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it becomes a type or model of the form he wish. so remarkable, that she could read at a great es the pupil's tongue to assume.

distance, by an artificial light, and even with Later in the course of instruction, the pupils very little light. She was found to be in the are taught the meaning of Italic letters, and em. habit of conversing in the night with a maid. phasis. If a child asks for a piece of white pa. servant, after the light was extinguished. And per, for instance, a piece of grey is given him ; this was done only by placing her hand upon and when he intimates that he asked for white, the naked breast of her companion. The other the question is written down with the word case was that of a boy who could read the lips -"white" underscored, and then a piece of white by placing his hand upon them in the dark, in paper is given. Another exercise teaches him the same way that Laura reads the motions of a corresponding stress of the voice in speaking. another's fingers in the hollow of her own hand.

An extraordinary fact, and one which throws great light upon the constitution of the mind is,

WHAT WILL EDUCATE? that the deaf and dumb, after learning to read, take great delight in poetry. The measure of In the laudable of their hearts, two parents, the verse wakes up a dormant faculty within with a family of irfants playing around their them, giving them the pleasure of what we call feet are

feet, are heard to say ; " Oh! what will, what time, although they have no no ear to perceive it. la

it. can, best educate these dear children ?" Such is a very brief outline of the laborious|



I reply ; look to yourselves, and your circumprocesses by which the wonderful work of teach-Istances 'Maxims an

1 work of teach stances. Maxims and documents are good in ing the dumb to speak is accomplished ; and so themselves, and especially good for the regula. extraordinary are the results, that I have often tion of uouir condu

olten tion of your conduct, and your behaviour towards heard pupils, in the deaf and dumb schools of them. But with regard to your children, you Prussia and Saxony, read with more distinct. I have yet often to remark, that many maxims ness of articulation and appropriateness of ex. are

are good, precisely till they are tried, or appression than is done by some of the children in plied, and no longer. In the hands of many pa. our own schools who possess perfect organs of Trents, they will teach the children to talk, but speech, and a complement of the senses. Nay, I very often. little more. so successful are the teachers, that in some in. I do not mean to assert that sentiments incul. stances, they overcome, in a good degree, diffi.

cated have no influence ; far from it. They have culties arising from a deficiency or malforma.

much, though not the most; but still, after all, tion of the organs themselves,-such as the loss it is the sentiments you let drop occasionally, it of front teeth, the tied-tongue, and so forth. In

is the conversation they overhear, when play. some of the cities which I visited the pupils who

ing in the corner of the room, which has had gone through with a course of instruction more effect taan many things which are address. at the deaf and dumb school were employed as ed to them directly in the tone of exhortation. artisans or mechanics, earning a competent live-Besides, as to maxims, ever remember that belihood, mingling with other men, and speaking tween those which you bring forward for their and conversing like them. In the city of Ber. I use, and those by which you direct your own lin, there was a deaf and dumb man, named Ha-conduct, children have almost an intuitive disbermaass, who was so famed for his correct cernment; and it is by the latter they will be speaking, that strangers used to call to see him. mainly governed, both during childhood, and These he would meet at the door, conduct into their future existence. the house, and enjoy their surprise when he told The question, however, returns; what will them that he was Habermaas. A clergyman of educate these children?' Your example will high standing and character, whose acquaint. educate them your conversation with your ance I formed in Holland, told me that when friends--the business they see you transacthe was one of the religious instructors of the the likings and dislikings you express-these deaf and dumb school at Groningen, he took a will educate them. The society you live in will foreign friend one day to visit it ; and when educate them,- your domestics will educate they had gone through the school, his friend ob- them-and, whatever be your rank or situation served, that the school was very well, but that in life, your house, your table, and your daily it was the deaf and dumb school which he had behaviour, will educate them. To withdraw wished to see. Were it not for the extraordi. them from the unceasing and potent influence nary case of Laura Bridgman,—which has com- of these things, is impossible ; except you were pelled assent to what would formerly have been to withdraw yourself from them also. regarded as a fiction or a miracle, I should Some parents talk of beginning the education hardly venture to copy an account of the two of their chilldren !—The moment they were ca• following cases from the work of Mr. Moritz pable of forming an idea, their education was Hill, the accomplished instructor of the deaf already begun—the education of circumstances and dumb school at Weissenfels. They refer to -insensible education, which, like insensible per. the susceptibility of cultivation of the sense of spiration, is of more constant and powerful eftouch, which he asserts to be generally very fect, and of far more consequence to the habit, acute in the deaf and dumb. The importance of than that which is direct and apparent. This this will be readily appreciated when we consi. education goes on at every instant of time; der how essential light is to the power of read. it goes on like time ; you can neither stop it, ing language upon the lips and the muscles of nor turn its course. Whatever these have a the face. In darkness, the deaf and dumb are tendency to make your children, that, in a great again cut off from that intercouse with humani-degree, they will be. ty which has been given to them by this benefi. : cent instruction. Mr. Hill gives an account of a Truth, wisdom, reason, virtue, are terms which girl whose facility in reading from the lips was equally designate what is useful to mankind.



