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VALUABLE SCHOOL BOOKS,

PUBLISHED BY

BELKNAP & HAMERSLEY, HARTFORD, CONN.

FOR SALE BY

ERASTUS H PEASE, No. 82 STATE-STREET, ALBANY, And by Booksellers generally throughout the United States. WOODBRIDGE & WILLARD'S UNIVERSAL GEO-1 THE CLASS BOOK OF NATURE-Comprising Los. GRAPHY AND ATLAS, new edition, revised and en. sons on the Universe, the three Kingdoms of Nature, larged.

and the Form and Structure of the Human Body: with The universal favor which this work has received, Questions and Numerous Engravings. Edited by J. and the high estimation in which it has always been Frost. Stereotype edition. held by intelligent Teachers, renders it unnecessary An excellent little work in many respects, and wora for the publisbers to do more than call the attention of thy of public notice and regard. We cannot help admir. che friends of education to the new edition which they ing in particular, the simplicity, and yet manliness have recently issued; the Geography contains 100 ad of the style. We are tired of the very frequent sur ditional pages, and the Atlas is much enlarged, and stitution of childishness for sinplicity in our books for from an entire 'new set of steel plates.

the young.-- Annals of Education. MODERN SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY AND ATLAS, on the plan of comparison and classification, with an At.

FLINT'S SURVEYING-Revised edition-Enlarged las, exhibiting on a new plan the Physical and Political with additional tables. eharacteristics of countries, and the comparative size Flint's SurveyinG has now been before the public up, of countries, towns, rivers and mountains, by. Wm. C. wards of 30 years. During this period it has passed Woodbridge, member of the Geograpical Societies of through numerous editions, and been enriched from Paris, Frankfort and Berlin.

time to time, by important contributions from the pre. School Committees, Teachers, and all others inter. sent Surveyor General, Geo. Gillett, Esg. The distin. ested in the cause of Education, are respectfully re- guishing feature of the work, as now published, is its ex. quested to examine this new Geography and Atlas for cellent adaptation to the every day wants of the practi. Schools; it is confidently believed that its merits are of cal surveyor, while it supplies to Academies and pripo ordinary character. Its clearness of arrangement, vate students, an eminently useful, clear, and well dr. its accuracy, its useful illustrations, and its concise gested system of Elementary lastruction, both in the and lucid exposition of Geographical truth, together theory and practice of surveying. I know of no work in with the new feature of the Atlas, presenting both this respect which equals il.-E, H. Burritt, Esq., Cinz Physical and Political Maps of countries, give it strong Engineer. claims to favor and support. This work, although but recently published, has al.

ROBBINS' OUTLINES OF HISTORY-Outlines of ready been introduced into a number of schools, and received the warm approbation of Teachers and others. Ancient and Modern History, on a new plan. By Rev.

ROYAL ROBINS. Among other testimonials in their possession, the publishers have strong recommendations from Rev. I have reviewed " Outlines of Ancient and Modern Thos. H. Gallaudei, Rt. Rev. T.C. Browneli, Prof. Good. History,' by the Rev. Royal Robbins, and am very much rich of Yale College, Rev. Horace Bushnell, Rev. Lewis pleased both with the plain and the execution. The me. Weld and from a number of Practical cachers. Aihod appears to me to be excellent; the incidents are communication recently received from Professor Pot well selected, and the biographical 'sketches connected ter of Union College, says, "A slight examination of with the poltical history, add much to the utility and Woodbridge's Modern School Geography and Ailas has the interest of the work. No compend which I have er. salisfied me of their great merit. With such aids, and amined equals it. Rev. Wilber Fisk, S.T. D. President with proper exercises on the black-board, a good Teach of the Wesleyan University, Middletown, Ct. er can hardly sail of communicating this importan: branch of knowledge with pleasure to himself and wita

GOODRICH'S GREEK GRAMMAR--Elements of striking advantage to his pupils.”

