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The modes of building in different countries The Gothic architecture appears to be an imi. anl in different ages of the world, have resulted tation of the grove ; the roof being supported by in several distinct styles of architecture. pillars, branching upward. The engraving will

give some idea of this style of building. It flour. Among the ancient Egyptians, it would seem, ished from the year 1000 to 1500, Å. D., and from the low and massy forms of their edifices, was particularly used in the construction of chur that they were fashioned in imitation of caves ches, monasteries, and other religious buildings, --the first habitations of savage man. The tem during that period. In France and Germany ples, of which many ruins remain along the bor. there are still to be seen many churches in this ders of the Nile, seem almost like structures hewn style ; and though they have an ancient and gloo out of the rock; so heavy are the columns, and my appearance, they are very beautiful, and the so low the arches.

sombre light within, seems well fitted to a place seemed to be suggested by the wooden cabin, Westminster Abbey, in London, is a fine speciAmong the Greeks, the style of architecture of worship: In England, also, there are many

Gothic edifices of the olden time, among which supported upon the trunks of trees. Thus the lighter and loftier columns supporting their edi- men. In Boston, Trinity Church is somewhat fices, seem to be a leading feature of their build. in the Gothic taste ; and at Hartford there is a ings.

fine specimen, in the Episcopal Church. There

are also several other edifices in this country, of In China, the houses appear to be fashioned recent structure, which are imitations, in part, after the tent, as if the idea had been borrowed of ancient Gothic buildings; but a pure example from the pastoral age, when the inhabitants of this style is hardly to be found, except in Eu. subsisted upon flocks, and dwelt in tents. rope, and among the edifices of past centuries.


the character of the school, and therefore, leave

the business of visitation to others. But do they A few days since a friend in Springfield, Mass. not judge of the schools by the reports of their Bent us a copy of the annual report of the school children, and would they not be better prepared committee of that town. Towards the close of to do this, if they should personally visit them ? it we found the following very plain language, And, granting that they may not be qualified to at which we were at first inclined to laugh out decide upon the accuracy of the recitations, do right. On second thought, however, we con. they not know that their presence animates and cluded to be sober in consideration of the cutting encourages both the teacher and the scholars ? truth here told. Some of these remarks might How can a parent feel that he has done his duty apply to parents who are seldom if ever seen in to his children, if he never drops in to see how the Sabbath school where their children go to they are passing their time in the school-room? receive moral instruction.

If he is a farmer he daily looks to see how his “Parents, also, manifest too little interest in pigs are thriving, and whether they are comfor. the successful operation of the schools. The tably housed ; but his children may pass years, by some, is never visited, and in without his troubling himself as to the quality some instances this is true where the office of of their mental aliment, or to the manner in prudential committee is added to the relation of which it is imparted to them. Is not a child of parent. They may feel incompetent to judge of more value than a pig !"

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DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL. modes of overcoming them, and for ascertaining

with as much clearness as possible, the present NOTICE TO CORRESPONDENTS. condition of the schools.

He also submitted a letter from Mr. Palmer, We again remind our contributors that the

an eminent teacher from Vermont, proposing to Journal is made up on the 18th of every month. deliver gratuitously, a course of five lectures to Frequent disappointments have occurred from the friends of education in this county, on topics inattention to this rule; and in some cases, we of the greatest import to the cause of moral

and intellectual improvement. have been beld responsible for the delays thus

Mr. Woodin next called the attention of the. occasioned.

convention to the value of the District School

Journal. He said that from his repeated visits NOTICE,

to the various districts of this county, he knew The reports of Common School celebrations that where the Journal was most frequently eir. in Washington, Onondaga, (at Camillus,) and culated, there the schools were invariably the best

and most flourishiug; the Journal not only de. Orleans, reached us after the August Journal tails those improved modes of instruction of was in type. They shall appear in the next which the people are ignorant, but it stirs them number.

up by its monthly visits, to put in practice more

vigorously those methods which they already STATE CONVENTION OF COUNTY SU.

know. The paper has hitherto been sustained PERINTENDENTS.

by the editor, whose main object in publishing

it is not for profit, but for the promotion of the OUR attention bas been called to an error in great cause of education. Mr. Woodin thought the reported proceedings of the Convention, that he was in duty bound to do what he could

to assist him in his benevolent enterprise. which we are anxious to correct.