Instead of the ordinary brief entry "inspected

this school on — day," let a plain and true stateTHE JOURNAL.

ment be made on the register of its actual con." We open this volume with a double number,

dition, indicating the branches that are well or intending to issue a similar sheet every alternate

alternate ill taught, the defects or merits of classification number, thus increasing, by one-half, the con-1

the con and discipline, and suggesting such remedies as tents of the Journal. In making these arrange

nge any existing evil may require. Enter the day ments, we have been actuated by the wish to

decided on for an examination, at which the give greater variety and usefulness to our col.

'town superintendent should be present,) at or

near the close of the term, that then it may umns, and also to secure a larger space for the

be ascertained whether the teacher has conreports and communications of the county and

formed to the directions giren. The record town superintendents, that the Journal may be

should then be signed by the county and town made a more powerful auxiliary to the system,

superintendents and the, trustees who may be and a more successful advocate of the great

present. cause of education. But our expenses will un.

It is hardly necessary to state in detail, the avoidably be greatly increased, and we must

advantages of this record—a record oftentimes therefore frankly appeal to each of the town

filling two or more pages of the register. There and county officers for a prompt and cordial ef- !

it stands, a constant and faithful mentor of duty, fort in its behalf.

encouraging and sustaining the good teacher, PLANS FOR GIVING THE GREATEST EF- arousing the indolent, exposing and warning the FICIENCY TO THE SCHOOL SYSTEM.

bad ; and assuring all, that the results of their Extract from Report of County Sup. of Albany. labors will be known and appreciated at that exTo reach and remedy these evils, a plan of

amination, without which no school should ever

be allowed to close. This record has another, supervision was adopted, in some respects peculiar, which I now respectfully submit to the

and hardly inferior anvantage; it is open for consideration of the State Superintendent.

the examination of the inhabitants, who may If the county superintendent inspects the

see in what manner the county superintendent school with intelligent and untiring zeal ; if de

discharges his duty, that he too may feel his refects are pointed out and remedies suggested spor

sponsibility. with kindness, delicacy and decision if the em. Of the results of this system in the three ployers are earnestly appealed to, to discharge towns in which it has been spiritedly carried out their important duties both to teacher and pupil: / by the town superintendents, were I to speak , if the children be counselled and encouraged truly, I should be thought to speak extrava. wisely to use those hours whose influence will gantly. In numerous instances the character affect every thought and act of after life, some of a school has been retrieved, and in some, thing doubtless has been done which will not be every suggestion has been successfully adopted. utterly lost with the passing moment. But un. And though this result is partly referable to fortunately in those schools which are most de other measures, yet this silent monitor, the regraded, and where supervision is most necessa- gister, has contributed to it in no mean degree. ry, but comparatively little good is effected. The school register will subserve other imporThe teacher listens courteously, acknowledges tant purposes. Besides affording ample space candidly, and perhaps, promises fairly, but goes for the teachers' list for five years, the book on in the well beaten path of soulless routine, usually purchased may be most beneficially used grinding out his regular number of exercises as a district leger, in which all that relates to its with less actual thought than is required in the affairs may be entered. Boundaries of the dishumblest mechanical employment.

trict, contracts with teachers, library list, teach. These, and similar reflections, made my first ers' list, record of district meetings, record of official visitations unsatisfactory to myself ; for inspections, list of text books, and miscellaif good were accomplished, it was neither what neous, are the appropriate titles under which the law contemplated, nor what the people had entries should be made by the teacher, so as to a right to demand. Remedies were immediately present a perfect picture of the district. In devised and tested, and among the many tried, this manner many difficulties will be prevented, none is more simple or more likely to prove ef- and the duties of trustees and superintendents fectual than

greatly facilitated. This is not proposed as a

substitute for the books required by law to be the map or maps on which the pupils are to be kept in the district, but as a means of making examined, being designated, and a “questioner," their information easily available, and of clos- who should not be one of the competing teachers, ing the sources of many difficulties which often appointed, drafts of a certain number of pupils disturb and embarrass the schools.