Greek Grammar, by CHAUNCEY A. GOODRICH. StereoANCIENT GEOGRAPHY, as connected with Chrono.

type edition. logy, and preparatory to the study of Ancient History,

Candidates for admission into this College are exam. accompanied with an 4:?..; by Emma WILLARD, lale ined in Goodrich's Greek Grammar; and it is used as Principal of the Troy Female Seminary; new edition.

text-book for the instruction of the class.-Pres. THE BOOK OF NATURE, BY JOHN Mason Good.- Day of Yale College. This work is so universally known that any remarks FIRST LESSONS ABOUT NATURAL PHILOSOPHY upon its meriis would be superfluous. It is used as a FOR CHIDDREN. --Part first, By Miss Marr A. Swirt, Reading Book in High Schools.

Principal of the Litchfield Female Seminary. THE PRACTICAL SPELLING BOOK, WITH READ.

The “ First Lessons about Natural Philosophy," is ING LESSONS, by T. II. Gallaunat and Horace loon. well calculated to interest the minds of youth. It This work is considered a decided improvement in brings down the popular parts of Natural Philosophy

to the level of the capacities of children, with a degree the departinent ofclementary instruction to which it be- of simplicity and accuracy which I have seldom seen longs. The publishers are furnished with the most sa: excelled. I wish Miss Swist all success in the useful tisfactory evidence of the favorable opinion entertained literary labors in which she is engaged, and in her en. of it. Wherever it has been introduced, it bas fully deavors to arrest the attention of the young, and simpli. satisfied the expectations of Teachers. The attention of sy useful knowledge, Thomas Dick, 'LL. D, suthor of the friends or Common Schools is earnestly invited to

the Christian Philosopher, &c. $c. the work: and its new plan of classification, and its oth. er prominent features, are cheerfully submitted to their FIRST LESSONS ABOUT NATURAL PIILOSOPHY candid examination.

- Part Second, By Miss Mary A. Swiss, Principal of THE MOTHER'S PRIMER-To teach her child its the Litchfield Female Seminary: letters, and how to read; designed also for the lowest The Lessons are admirably adapted to the capacities class in Primary Schools. On a new plan,

of children. Part First is now used in the Schools in The arrangement of this little book has been found to this town, and we hope Part Second may be introduced aid greatly in the instruction of little children. without delay.-Fall River Monitor,

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DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL,

OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK.

Vol. V.

ALBANY, SEPTEMBER, 1844.

No. 6.

ROCKLAND.

MR.

THOMAS H.

APPOINTMENTS OF

PALMER.

TERMS

Teachers' Drills from the 7th to the 15th of FOR THE ENLAROED JOURRAL.

October. Por one copy, in all cases, (per annum,).... 60 cts. 16 one hundred copies, each, .

31 1

SARATOGA.

County Celebration and Convention at Ball. TO COUNTY AND TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS AND ston Springs on the 18th inst. The superintend.

TRUSTEES OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS. ents of the adjacent counties, are expected to be The Superintendent of Common Schools hav. present. ing, in pursuance of the authority conferred upon hina by a joint resolution of the Senate and

Union School celebration, Scpt. 25, at Clarks.

town. Assembly of the 7th of May last, subscribed for a sufficient number of copies of the “Digest COUNTY of the Common School System of the State of New-York, by S. S. Randall, Deputy Superin. Columbia co. at Hudson, Sept. 13 and 14. tendent, &c." to supply one to each district li. Greene co. at Cairo, Sept. 16 and 17. brary and town and county superintendent, the Ulster co. at New Paltz, Sept. 19 and 20. work will be delivered during the present month Westchester county, at Tarrytown, Sept. 24 by a duly authorized agent, to the county super. and 25. intendents respectively for distribution. They Richmond co. at Richmond, Sept. 27 and 28. will accordingly see that each town superintend. Suffolk co. at Riverhead, Oct. 2 and 3. ent within their jurisdiction is furnished with a copy for himself and for each district the school. house of which is situated within his town: and

PROGRESS OF EDUCATION. the town superintendents and trustees of dis. tricts respectively will see that a copy is de.

COUNTY AND TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS; THEIR posited in each district library, for the use of

PLANS, THEIR LABORS, AND THE RESULTS. the officers and inhabitants of the district, imme.

ALLEGANY. diately after its receipt, and that the receipt of the librarian is given to the trustees, and filed

Angelica, July 29, 1844. with the papers of the district. S. YOUNG, Dear Sir :- Allow me to trouble you with a Supt. Common Schools. I line from Southern Allegany.

