Page images
PDF
EPUB

friends, and men of all parties equally unite in interest the thoughtless, to repress the mischiev. commending them to the patronage of every phi. Tous? A matter of no trifting consideration, is lanthropist in the state." We make but one the fact that scholars require some opportunity more extract from these reports : " No measure to become acquainted with the ways and has ever been devised, tending so directly to the mode of instruction of the teacher before they improvement of our system of public instruction, can make all the improvement that the com. as the establishment of these schools. The spe- mon school is capable of imparting. The cific design of them is to prepare teachers for our reputation of a high school or an academy would common schools. The results of the experiment soon be frittered away by a constant change of in our own county, (Plymouth.) so far as they principals once in two or three years; and have have had time to appear, have been most satis. district schools no reputation to suffer from the factory. We, of this town, have had some means more frequent recurrence of the same course? of judging. Five of our young women, and two We look to the establishment of normal schools of our young men have spent, part of them six as a means of curing or modifying this evil. months, and part of them a year, in the normal | From town officers, from county superintend. school, and have received instructions in all the ents, from the friends of education in all parts elementary branches of learning, much more of the state, the call has been and yet is long thorough, and much better adapted to enable and loud-" give us better qualified teachers, themselves to teach, than they could have re- until that call can be responded to, there will ceived at any school or academy with which we continue to be change of teachers; intelligent are acquainted.”

districts will not be satisfied with indifferent or In concluding so much of the report as has poorly qualified teachers; if they chance to en. particular reference to the normal schools of gage such once, they will not do it the second Massachusetts, the committee would say, that time. twelve of the normal scholars, all females, are If this demand can be supplied with qualified now employed as teachers in the public schools professional teachers, this evil will cease; and of Boston; that an intelligent school officer, such teachers we can only obtain by educating. whose duty it is in some districts of the town to It may be said that thus far the supply has select teachers remarked to the chairman, that equalled the demand, and that it will so continue other things being equal, he invariably gave the to do. There are unmistakable signs in varions preference to those teachers who had spent some parts of the state, that the nature of that de. time at the normal schools; that a year's train. mand is undergoing a change that the time is ing there was more than equal to three years' er. coming when teacher's qualifications must be perience, the acquirements in other respects being greatly advanced from what many of them now the same in each case. Another school officer are. It is painful to reflect that the demand for remarked that a good teacher from the normal better qualified teachers has already outstripped school, would and did adrance schools in one the supply; and that this supply will now be the year, as far as common teachers did in two years. work of years. A good teacher cannot be preor even three years.

pared as a merchant or manufacturer fills an or. In those schools taught by these and other der for goods. Even Adam Smith excepts edu. good teachers, so far as the same were visited, cation from the mercantile or economical law, children of four and five years of age, seemed that the supply will follow and equal the de as interested, attentive and orderly as older schol. mand. "In every age, even among the heathen," ars; pupils of 6 and 7 years of age, judging by says Martin Luther," the necessity has been question and black board, were as conversant felt of having good schoolmasters in order to with geography generally, topography, mental make any th ng respectable of a nation. But and written arithmetic, &c., as those in our dis- | surely we are not to sit still and wait until they trict schools who have the advantage of ten ad. grow up of themselves. We can neither chop ditional years.

them out of wood, nor hew them out of stone. Such was the origin-such the growth-such God will work no miracles to furnish that which the effect-and such is now the appreciation of we have the means to provide. We must, therenormal schools in the commonwealth of Massa fore, apply our care and money to train up and chusetts, a commonwealth that last year paid to make them."* wards educating in its public schools its 184,896! One obstacle in the way of making teaching children between the ages of 4 and 16, $517, to any extent a profession, has been inadequacy 215.97, of which $510,590.02 were raised by of compensation. But in very many districts, a direct tar. In the five preceding years its has not the pay been fully equal to the worth of three hundred and eight towns expended in the services rendered? Have not very many teach. ereetion of school houses alone, $516,122.74. ers felt and acted the veritable saying of the

What improvement can be looked for in schools, English dame, 'it is but little they pays ine, when change, change, is the one unchanging fea- and it is but little I teaches them." ture.