On motion of Mr. Gould of Stockport, Mr. Mack, the distinguished superintendent

Resolved, That this convention is deeply im. of the Rochester city schools, is made “to ex. pressed with the value of the District School cuse himself from voting because he had but the Journal, and cordially commend it to the patron.

age of the public, believing that its wide dissen. use of one eye-the other being temporarily dis. ination would be in the highest degree conducive eased and he would be likely to see but one side to the welfare of our schools, and that we will of the question.” This piece of pleasantry, subscribe for it ourselves and circulate subscrip. copied from the Rochester Democrat, uninten.

tions in our respective neighborhoods.

On motion, tionally misrepresented Mr. Mack, who made Resolved, That Thomas H. Palmer be in rited no objection to voting on any question, but, on to visit Columbia county, and give a series of account of the state of his eyes, wished to be about the 1st of September, 1844. The lectures

lectures on the subject of Common Schools, excused from serving on committee.

to be given in Hudson.

Resolved, Thut the town superintendents be The Committee on Agriculture was not report requested to give a history of the condition of ed as filled, no name but the chairman's, Mr. the schools in their respective towns. Patchin, appearing on the minutes. Mr. Roches. three be appointed by the chair for the purpose

Resolved unanimously, That a committee of ter, the President of the Convention, bas advised of taking into consideration the Text-Books best us that the committee consists of Mr. Patchin, adapted to our common schools. John Stanton of Livingston; Mr. Bateham, editor of the Ge Gould, David G. Woodin and Henry B. Salmon,

were appointed said committee. nesee Farmer, Rochester; and Dr. Potter of

Resolved unanimously, That the trustees, Union College.

teachers, and friends of education generally,

hold a meeting in each town in the county for The Convention adjourned to meet on Tuesday the purpose of benefiting and improving the prethe 22d of April, at Syracuse.

sent condition of our common schools.

Resolved unanimously, That this convention COLUMBIA.

adjourn to Tuesday, the 18th day of October, at

10 o'clock A. M., at the court- house in Hud. Agreeably to previous potice, the town superintendents of common schools for the county of

Wm. E. HEERMANCE, President. Columbia, assembled in convention at the court:

HENRY B. SALMON, Secretary. house in the city of Hudson at 10 o'clock A. M., on Friday the 14th day of June, 1844.

NOTICE TO PUBLISHERS. The convention was called to order by David A committee consisting of John Stanton Gould, G. Woodin, County Superintendent, and on his David G. Woodin and Henry B. Salmon, has motion, Col. Wm. E.Heermance, of the town of been appointed by the Educational Convention Greenport, was called to the chair, and Henry of Columbia County to select Text Books on B. Salmon of Stuyvesant, was appointed Secreta. Algebra, Surveying, Natural and Moral Philoso. ry. Mr. Woodin stated the object of the con.phy and Chemistry. Authors are requested to vention to be the interchange of views on the furnish copies of such works asare published by subject of education in this county-for aseer- them on these subjects, for the examination of taining the nature of the obstacles which op. the committee, directing them to the care of the pose ite progress--for expositions of the best! Mesore. Wynkoop, in the city of Hudson.

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Willard's Historical Works.