You are aware that I have been engaged in NOTICES.

the duties of the office of county superintendent but about four months. In my district there are

16 towns. In the early part of May I entered County Convention, Aug. 31st. Teachers' upon a visiting tour among the summer schools Institute, the last of September.

under my supervision. I have now been through

ten towns, and have visited every school district Northern District County School Convention, and library in those towns, excepting four. I inat Lee Centre, Sept. 3d ; Southern District at tend to go into every district, and examine every Utica, Oct. 8th. The Teachers' Institute will library within this division of the county before open the week following, at Utica.

forwarding my annual report. And while it is HERKIMER.

painful to witness the apathetic indifference that County School Convention, at Herkimer, still exists in some districts, yet in the aggregate I Sept. 11.

am happily disappointed in the progress of the

great work of educational reform" in Southern A Mass School Convention at Cazenovia, on Allegany. In many districts, the clouds of intelSeptember 20th and 21st.

lectualdarkness seem yet to brood in sullen gloom FRANKLIN.

over these little temples of liberty, while in the Town Superintendents' Convention on Sept. 20. great majority, however, teachers and schools, FULTON

at least, are doing as well as could reasonably Normal School opens at Kingsboro' in October; be expected, circumstances all considered. I have Educational Association meets at Mayfield on found many very choice teachers—both male and October 1st.

female-young ladies and gentlemen of superior ALBANY.

taste and literary attainments—who enter into School Celebrations in Coeymans, Sept. 6th the work with knowledge according to zeal, and and 7th ; Bethlehem, Sept. 21; Watervliet, Sep with " zeal according to knowledge,” who are tember 25 ; New-Scotland, Oct. 1,

fitting the youth under their charge to enter upon

TOMPKINS.

ONEIDA.

MADISON

the duties of life with practical intelligence. or engraved copies be substituted and used by They have abandoned the old rotary system of the same pupils term after term; that every manufacturing human parrots, and teach their reading lesson be followed by questions regard. pupils that an education includes something more ing its meaning and practical use ; that pupils in than a mere knowledge of stereotyped books. geography be required to draw upon the black.

Our town superintendents generally are deeply board the outlines of states and counties, the interested in the schools of their respective towns, courses &c. of rivers, the situation of towns, and are doing much for the promotion of the lakes, &c., and that this be not an occasional, cause of common school education in Southern but a daily practice ; that every pupil who can Allegany.

form letters with a pen or pencil, be required to I also find that parents generally are willing write upon the slate simple sentences of his own, to co-operate with teachers and school officers. daily, to be shown to and corrected by the My visits to the various districts have thus far teacher, thus progressively educating all our pubeen hailed by the inhabitants with a most cor- pils in the important art of composition ; that dial welcome, and apparently with no ordinary teachers pay more attention to physiology, or degree of interest. In this respect I am again the laws of their own being, and for this purfavorably disappointed, knowing the feelings of pose we respectfully recommend to them to prohostility that every where existed against this cure and carefully study the following valuable office for some time after its creation.

works, which are found in many of the district But while I am representing to you the healthy libraries, namely, Griscom's “ Animal Mechanstate of our schools generally, obedience to the ism and Physiology,” Dr. Combe's “. Principles dictates of justice demands that I should make an of Physiology," Combe"On the Constitution of. exception of one single town.

Man," and "* Comstock's Physiology.” [Here follows a mournful picture of miserable Resolved, That in our examinations of the sehool-houses, bad schools, indifferent parents, as practicable, adopting the foregoing course of

schools, we shall expect to find teachers, as far and of children suffering from the blighting in instruction; and in furthering this object we fluences of neglect and hopeless ignorance. But pledge them our ready and constant support. we withhold the sad details, in the hope that at schools is the surest means of bringing their

Resol red, That public examinations of the the next visitation of the county officer it will be merits or defects into notice, and of arousing more satisfactory; and we unite with him in the and directing public attention to them, as well as hope that the day is not far distant when the of stimulating the pupils, and drawing out the schools of this neglected town will vie with the therefore use every effort to induce teachers to

latent energies of the teachers; and that we will best in Allegany.)

institute them. I am, sir, most respectfully,

Resolred, That a school for the special in. J. J. ROCKAFELLOW,

struction of teachers, similar to the one held in Co. Superintendent Southern Allegany.

