund” itself, but rather if not a worse offender,

best subserve the first great object of that fond, The day is fast approaching when the intelli. in recommending that the aggregate of these gent, thoughtful parent will no loger entrust his sums, $9,600, be appropriated to establish a Nor. child with a teacher who is incapable or incom mal school for the education and training of teachpetent of making these discriminations. The ers forthe common schools. After the present importance of having these germs of immortal year the annual sum of $10,000 is recommended to existence nurtured and matured by safe and skil. be appropriated from the literature fund in support ful hands, is beginning to be realized. If such of this institution. This amount will not be reare not found in the common school, resort will garded as too large, when it is borne in mind that be had to the high school, the select school or it is desirable that accommodations should be the academy.

made for from 150 to 200 pupils; that if suitable Aside from any moral or intellectual conside. buildings are furnished, there will be serious rations in behall of his child, the parent will be items for furniture, blackboards, apparatus, text governed-he is—by economical considerations. books: salaries of three or four assistant-teachThe teacher that can in four months or a year, ers and one principal will require a very conadvance a school as another teacher will be able siderable amount. But after meeting all such to in eight or twenty-four months, will be sought expenses and charges, the committee indulge the aller; if he is found in the public school, the hope that the appropriation will not be so far

exhausted that those charged with the general entrusted with the power of recommending posuperintendence of the school will have no means pils; it being understood that no one would be left to make a weekly allowance towards the received until examined, or continued after being maintenance of one class of pupils.

admitted unless commendable proficiency was It is not the result of gallantry or of that com made in the science and in the practice of teachplaisant homage which in every refined and ing. christian nation is the accorded due of the female The terms of admission, the course and duri. sex, that has given to the sex an unequivocal tion of study, the testimonia is to be given on preference in teaching and controlling the young. the completion of the course, and finally all the It is not superior science, but superior skill in detail of regulations to organize and govern such the use of that science, it is the manner and the an institution, may better be left to the delibera: very weakness of the teacher that constitutes tion and sound judgment of those under wbose her strength, that ensures her success. For that supervision and control the whole subject matter occupation she is endowed with peculiar facul. is placed, than an attempt be made to particuties; while man's nature is rough, stern, impa. arize them in a report, or digest them into a tient, ambitious—hers is gentle, tender, enduro legislative enactment. ing, upaspiring. One always wins, the other It will be noticed that the committee speak of sometimes repels; the one is loved, the other the establishment of one normal school; did our sometimes feared. Kindness and quickness of present means seem to warrant it, the commit. apprehension, frank sympathy with the young, tee would with confidence recommend the im. endear and attach, and when the scholar's confi. mediate establishment of at least one in each of dence and attachment are once gained, he is the eight senatorial districts; if one is now 6benceforth easily taught and governed.

tablished, and that is properly endowed and orIn childhood the intellectual faculties are but ganized, there cannot be a doubt that not only partially developed, the affections are much more one will be called for in each of the Senate disfull; at that early age the affections are the key tricts, but in a brief period very many of the of the whole being; it must be possessed before large counties will insist upon having one estab, the understanding can be opened to the easy in. | lished within their limits. The establishmento gress of knowledge. The female teacher readi. I one is but an experiment-if that can be called a ly possesses herself of that key, and thus having experiment which for more than a century har access to the heart, the mind is soon reached and been in operation without a known failure operated upon; while the male teacher seeks, in which, if successful, will lead the way for seve direct approaches to the understanding, to im. ral others. It is believed that several of the plant scientific truth. Here we have the solu. | academies now in operation can and will be tion of the problem-of the superior success of speedily converted into normal seminaries, when female teachers with small scholars: although the period arrives for the rapid improvemento thas resolved the cause will remain while the education; in this way there will be no loss of different natures and temperaments of the two | academic investment, and the great interests of sexes remain. One of the distinctive character. the public will be as well or better subserved istics above hinted, deserves a further remark; than they are at present. that while the habits of female teachers are bete The committee believe the “ experiment ter, their morals purer, they are much more apt should be tried at the capitol; is it cannot be to be content with, and continue in the occupa. | tested in the presence of all the people, it should tion of teaching. It is an employment to which, / be before all the representatives of the people as already said, they are peculiarly adapted, and As a government measure it is untried in wherever they have attempted they have suc- state; the result therefore will be of deep in ceeded. In Massachusetts, where females have est. Here at each annual session of the rest been most employed, they have been most ap- | lature, can be seen for what and how the pug preciated. In the winter and summer schools, / money is expended; here can be seen the 6,715 teachers were last year employed, 4,301 of bitions of the pupils of the seminary and o whom were females; in 1841, of 6.503 teachers, / model school; here, if unsuccessful, no repon 4,112 were fernales; showing a gradual increase. I interested officials can cover up its failure, As already seen at the Barre and Bridgewater prevent the abandonment of the experience institutions, where both sexes were received, and here citizens from all parts of the state, where only such were admitted as signified that sort to the capital during the session of it was their intention to teach, the number of | gislature, the terms of the courts, &c., can females over males preponderated more than an opportunity of examining the working three to one.