should be made from each school by its master, TEACHERS' DRILL.

as the representatives of his school in that study, Finding it impracticable to establish an insti. and on whom he depends for sustaining its repu. tute for the improvement of teachers, a substi- tation. These “drafts” should then be arranged tute was sought in holding " teachers' drills,” in in the side aisles, school opposite to school, aceach town of the county, at which the best me. cording to their relative rank as determined by thods of discipline and instruction were exa. the town and county superintendents, the schools mined and recommended. These were held in Oc of the town being fairly divided, and a small tober, in the hope that an impulse might be given space being left between the "drafts." The exto the winter schools, and that employers would ercise is begun by asking the lowest pupil in the be induced to attend, to ascertain the capacity of lowest school on the right, and then the pupil the candidates for certificates, and to judge of the opposite, passing in this manner from side to measures proposed. By the zealous co-operation side, and when, on the decision of the judges, of the town superintendents, large classes were as a miss has occurred, the pupil missing should sembled in the several towns, and after a day of sit down or leave the “draft," and the question earnest attention to the details of teaching, the b.

the be put to the pupil opposite. At the instant the evening was devoted to discussions of the gene.

time agreed upon for the duration of the exer. ral relations of the school to society, and of the

cise has expired, the number of pupils standing relative duties of parents and teachers. One

-being those who have not missed-should be hundred and thirty-six different teachers shared counted

counted, and the relative rank of the schools rein these exercises, and the churches in which

ported by the judges.

This bare outline of a most useful and interthey were held were, in some of the towns, well filled by employers, not only in the evening, but

esting exercise is given in the hope that it may

suggest other and better methods for arousing during the day. In this manner the interest of

the slumbering interest of the people. Its influ. the people was aroused and a spirit of generous

ence as tested in this county, exceeded the most emulation awakened, which prepared the way for those teachers' associations and school cele

sanguine anticipations ; not only children, but brations, which are already powerfully co-ope.

parents gathering to this generous contest of the rating to effect the general improvement of the

schools, the clergy and other leading citizens schools.

lending their powerful and zealous aid, and the These drills might, with great benefit, be held

teachers reaping no barren harvest. The town semi-annually, before the summer and winter

of Coeymans owes much to the enlightened zeal terms, at which time certificates should be grant.

of its town superintendent, J. McCarty, Esq., ed and arrangements made for the examination

under whose directions the celebration of last of the schools.

autumn was held, the influence of which is still Notice was given that the teachers would be felt in every school room under his supervision. examined next autumn on American History,

If a drill is held at the beginning, and a celebra. and Human Physiology, with reference to the tion at the close of the summer and winter laws of health.

terms, more will be done for the schools than

by any other measures we have tested. SCHOOL CELEBRATIONS. These should be made the festival and the ex.

TEXT BOOKS. amination of the schools, alike attractive and An effort has been made, in conjunction with improving to pupils and teachers.

the town superintendents, to secure uniform, At the teachers' drills, notice may be given and suitable and cheap books. Lists have been arrangements made for a general celebration of printed and posted up in the several school the reformation of the schools, at or near the rooms, and the teachers have been directed, that close of the ensuing term. On the day selected, whenever new books are needed, those of the the schools should be assembled in each of the list should be bought. The subject has been several towns, at some convenient church, three brought before the people of the different towns, judges chosen, and the time each exercise shall and an unanimous wish expressed at every continue, determined. After singing by the meeting that the books should be introduced and schools, some study, perhaps geography, with kept in the schools. The board of supervisors

adopted the following resolution on this sub- pose of reporting to the board of supervisors ject.

and perhaps conferring with them in relation to "On motion of Mr. Pruyn,

the effective discharge of duty, might be gene. " Resolved, That the board of supervisors rally useful. deem the measures adopted by the county super.