It is believed that but very few instances can Experience has long since taught that the fre. have occurred in this state where persons have quent change of teacher is the great bane of fitted themselves to teach, and had sufficient schools; that when a teacher is "apt to teach” ability" to instruct and manage a school, and yet - has a good faculty of governing, the school failed to obtain employment and reasonable comwill make much greater proficiency the second pensation. term than it can the first. “It takes a quick teach. Perhaps the most serious obstacle in the way er several weeks to become thoroughly acquaint. of making teaching a profession, remains yet to ed with the various attainments, the dispositions be noticed the low estimation in which that ocand capacities of each scholar; and without such acquaintance how can he know what incentives Fifth Annual Report of Secretary of Mass. Board are best adapted to spur forward the laggard, to 'Education.

cupation is held, especially so much of it as per are to be spent in the office of a practising law. tains to common schools.

yer. It has also denied hitherto, to those who How can this be otherwise, so long as so great assume the care of the body, the aid of its laws a proportion of novices, ignoramuses, and in to collect pay for their services, unless a fixed competents are permitted to hold the station of course of study, or attendance upon lectures, has public teachers?

been rigidly pursued and properly certified. Yet In too many cases teaching is resorted to by thus far, neither common consent, nor common academic and college students merely to eke out understanding, nor statutory provision, have re. a stinted income to aid in completing their studies quired any apprenticeship, any special education, -by young girls desirous of obtaining the means the spending of any fixed term of time, preparatoof finishing their education by spending one or ry to entering upon an employment where is laid two terms at a higher seminary. The ruling the very foundation of all these superstructures. motive here is praiseworthy, and far be it from Here, inexperienced, unskilful hands are per. the committee to disparage a youth of scanty | mitted to make experiments to perfect themselves means making such efforts to obtain an educa. -and yet the subjects of these experiments are tion; but the fact is nevertheless true, that not immortal beings. unfrequently schools suffer by the employment! From the very nature of the case, the teaching of such teachers. Their minds are intent upon of such teachers cannot but be in low estimation; their own studies--to them their hours out of the art they practice suffers by their inexperischool are devoted; with such the duties in the ence and unskilfulness. If no preparation, no school-room must and do become secondary con training preparatory to the practice of that art, siderations; not expecting or desiring a perman. continue to be thonght necessary, it must remain ent connexion, there cannot be that entire giving where it now is in the public estimation. It can up of the whole mind and attention to a tempo- never be elevated while so little is required from rary occupation, which yet is so essential to en- those who practise it. sure success in any employment, and especially in that of teaching school.

COMMUNICATION. There is another class, quite too numerous, whose mercenary motive is not extenuated or EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION. ! relieved by so laudable an object--a class who engage in teaching without any love for the art, (By the author of Popular Lessons, School Friend, &c.] without any consideration of the incomputable importance of the trust committed to them— Dr. JULIUS, a functionary of the Prussian go. without any other further object than to keep vernment, sent some years ago to this country to scholars and parents from complaining until the examine our institutions, told the writer, that school closes. They enter the school-room as once being in a large school in one of our cities, the eye-servant enters the shop or the field, to he asked the scholars to tell him of a specimen spend the allotted time-to watch for the going of an animal, vegetable, and mineral, and to down of the sun to count the hours, the days, describe the distinctive character of each. Not the weeks, the months, that must come and go one of them did it. Now not one of these child. till " the last day" arrives, when the task will be ren was liable to confound the three kingdoms ended and the money be received.

of nature; they had never been pointed out to Can such a teacher profit a school? Can such them. Mr. George Combe, in his book of traa teacher be respected by his scholars, by his vels in America, says that when in Philadelphia employers, by himself? This class of teachers i in the public school, a boy read the phrase, must disappear before the occupation of teaching " Mr. Jefferson ratified the treaty,” he enquired can become respectable, sufficiently so to be re. of him what it signified. The boy made no re. cognized as a profession. It must come to be ply, and the teacher remarked that he did not more generally understood and acted upon, that know, and that he had, himself, no time to exa poor teacher is rery poor--that all of necessi. plain such things;-he supposed the boy would ty are poor teachers who have not taken some understand what he read when he should be oldpains, spent some time specially, to fit themselves er. This schoolmaster was no philosopher; he for teaching—that great skill and experience are supposed that the boy would form the habit of requisite to know how to teach well. By comreading without information, and then, at last mon consent, it is necessary to serve an appren: truth would reveal itself to his benighted under. ticeship of years to know how to make a hat, a standing, notwithstanding his superinduced

noe, a coat, or erect a building, and then the blindness. The schoolmasters in Holland, beapprentice is admitted and recognized as a sides competent knowledge of the elements “ workman," "a mechanic.”