DAVIES' ELEMENTARY GEOMETRY--This work WILLARD'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, reasoning is plain and concise, but at the same time,

embraces the elementary principles of Geometry. The OR REPUBLIC OF AMERICA, commencing with its discovery, and brought down to the death of General

strictly rigorous. Harrison Illustrated by a Chronographic Cbart, a

DAVIES' PRACTICAL GEOMETRY-Embracing the Chropological Table, and a Series of Maps.

facts of Geometry, with applications in Artificers' WILLARD'S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, work, Mensuration, and Mechanical Philosophy. OR REPUBLIC OF AMERICA-ABRIDGED Ilustrated ADVANCED COURSE.- For ACADEMIES AND COLLIGIS. with Maps and Engravings-Designed for Schools. In DAVIES' BOURDON'S ALGEBRA-Being an Abridg. Press.

ment of the work of M. Bourdon, with the addition of WILLARD'S UNIVERSAL HISTORY-Ilustrated by practical examples. New and much improved edition.

Chronological Picture of Nations-A Perspective DAVIES' LEGENDRE'S GEOMETRY AND TRIGO Sketch of the Course of Empire, and a series of Maps, NOMETRY---Being an Abridgment of the work of M. giving the Progressive Geography of the World. New Legendre, with the addition of a trcalibe on Mensuraand much improved edition.

tion of Planes and Solids, and a table of Logarithms

and Logarithmic Signs. Davies' System of Mathematics. DAVIES' SURVEYING-With a description and plates The following works embrace a complete Course or of the Theodolite, Compass, Plane-Table and Level; Mathematics, by Charles Daviez-They are designed as also Maps

of the Topographical Signs, adopted by abe text books for classes, in the various institutions of Engineer Department, and an explanation of the melearning throughout the United States.

thod of surveying the Public Lands, ELEMENTARY COURSE.-FOR SCHOOLS.

DAVIES' ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY--Embracing DAVIES' FIRST LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC-De tem of Conic Sections--the Equations of the Line and

the Equalions of the Point and Straight Line--a Sys. signed for Beginners, or the first steps of a course of Plane in Space-also, the discussion of the general Arithmetical instruction.

Equation in the Second Degree, and of Surfaces of the DAVIES' ARITHMETIC. It is the object of this work Second Order. to explain in a clear and brief manner, the properties DAVIES' DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CAL. of numbers, and the best rules for their practical ap- CULUS-Embracing the Rectification and Quadrature plication.

of Curves, the Meostration of Surfaces, and the Cuba KEY TO DAVIES' ARITHMETIC, with the addition ture of Solids. of numerous examples.

DAVIES' DESCRIPTIVE GEONETRY-With its apDAVIEK' ALGEBRA-Embracing the first principles p'ication to Spherical Projections. of the science.


SPECTIVE. * The above Works are for sale by all ibe principal Booksellers throughout the United States.


A System of Twelve Books, in Three Parts.


Appollos W. Harrison, 8] SOUTH-SEVENTH-ST., PHILADELPHIA. The object of this system is to furnish to Common or

THE PRIMARY PART District school teachers, the means of accomplishing Is for beginners, and is peculiarly adapted to their all with their pupils in the art that the best writing youthful capacities. The lessons are so arranged that masters can.

short, !ong, and capital letters are classed and prac This it is believed will be fully realized on trial, and tised 'first, according to similarity of formation ; then, at a less cost for books, than for the use of blank writ. alphabetically in single letters and words, so as to ing books. It has been ascertained by careful analg. fix the form of each letter in the pupil's mind. Each sis, that Root's Writing Bonks, average four times as lesson is alternated with exercises, io give facility of much writing for the pupil, as the same number of action to the museles, and establish the correct man. blank books; and as the cost for each number is but a ner of holding the hand and pen. trifle more than for blank books, they must be much the

THE INTERMEDIATE PART, cheapest, at least by more than one half. Besides there Though a proper successor to the primary, may be is a great saving of time to the teacher, the copies be used as a commencement by pupils somewhat advance ing all set in a fac-simile of the beautiful band of the ed, or self-instructors. It will produce a practical author.

business style. It comprises as exercises, single small PLAN AND USE OF THE SYSTEM. letters, entire words, capital letters, alphabetical senThe arrangement is such, as to enable teachers wbotences, and a series of bold exercises for acquiring use them, to superintend,' and rapidly advance very great freedom and command of hand. large classes with comparatively little labor. Every