this coûnty in October last, mects our entire ap

probation; and that we urge all teachers in the CAYUGA.

county to attend the one to be opened the coming CONVENTIONS OF TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS. At a meeting of the Town Superintendents of

Common Schools of the northern section of At a meeting of the Town Superintendents of Cayuga county, held at Port Byron, Dr. Al.

the southern section of the county, held at LEN BENTON, of Ira, was called to the chair, Stewart's Corners, Dr. BENJAMIN FORDYCE and Lockwood Hunt, Esq., of Aurelius, ap.

in the Chair, and E. W. BATEMAN, Esq., Secpointed Secretary.

retary, the foregoing resolutions and proceed.

ings were read, thoroughly and practically The following resolutions were presented, dis.

discussed, and unanimously approved. eussed and unanimously adopted, namely : Resolved, That parents, teachers and school unanimously passed :

The following additional resolutions were officers should mutually aid each other in devi. sing and carrying forward plans for increasing timents embodied in the annual report of the

Resolved, That we fully accord with the senthe usefulness and efficiency of our common county superintendent of this county, published schools, and that we deem it especially im in the county papers in April last, and heartily portant that town and county superintendents recommend its valuable and practical suggesshould thus mutually co-operate.

tions to universal adoption by the patrons of the

common schools in this county. We particularly recommend to teachers to Rosolved, That we recommend all teachers commence their school exercises with the small and friends of common schools to patronize pupils, before they become wearied with sitting; the District School Journal, by promptly subihat they exercise them frequently and briefly; scribing for it, that the efforts of its editor to rethat every pupil, and especially the smaller ones, tain it in its present enlarged and improved be exercised at least twice each day in Mental form may be successful. Arithmetic-(for this purpose every teacher Resoirod, That a paper read by E. G. Storkes, should be supplied with a copy of Colburn's county superintendent, at the opening of this Arithmetic, for his own use ;) that teachers use meeting, be published with the proceedings. every effort to have all their pupils supplied We have room but for a few extracts from with slates and pencils; that the Blackboard be this excellent“ paper.” After showing the ori. used daily by crery class; that the practice of gin of the present system, and the encourage. setting copics by the teachers be discontinued, ments to increased exertion on the part of school as far as possible, and a series of weil written officers, he adds, in reserence to teachers, that

autumn.

COURSE OF INSTRUCTION.

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hitherto our common school teachers have had parently deeply interested audiences. On these little to stimulate and encourage them. If they latter occasions, two or more schools have been were intelligent and faithful, no one knew it be examined, addresses delivered, and the whole yond the limits of the district in which they subject of common school improvement brought were employed ; or if they were incompetent prominently before the public mind. and unfaithful, this too was generally a secret, The foregoing are some of the evidences of and little or no loss of reputation was the con the improvement of our common schools. There sequence. It is now to a great extent different. are other indications which I have time barely Teachers now begin to see, that if they exert to mention : School-houses are improving ; themselves, that exertion will be appreciated by twelve have been built in the county during the the public. If they discharge faithfully their past year, all neatly painted and fenced, and a duties and labor intelligently to elevate their large number are undergoing enlargement and schools, in most cases they will succeed, and will repair. In one town over $3000 have been ex. have the satisfaction of knowing that 'School pended upon school-houses during the past year; Districts are not always ungrateful.' They wood-sheds are being furnished, seats and desks are also beginning to see that, in order to engage lowered, trees planted out, &c. In short, I have in school teaching, they must have at least to congratulate the town superintendents and the learning, for school officers are becoming more friends of common schools, upon the general and careful about

evident improvement of the “nurseries of the 'Laying careless hands

nation" in this county. On skulls that never learned, and caónot teach.'

CHENANGO. And trustees, too, are becoming more careful

LETTER FROM A TOWN SUPERINTENDENT. about employing.such in schools." The effect produced upon the teachers and

Sherburne, Aug. 1st, 1844. schools of the county by the Institute" of last

Hox. $. Young :- Allowing myself a short fall has been most happy. The members gene. respite from the duties of Town Superintendent rally have left upon the schools committed to of Common Schools of the town of Sherburne, their charge, the impress of their own judicious I seize upon the present to give you the result of efforts, and have enjoyed the marked approba. my labors in this part of your vineyard, since tion of their employers.

my election the first Tuesday of March last. They have succeeded in a great many instan. During the few months that had elapsed since ces in discarding the old tedious routine system, intendents of Common Schools, Sherburne had

the operation of the act appointing town superand have taught their pupils to think, to reason, had two-Alonzo Phelps, who left, and C. C. and to understand.