taught, are required to possess cultivated A common understanding seems to prevail minds," because such mind alone enables a man among most Christian denominations, that no one to aid his pupil intelligently. shall be recognized as rightfully having " the The mere capability of reading is only an incure of souls," who has not, preparatory to the let to truth-an avenue that may be opened or exercise of that " function," spent some time choked up by the manner in which initiatory with an approved divine, or at some seminary reading is practised. When Sir William Jones specially instituted for the education of the min was a child, his mother had not leisure to-anistry.

swer all the questions he asked her, she put The state, too, has not regarded as beneath him in a way to gain the knowledge he sought its care, to require that no man shall be recog. by this reply " Read, and you will know." nized as competent to take charge, in its courts It is not to be presumed that this judicious mo. of justice, of the property, the reputation, or the ther did not give the child the right book when life of his fellow-men, until he has gone through she commanded him to read. She, thus made a course of seven years' study; three of which 'him depend upon his own mind, and the great depository of books. She taught him self-reli. facility is to educate the people, and he preance, while she made him feel that his own in. sumes rightiy; he will have abundant reason to sufficient powers might be aided by information calculate that no particular amount of knowof others, which, however, would not be ac. 'ledge, no elegant scholarship, no elevated moral corded to him without labor of his own. This aim on his part, is requisite to his enterprise, explains the whole theory of the use of books. till some predisposing infinence, Dot al present The book is essential to the enlargement of in- exerted in this matter, shall suspend the pur. dividual knowledgebut it must be the right chase of school books; shall make the selector book-one fitted to serve its use, and not imper- of such books willing to examine them, capable fect in regard to its peculiar designs.

of judging them, and scrupulons in comparing The books for the use of the young ought to them with what has been done or may be done. be written in a clear, popular style, always ha. Now the writer depends upon his pablisherving regard to elegance and good taste, with as then he will rely upon the intrinsie worth of little admixture as possible of difficult terms; what he can offer to the teacher and the taught. and they should be illustrated and rendered in. Then, out of the good treasure of his mind he teresting by practical examples. At present will bring forth things new and old, and make such books are rare almost unknown: their of them a seed for good ground;-now be may composition requires talents of a peculiar cha. take a pair of scissors, and just arrange certain racters the talent that is well informed with matter, more or less profitable, according to the knowledge of the human mind in its successive syllables contained in the words of it; and if he mages of development; and which has been it offend not against decency-the reach of his lessell improved with a higher knowledge than the sons-their consecutive meaning, and progreselementary. The latter is strictly conneeted sire wisdom will be of small importance to the with the former. The composition of elemen- reception of his books. tary works, has, hitherto, been lett to very in- ! We are ourselves a teacher of the young; we ferior hands to writers not afraid of, nor sub- , hare followed this vocation many long years; ject to criticism; for no cognizance whatever is and of all the hindrances that have prevented taken of' them by the higher powers. “Do you the efficacy of our labors, the want of proper know Mr. Brown?" said a man to Dr. Johason. books for our work has most done so. We have " What! Tom Brown who wrote a spelling: wished to misspend no time and no effort to book, and dedicated it to the Unirerse?"-was 'train up children in the way they should go-to the great lexicographer's answer The very make them see truth, and love it above all things tone of this answer shows how the poor word. -to make the printed page the very mirror of monger was regarded by the critic. In like God's world and God's will to lead the young manner the caterers for children are still regard. learner from the first hymn of his infancy to ed by the purveyors for maturity. This ought the brightest heaven' of invention"_from not to be. Proficients in science, and all truth, Watt's ** Busy bee" to Milton's celestial hier. owe services to the community, to every class arch-and we waat all children to be so trainof it, from the earliest stage of life some sv. ed. And they will they must be, if we have pervision of the humbler works that predispose but the will, the skill, the patience to seek out or indispose to the reception of the higher the very best means of instruction, and then to

There is nothing that calls more loudly for make use of them. improvement among us than school-books. The best possible school book would teach the teach.