TOWN CELEBRATIONS. intendent to secure uniform text books, of great importance to the prosperity of the schools, as

SIMILAR measures have been adopted, with most

SIMILAR menenres ha in this manner the labors of the teacher will be encouraging success, in other parts of the state, made more efficient, while the expense of school and we regret that but scanty notices are given ing will be much lessened."

of them in the reports of the county superintendThis reform will be attended with numerous ents. We annex a few of these at this time, and petty obstacles, but by perseverance can be ac- shall refer to the same source for additional par. complished. The teachers generally are anxious ticulars hereafter. for this result, and have shown themselves will. Mr. Rice, superintendent of the western section ing, in not a few instances, to make personal sa. of Cattaraugus, remarks : crifices to attain it. of the success of this effort "Among the means that have been employed, a more particular report may be expected next the most successful was the institution of town year.

celebrations; or, as they have been conducted

here, they may, with more propriety be called It gives me much pleasure to inform the de.

the de. the public examination of the schools in the seve. partment, that many of the districts have al. ral towns. The time and place being fixed, noready, under the provision of last session, pur. tice was given to all the schools in the town to chased maps or globes, and in some instances

meet ; a special invitation was given to profes

sional men of the vicinity, particularly the cler. both, for the benefit of their schools.

gy, to attend the examination and render such

assistance as might be necessary. When conTOWN SUPERINTENDENTS.

vened, the schools were formed into a proces. The abolition of the offices of commissioners sion with the teachers at the head of their reand inspectors, and the substitution of that of spective schools ; banners suitable to the occa

sion were then, with some little ceremony, pretown superintendent, has been universally ap-sented to each school ; the schools were moved proved by the people. There is no longer a di- to a place previously prepared for recitations ; vision of responsibility, under which duties can each school was usually examined publicly in the

presence of hundreds and sometimes of thousands, be neglected with impunity ; on one man rests

by its teacher, in all the various studies pursued the immediate charge of the schools, and their in the school, short addresses were then made condition honors or disgraces him. Not only is to the scholars as well as to the patrons of the greater vigor and certainty in this manner given schools. This description is not intended to

give a general view of the subject, but to exhibit to the local administration, but the usefulness å tew leading traits, to show that instead of ma. of the county superintendent is also greatly in- / king the teachers and scholars mere spectators, creased. By obvious and judicious arrange they are called to be the principal actors ; hence:

the desire to excel, (so common to all ages and ments, each can powerfully co-operate with the

conditions,) becomes a powerful motive to untirother, combining together the drills, inspec. ing exertions. On these occasions we have seen tions, registers, district examinations, and town from 300 to 2,000 in attendance, and listening celebrations, into a system which shall reach

with deep interest to recitations in orthography,

reading, geography, arithmetic, English gramand remedy every evil. This has been attempt. mar, natural and mental philosophy, the science ed, and in a majority of the towns of this of government, &c. ; and we are happy to say county, with much success, as will appear by

that in every instance the public expectation has

been fully gratified." the reports of the town superintendents which I have the honor to lay before you. I would

| Mr. Edwards, superintendent of the southern

section of Onondaga, bears the following explicit particularly call your attention to the report of Mr. Robbins of Westerlo, as in no town of this

and cheering testimony:

" In my earlier visits I earnestly recommendcounty, were judicious efforts more needed, and led to patrons and teachers, the practice of perio in none have they been more effective.

dical public examinations in their respective Arrangements have been made for an annual schools. Their popularity and usefulness in our meeting of the town superintendents at the time

orher literary institutions, led to the conviction 01

their beneficial influence in our district schools. the supervisors are in session, in order that such

The suggestion met a cordial response from information may then be communicated to the those most deeply interested. The result has board, as will subserve the interests of educa.

more than realized our sanguine expectations. tion in this county.

It proved to be a happy experiment. In many The undersigned, respect. I districts, the annunciation that the school

on a Sully suggests that such meetings, for the pur certain day would be closed for the season by

public examination of the classes in their several contrary to their wishes. The mightiest power studies, rendered that a day of absorbing inte- of our day, is public opinion. Before this tri. rest. I have been present with the people of the bunal mountains of accumulated abuses in gov. district on many such occasions, and cordially ernment, religion, and social relations, have adopt the glowing terms in which they have been vanished with the years before the flood. Feudescribed by one of the town superintendents : dal serfdom, ecclesiastical domination, judicial