normal school system, of learning the best met As they will be more apt to teach when edu. ods of teaching, and all the improvement eated, more likely to continue in the employment, I science and practice of the art; those who ask and receive less wages than males, the com. / spring and autumn pass through the ch! Inittee believe the state should hold out some in. I from the great metropolis, those who dacement to females, perhaps to the number of parts of the Union make their annual P two-thirds of all the pupils admitted who have age to the fountains of health, will paus altained the age of 16 years complete, and who to see what the Empire State is doing top are physically and morally and intellectually and improve the education of her people properly constituted to become teachers, and who shall signify it to be their intention so to do

* The committee are aware that the public to spend a year or more at the normal school.

New-York owe much of their success and c

teachers trained in normal schools in that is The different counties should be entitled to send pupils to the school in the same proportion cach of the last two years, has been kept they are represented in the Assembly; the coun.

county of Fulton. As prirate enterprises suc ty superintendents associating with the first!

are praiseworthy, but ihey cannot supply the per


possess the intiuence or produce the effect oi judge of the county) might, perhaps, safely be poreonmont instil ixion.



ne art; those who in the

those who from all

!, will pause here is doing to promote

ware that the public schools in beir success and celebrity to

for some few weeks in

$ been kept up in the e enterprises such efforts

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In confirmation of the views of the committee COMMON SCHOOLS IN N. HAMPSHIRE. as to the eligibility of this location, one of several authorities must suffice. The able and

A lively interest in the improvement of Compopular treatise of The School and Scholmaster asks," " Why not plant a teachers' seminary or

mon Schools has been excited in New Hamp-

shire. In some parts of the State, County Connormal school, sufficient to accommodate one or

ventions have been regularly held for several two hundred pupils at the capital, where it can

years, and a good deal has been done, to good be overlooked by the officer who has been charged

effect. The Journal gives a full account of a by law with the superintendence of primary in.

State Convention held at Concord during election struction, and where it can be visited by mem

week. A similar one was held last year; and bers of the legislature, strangers and others,

Mr. Bouton, from a committee then appointed, thus sending its influence to the remotest extre.

reported for consideration this year, the followmities of the sta te, and even of the nation.” If located here, it would be as easy of access"

ing resolutions :

1 1. Resolved, That a committee of three be for pupils from all parts, as any selection that could be made; here it could be placed under

appointed to report to the Convention what the direction of the superintendent of common

Grammars, Spelling Books, Geographies, His

htories, &c. &c., so far as they can obtain inforschools and of the Regents of the University;

i mation, are used in the schools in this state : if located elsewhere, a new class of officers must

and such other facts and suggestions concerning be created to take charge of the institution.

text books as they may think best.' One objection of considerable force may be 2. Resolved, That a committee of three be urged against the location, increased expense of appointed to report to the Convention on the subsistence in the city, over the country; that expediency of establishing a Normal School in has not been found an obstacle in the way of the this state and to suggest some method for its prosperity of, and large attendance at, the Medi- establishment. cal College and Female Academy of this city, 3. Resolved. That a committee of three be and at several institutions of literature and science appointed to report to the Convention, whether in New York. Perhaps, as more than an equiva. any revision of the laws regulating the schools lent offset to this objection, the committee are in the state is required : and if so, to suggest authorized to say, if a normal school is establish what alterations are required. ed and located here that buildings and rooms The committee appointed under the last res suitable to accommodate the institution will be olution subsequently reported, among others, provided without subjecting the state to any ad. the following :ditional expense.