DISCOVERIES AND INTENTIONS. er as well as the pupil. Who that uses Col. barn's First Lessons does not bless the memory

BOTLE entitled one of his essays, “Or Man's of that gifted person, who began at the begin Great Ignorance of the ses of Natural Things, ning of his science and still leads innumerable or, that there is no one thing in nature whereol minds right onward to the higher processes of the uses to human life are yet thoroughly under. the understanding!

stood." The whole history of the arts, (observes “ Books,” said Grimes. It are not dead things. Sir John Herschel in his “ Discourse on the bat do contain a potener of life in them, as ac. Study of Natural Philosophy, ) since Boyle's

ve as that soul whose progeny therare Ther time, has been one continued comment on this preserve, as in a vial. the purest efficacy. and text. or are we to suppose that the field is in extraction of that living intellect which bred the slightest degree narrowed, or the chances in them. They are as vigoronsly productive as I favor of such fortunate discoveries at all de. the fabulous dragon's teeth.” Hence it followscreased, by those which have already taken that school books should be sifted as wheat. place; on the contrary, they have been incalcu. We deprecate a censorship of the press, but we lably extended Science, therefore, in relation would invite enlightened criticism-not that to our faculties, still remains boundless and un. which is paid, or expects to be paid for its ora. / explored. calar opinions, but just such a criticism as the Are we teaching or are we not! Are we giv. highest minds exercise upon works of the high-ing bread or giving poison? Is it the fruit of est pretensions, from the love of literature and the tree of lite, or the fruit of the tree of knowthe love of truth. From such an ordeal, pre- i ledge only. which, if it makes us like unto Gods, tension, or ignorant presumption, could not es. drives us out of Paradise at the same time, which cape; and from it the pbilosophie writer might we are holding forth to the eager appetites of the expect a sentence of justice as sutricient for the country! These are momentous questions. proper exhibition of his value as the furnace is use. to the ore of the mine.

Whoever writes children's books and expects i The most familiar and intimate habitudes, conto penetrate the popular mind with them by aid nexions and friendships, require a degree of of a bookseller, presumes that mere commercial good breeding to preserve them.

[graphic]

The following extracts, with their illustra- nication, whether for a single individual or a tions, are from a very curious and interesting load of goods. The roads were not only very book, recently published by W. H. Colyer, left

narrow, but nowhere graded, except a few roads

olyer, left by the Romans. New York, entitled the Social History of Great The government couriers were the letter Britain, by William Goodman.

carriers. There is now in preservation a letter

from Mr. Bagg, (dated 1623,) deputy mayor of HOME TRAVELLING.

Plymouth, to Sir Edward Conway, Strand, Lon

don, with all its endorsements on it at the va, Soon shall thy arm, unconquer'd steam, afur

rious posts during the distance, which is 211 or Drag the slow barge, or drive the rapid car, Or on wide-waving wings expanded bear

214 miles: it took the courier fifty-seven Hours. The flying chariot through the fields of air." In 1825 the defiance coach used regularly to trav.

Darwix, 1793.

el the same distance in twenty-seven hours. This quotation contains a prophecy. At the These government couriers were under mar. time it was written, steam was only in its infan- tial law; and if it was found they anywhere lincy; but it presents an admirable contrast to the gered, they were liable to be hanged, as a warnstate of travelling at the beginning of the seven-ing to the next. teenth century, two centuries before the lines

PILLION RIDING apply. To state the case in a concise manner,

This riding double was no crime as it has been stated, * " in our domestic traffic, In the first great Edward's time, pack-horses have given way to wagons; wagon's

No brave man thought himself disgraced

By two fair arms about his waist; to canals, and canals to rail-roads." But I ap

Nor did the lady blush vermiliona prehend my readers would not be satisfied,

Sitting on the lover's pillion, without I stated how these gradations came Why? because all modes and actions about; and this I propose doing in this chapter.

Bowed not then to vulgar fractions,

Nor were tested all resources A Lancashire gentleman now can have his

By the power to purchase horses." own carriage, containing himself and family inside, and some of his domestics out, put upon a

QUEEN ELIZABETH often used to ride, on state railroad car, his own horses, which drew him occasi

w him occasions, on a pillion, behind the lord chancel down to the station, put into safe boxes on an. lor or lord chamberlain. other car, and he will be set down in London (a

COACHES distance of two hundred miles) in twelve hours. It is said to have been Henry Fitzallon, lord