By their zealous efforts, aided by parents and Foster, who succeeded, neither of 'which left a school officers, a great and gratifying change line to show that such an office existed, or such has been effected in the character of our schools. an agent of the State Superintendent had been in

Another important change which is most the town of Sherbarae. Esteeming this a de. clearly evident, is the increased interest and

fect, I immediately procured a blank book, in which I have entered all my official acts and de.

cisions, and copies of all letters sent or received Formerly it was a very unusual thing indeed by me. This record shows the amount of mo. for a patron to visit the school-room! It was ney received by me and from what source, how such a very dull place-nothing interesting or apportioned, and when paid. The trustees, animating about it—and we oftener found them librarian and clerk of the district, the teacher, visiting the county jail or poor house than the her age, the time she may have taught, her quali school.room, in which the minds and characters fications, her mode of government and disci. of their children were forming. Hence they pline, her ability to teach, the number on the knew personally but little about their school in day-roll, the number present, the branches any respect ; the house, the leacher, the books, taught, the number in each, 'the site of the the conduct or progress of the children, or any school house, its condition, apparatus, play. thing else, and of course it could not be expected ground, wood-house, privy, the condition of the that they would take much interest in a subject district, of the library, &c. I endeavored to obabout which they knew or thought so little. If tain a minute knowledge of the inhabitants in action was really and imperatively necessary, each school district, so as to be able to act with they were not therefore ready for it. Other them, and upon them, and through them upon things filled their minds, and the school was others with success. I have made more than

seldom in their thoughts.” But it gives me sixty visits to the schools under my supervision, great pleasure to state that over one hundred disc lecturing, instructing, advising and directing, tricts in this county have been regularly and fre.

and in every district I have found not merely a quently visited by their patrons during the past kind, but a cordial reception, both the trustees, winter, and this has generated an interest and a the teacher and papils welcoming me with feeling, the influence of which will long be felt. smiles, expressing their confidence, their trust

Another evidence of increasing interest may and their love, wishing that I would come often be seen in the frequent and well attended

to see the school. Truly, the office of town su

perintendent of common schools is a pleasant These are a novelty in this county. I believe one. I have licensed thirty-six young ladies, but one town, (Fleming,) has ever attempted, most of them of academic acquirements, or hav. until quite recently, to institute a public exa ing been instructed in a normal school. Some mination of the common schools. These, du- of those bearing my license "to instruct” have ring the past winter, have been quite numerous been called into other towns, and two into other in the school-houses, and some fourteen have counties. In all schools I disapprove of corporal been held in churches, attended by large and ap. I punishment; and whenever I find an opponent, a

CO-OPERATION OF PATRONS.

PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS OF THE SCHOOLS.

our

stiekler for the use of the rod, I give him my tennial, was sufficient to allay the opposition of own example and its great success, haring the most inveterate-an opposition to which this taught thirty years of my life without striking a happifying school exercise, I am sorry to say, pupil. There are now in town twenty has been considerably subjected in this county. schools, proceeding in fine order, and learning Leaving the church, the large assembly suribeir several lessons with a full confidence in rounded a table magnificently set upon the green, their teachers' ability to impart, theirs to re. under an arch of evergreens, and groaning under ceive instruction, into which no disgracing pun. the accumulations of confectionaries and pas. ishments are allowed to enter, but “love is made tries, wbich the kind matrons of the town had the loan for love," confidence for confidence and gratuitously furnished, and which were served trust for trust; and truly they bring in, like the up by them in a manner not outdone by the table seed sown in good ground-some, and I might etiquette even of the capital. But to witness say, many, even a hundred fold.

the dignified deportment of the children, was

the most pleasing part of the whole performance. A BRIEF OF, MY REPORTS.