Whereas by the 83d article of the Constitution In concluding this long report, the committee of New Hampshire, the public and primary would fain ask, is there no responsibility resting schools and seminaries, and the interests of liten upon this legislature to do something to lessen rature and science, as also the moral education of some of the evils of our school system? Is there our youth, are placed under the superintending no obligation resting upon us to make at least an care of our legislature : therefore, effort to renovate the schools to supply them Resolved, That the duty imposed upon the with competent teachers? Can we adjourn, hay. I legislature cannot be duly performed without ing filled a volume with private and local bills. full and ample information upon those subjects. without yielding a pittance of our time to con: Resolved, That no efficiency can be expected sider, and perfect and pass an act of vital inter in the furtherance of those objects, without proest to the right education--the well being of per officers, whose specified duty it shall be to more than 600,000 of the children of this state? discharge the details thereof. Have none of us read and felt as that noble Prus. Resolved, That a Superintendent of Common sian expressed himself: “I promised God that Schools, or a Board of Education, should by law I would look upon every Prussian peasant as a be appointed, whose daty it shall be to receive, . being who could complain of me before God, if prepare and publish a suitable and annual digest I did not provide for him the best education, as a of the common school statistics : and that a copy man and a christian, which it was possible for of such digest shall be furnished to the town clerk me to provide ?"

of each town in the State ; and that said superin“When education is to be rapidly advanced," tendent or board, take a general supervision of says president Basche, " seminaries for teachers the school. afford the means of securing this result." Do Resolved, That the town clerk of each town we not owe it to the long neglected children-do should by law be required, under penalty, to we not owe it to the state itself-do we not owe make seasonable return to said superintendent it to the whole country that these "approved or board, of a copy of the report of the superinmeans" for the rapid advance of the best educa.

tending school committee of such town. cation-should at once be prepared?

Resolved, That we deem it highly important "Duties rising out of good possessed, And prudent caution needful to avert

that provision be made by law for the establishImpending evil, equally require

ment of school libraries in the several school dis.
That the whole people should be taught and trained. tricts throughout the state.
So shall licentiousness and black resolve

These resolutions were adopted. There was
Be rooted out, and virtuous habits take
Their place; and genuine piety descend

a good deal of discussion, and formal addresses Like an inheritance from age to age."

were made by Hon. Salma Hale of Keene, und

Hon. Horace Mann of Boston. The meetings *Page 249. Vide also Superintendents' Reports, 1844, continued three days; and the Journal pronoun-page 636.

ces it the most important School Convention Dinter.,

I ever held in New Hampshire.

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(Cotton-Gossypium herbaceum. COTTON.

baceous, rising scarcely to the height of eight TEERE are many species of the cotton plant, or twenty inches. It bears a large yellow Box. and their number is being constantly inereased er with a purple centre, which produces a pure by the researches of botanists, while their vari. about the size of a walnut. This, when ripe, eties appear scarcely to have any limit. To the bursts; and exhibits to view the fleecy cottot, cotton planter it is a matter of much interest to in which the seeds are securely imbedded. ! become acquainted with all these distinctive ve. / sown and reaped like corn ; and the cntton bare rieties, as some are incomparably more valu. vest in hot countries is twice,- in colder el able than others, in the quantity and quality of males, once, in the year. This species is a naure their produce.

of Persia, and is the same which is grown $ The Gossypium herbaceum, or common her. | largely in the United States of America, in 3, baceous cotton plant, is the species most gene. Ily, and in Malta. There is another species rally cultivated. This species divides itself into herbaceous cotton which forms a shrub of tro Nanda) and perennial plants. The first is her. I four to six feet high.

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