" The practice of periodical examinations astrology, the superstitions of demonology and marks a new era in the annals of our common witchcraft, aristocratic privileges, and the trafschools. These public performances form tho. fic in human beings, are already gone, or fast rough and systematic preparation, and produce departing to the tomb of all the Capulets-to brilliant and successful exhibition. The pre- the sence of the natural and moral guardians of the

1 Back side of the world, far off young, elicits their latent powers, kindles the Into a limbo large and broad, since call'd lamp of hope, and inspires a laudable ambition. The Paradise of fools." Its influence on the teachers is equally salutary.' “Before this tribunal must be presented the Their dormant energies are developed, their de. cause of educational improvement. The peo. sire of distinction promotes fidelity and efficiency, ple, by plain reasoning, and kind but earnest their path of duty seems divested of its thorns, entreaty, must be induced to feel that absorb. and spread with flowery verdure. Assured of|ing interest in the welfare and elevation of the the sympathy, the confidence, and co-operation of school, which its importance demands. There their employers, their shining course widens and must be line upon line, precept upon precept. brightens as they advance in the career of im. The powers of logic and rhetoric, of argument provement. They feel that they no longer are and eloquence, must be tasked' in the good doomed to labor with unrequited toil in a thank cause. Men must be convinced that the happi. less vocation, but delight to lead the willing feet ness of themselves and of their descendantsof youth in the path of science, through the nay, their very existence as freemen-depends portals of virtue to the temple of truth." This upon an all embracing system of enlightened is their high commission,' their lofty pur. and virtuous education. They must be satisfied pose, to unseal the depositories of mental that it is not only better but cheaper to suswealth, and to unlock the casket of knowledge, tain the children of the poor in the public and reveal the gems of thought and pearls of schools, than to pay ten times the tax to suptruth that there lie sparkling in splendor and port them in jails, penitentiaries, and almsloveliness.'

houses, after they have grown grey in iniquity, "These scenes were witnessed and enjoyed become encrusted with vice, and loathsome by parents with peculiar pleasure. As the ju. with crime. They must be instructed that good venile classes severally passed in review and schools are better than bad prisons, that a learn. displayed the treasures they had gathered in the ed and kind schoolmaster is a more profitable fields of study, the eye of the father would public agent than a constable or a turnkey. brighten and the cheek of the mother would “And when can this be done more successglow. The success of the child was the pride fully than by addresses at a school celebration ? of the parent. These occasions were sometimes on these occasions several hundred youth, with concluded by vocal music. The practice of their parents, are usually assembled ; an in. singing in common schools is regarded with in- tense interest is awakened. The excitements creasing favor, and it is hoped that it will more of a holiday and the sympathy of numbers are extensively prevail.

brought to assist in the dissemination of truth. "The District School Journal is still neglect. The children are proud and happy, because the ed in some few districts, but in most of those festival is in honor of them and their school. with which I have been conversant, it is eager. The parents are proud and happy because their ly read and highly appreciated.

children are, and every thing is favorable to en. I am pleased to state that a common school stamp the most enduring impressions upon the association has been formed in this county, un- public mind—to strike leading chords which will der favorable auspices, and a series of school | vibrate for ages. books recommended, which are being to consi. “I recommend that they be held in two or derable extent introduced into the schools. three neighborhoods in every town, that all may

I cannot conclude without expressing my be reached. They have been held in Orleans grateful sense of obligation to the town super. (county now for two years past, and have been intendents, for the cordial and valuable assist. productive of unalloyed good. I consider school ance rendered me in the discharge of my offi. celebrations and Normal schools as the very cial duties, and commending the zeal and ener. arms of educational reform. Without them we gy with which they have performed the impor. can do nothing—with them every desirable ad. tant trust which has been committed to their vance may be effected. hands."

“Our method of conducting these celebra.. Mr. Reynolds, superintendent of Orleans,

tions has varied according to circumstances.

The public exercises have sometimes consisted earnestly enforces the same view :

solely of addresses, music, &c. At other times, “ All measures of reform, to be effectually the different teachers have been called on to carried out in this country, must be submitted give an exposé of the actual condition of the to the good sense and sympathy of the people. schools under their charge. This embraces the The very fundamental theory of our government statistics of attendance, classification, age, stushows this to be essential. We have no estab. dies, text-books, school room furniture, condi. lished monarchy, entrenched by bayonets and tion of the house and appendages, habits of supported by 'lumbering culverines,' to en- study among their pupils, and the progress force regulations even for the good of the mass, made by them, methods of teaching, communi.

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