No obstreperous laughter, no grotesque performWhole number of schools in Sherburne, 24 ; ances desecrated the occasion. They seemed to number on day-rolls, 680; number present, 515; think as though they were the most important in alphabet, 38; in spelling, 120 ; in reading, personages present, and therefore must conduct 455; in writing, 229; in arithmetic, 127; in themselves accordingly. Having finished the geography, 149; in English grammar, 96 ; in "rich repast," the assemblage dispersed, actaastronomy, 3 ; in philosophy, 19. Volumes in ated by the consciousness of baving given the the libraries, 2,016 : from these I set aside 33 cause of primary education a new and efficient volumes, 10 wit: Eccentric Biography, 11; Pi impulse, and resolving not to let another “narate's Own Book, 4; Murders and Daring Out. tion's birth-day" pass, without educational ob rages, 4 ; Bandit's Bride, 2 ; Adventures of a servances. Much credit is due the mothers for Nun,'1 ; Exploits of Banditti and Robbers, 2; the keen interest they took in getting up and Tales of the Ocean, 2; Pirates Three Cutters, sustaining the celebration. Indeed, women in 1; Mormonism exposed, 2; Scottish Chiess, 2; all ages of the world have stood in the vanguard Hungarian Brothers, 2; Young Ladies' Book of of every praiseworthy and humanity.amelioraRomantic Tales, 1 ; Admiral Lowe, 1—33 vols. ting enterprise. Plutarch mentions an instance I am, sir, respectfully yours,

in which a city being besieged and dishonorabiy R. T. COMSTOCK.

surrendered, the women made its warriors blush

because of their cowardice. And the women of FRANKLIN.

another city seeing their soldiery flee before the Moira, Aug. 12th, 1844. enemy, secured the city gates, and compelled Hon. S. Young-DEAR SIR :--So completely the recreants to return and “conquer or die." isolated is this county, and so far removed from When ancient Gaul was the theatre of civil war, the point of state centralization, that I have the women threw themselves between the belsometimes thought, were its name stricken from ligerent parties, etfected a reconciliation, and the alphabetical column of county names, it were afterwards admitted to the public deliberawould be forgotten by the more privileged, south tions, and appointed umpires between the neigh. of the Mohegans. But although, in consequence boring states. The city of Winnisberg was of our infancy, we cannot array that galaxy of compelled to surrender by an invasive foe; but talent which can older and more accessible coun the women were allowed to flee, and of their ties--although our unfortunate locality precludes effects, to carry what they could upon their the possibility of our standing at the head, even backs. How great the surprise of the victors of the second classmand although our literal must have been, on seeing every wise triumphFahrenheit stands much of the year below zero, antly bearing her husband upon her shoulders, yet our energies are not benumbed, nor our ef. and every sister her brother, without the gates forts unavailing, and our educational thermome of the city. During one of the Punic wars, the ter constantly indicates a high temperature, even Carthagenian ladies cut off their hair, and out fever heat.” Through the instrumentality of of it made bow-strings for the archers. Rome the very efficient town superintendent, R. R. being harrassed by a foreign army, the women Stetson, Esq., we had an interesting school cele. voluntarily contributed all their rings and jewels bration in Bangor, on the 4th ultimo. The to assist the government. Hannah More says, schools, together with the teachers and parents, that “Among the talents for the application of being assembled in the Presbyterian church, the which women are peculiarly accountable, there exercises were commenced with prayer from the is one, the importance of which they cannot rate Rev. Mr. Burknass. Then followed the reading too highly, and that is influence ; for the general of that inimitabie instrument, which, to the la. state of civilized society has a considerable detest posterity should ever be held sacred, and pendence upon their prevailing habits and opin. whose anniversary was the occasion of the gather. ions.” Now if women are the wise executors ing; after which Mr. Stetson gave an interesting of acts so meritorious, and have influences so address on the subject of common schools, and immeasurably great, may we not, with the ut. was followed by Mr. Burkinass and the under. most propriety, and with the utmost certainty, signed, in some brief remarks to the pupils in too, in their cordial response, appeal to them allendance. The concluding ceremony within for assistance in this our time of need? May doors, was a beautiful exemplification of the we not ask them to give us their exertions, and utility of vocal music, when taught in the com. above all to give their intluence, which, once mon'schools. To witness the irradiated coun: oblained, and we are invincible. tenances and the harmonic outbursts of unalloyed

Yours, &c., happiness from so interesting a group of chil.

D. H. STEVENS, dren, none of whom had passed the second sep.

County Step'.

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