Now, let us see what was done in 1603. steward of her household, who introduced coachQueen Elizabeth died at three o'clock on the es. It is well known she had William Boonen, morning of Thursday, 24th March. Sir Robert a Dutchman, for her first coachman, in 1564. Careyt stole away from Richmond Palace, and As the nobility at this period lived mostly by arrived in Edinborough, with the news to King the side of the Thames, they used to move about James, in the course of the following Saturday in their own splendid barges, until they began night. The distance from Richmond to London to have coaches, which at first were driven is nine miles; from London to Edinborough, 383 (though so clumsy) with two horses; but the miles. This is the present distance : it may be profligate Buckingham flourished away with six, within bounds to assume that the distance at that and sometimes eight. time was 400 miles. He performed this distance In 1605 coaches were partially used by the on single horses, say in sixty hours; and, taking nobility and gentry. into consideration the then state of the roads, he In 1625 Captain Baily, an old sea officer, first would be pronounced a good horseman. Hor- set up coaches to ply for hire ; hence they obses at that time were the only means of commu- tained the name hackney.coaches.

HACKNEY Coach, 1625. ||

* Gentlemen's Magazine, 1838.

The following extract is from Dr. Bannatyne's Scrap

book, as given in Dr. Cleland's statistical account of + " With, I suppose, bottelles of wine strapped to his Gi

Glasgow: gaddele, and pastyes of salmonde, troutes, and eyles

"The public have now been so long familiar to stage. wrapted in toweles."'-Froissart, by BERNERS.

coaches, that they are led to think they have always In 1713 Bristol (then the second port in the kingdom) existed.' It is, however, even in England, of comparabad po carts: but the traffic was all moved about the tively late date. city on sledges, winter and summer.)

" The late Mr. Andrew Thompson, sen., told me that * He began with only four. The customaryness. This will give a good idea of the state of station was at the sign of the May-pole, in the the streets and the roads ; for, if they had been Strand. His drivers had splendid liveries. in good condition, one-third that number would

In 1628 Charles granted a special commission have been sufficient. to the Marquis of Hainilton, his master of the In 1673 stage.coaches were introduced. It horse, to license fifty for London and Westmin-1 then cost forty shillings in summer, and fortyster, with liberty to each to keep twelve good five in winter, to go from London to Exeter, korses for each coach but no more for that busi. Chester or York, (distance to Exeter, 172 miles;

[graphic]

COACH, TIME OF CHARLES II. to Chester, 181 miles ; to York, 197 miles,) and sedan chairs ; certainly, for fashionable visiting, a shilling to each coachman in summer the jour. in full dress or high state, for either male or ney took up four days, and in winter six days. female, (for both sexes used them.) they were

Stage-coaches were introduced into Scotland in unique. They were carried by Irishmen. A 1678. The principal roads in the north of Scot. lady could walk into one of them (they are now land were mere track-ways till 1732.

in use at Bath, Brighton, and in London, though SEDAN CHAIRS.

smaller, and glazed, and even more elegant, than IN 1626 Sir Saunders Duncombe introduced the one given below) as it stood in her own bal

[graphic]

SEDAN CHAIRS, 1634, or passage. "A guarded lackey to run be. ! in defiance of all weather, as when you left your fore it, and pied liveries to come trashing dressing room; and fetch you away again in the after, with a link, if at night. Take you to same manner. One could be engaged for the your place of visit, and, if needful, into the week for twenty-one shillings, or one shilling an very room where the party were assembled, hour. If that is not a luxurious sort of locomoand there set you down just in the same stale, lion. I know not what is.

he and the late Mr. John Glassford went to London rection; and he said, when they met these trains of (from Glasgow) in the year 1739, and made the jour horses, with their packs across their backs, the cause nev on horseback. Then there was no turnpike-roadway not affording room, they were obliged to make way ti they came to Grantham, within 110 miles of London. for them, and plunge into the side-road, out of which Up to that point tbey travelled on a narrow causeway, hey sometimes found it difficult to get back again upon with an unnade solt road upon each side of it They The causeway." ynet, from time to time, strings of pack-horses, from thirty to forty in a gang, the mode by wbich' goods 9 Saxony, Naples, Italy, France, and Spian, had coach. seemed to be transported from one part of the country es before England. to another. The leading horse of the gang carried a bell, This engraving represents the rider on the contrax to give warning to travellers coning in an opposite di. ! horse to that the postillions DoW moont.

« PreviousContinue »