THE FINAL PART. exercise to be practised, and letter to be imitate 1, is Contains off-band or whole arm exercises, capital fully and clearly explained in bold type upon the same letters, select sentences of one and two lines each, and page with the lesson. This, and the ready set copies, business transactions; such as Notes, Orders, Drafts, with cuts illustrating and exbihiting both the correct Receipts, &c., and the ornamental' branches of the and false positions of the hand and pen, enables any art, comprising Round Hand, German Text, Old Engone of common capacity, who will read, (hink, and ex. lish, &c. Each part although gradually progressive, ereise his own judgment, not only to teach himself, but and designed to be used in regular suecession, is so become with the aid of these books, a thorough and suc planned as to make a complete series of itself, and may cessful teacher of practical writing. The whole plan be used independently of the others. The whole formis pleasing, interesting, and effectual; equire new ing the most complete, philosopbical, praction, and and original sitbike anibor,

oconomical system erer before published.


IN THREE PARTS. SOLD BY JENKS & PALMER, AND BY BOOKSELLERS GENERALLY, PART PIRST, is a small book, designed for the use of From the Masters of the Public School of Boston, in the young classes, from five to eight years of age.

Deparlonent of Arithmetic. Part Second, contains within itself, a complete sys.

Emerson's System of Arithmetic, (First, Secoad and tem of Mental and written Arithmetic, united; and Third Part,) has been in use in the Publie Schools this book, having been lately enlarged, is sufficiently of Boston for several years, and it affords us pleasure extensive for common schools. PART THIRD, for advanced scholars, comprises a brief ed by observing its effect in the business of instruetion

to say, that our opinion of its value has been confirm. review of the elementary principles, and a full devel. It is written in a perspicuous style, its i!lustrations are opment of the higher operations, with extensive com lacid, its arrangement is judicious, and the gradation mercial information.

of its exercises is exact. This System of Arithmetic has been adopted by the justly entitled to the high reputation it has acquired,

We consider the work to be First Lessons and Sequel-by the Providence Board, teachers, who have not bad opportunity to become acto take the place of Smith's Arithmetic, and by the quainted with its merits. Philadelphia Board, to take the place of Pike's. The recommendations of the work are from gentlemen who

P. Macintosh, jr., Hancock School. do not lend their names to give countenance to indif.

James Robinson, Bowdoin School. ferent publications. They are such as the following:

Levi Copant, Eliot School.

Aaron D. Capen, Mayhew School. T. Mr. Frederick Emerson,

Josiab Fairbank, Adams School. Sir,-I have received the First and Second Parts of

John A. Harris, Hawes School. your North American Arithmetic, and am highly pleas

Reuben Swan, jr., Wells School. ed with the plan of the work, and the manner of its

Nathan Merrill, Franklin School. execution thus far. It unites simplicity, with fulness,

Loring Lothrop, Endicott School. and will thus be sure to interest the beginner, while it Charles Kimball, Boylston School. furnishes, at the same time, an ample guide to the

Joseph Hale, Johnson School. more advanced pupil. Respectfully and truly yours,

Samuel L. Gould, Winthrop School.

Boston, Jan. 29, 1842.
Late Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philoso-

Emerson's Arithmetic, Part Third, has for xererat ply in Williamstown College.

years been a text-book in the Boston Eaglish High

School. I think that it is a highly useful book for thone To the Publishers of Emerson's Arithmetic.

scholars who have faithfully learned the Second Part, Gentlemen,-! have examined the Third Part of Mr. which, ia my opinion is an excellent work.

THOMAS SHERWIN, Erperson's Arithmetic with great pleasure. The per. spicuity of its arrangement, and the clearness and bre.

Principal of the Boston English High School. vity of its explanations, combined with its happy adap- Having for several years, used Emerson's North tation to the purposes of practical business, are its American arithmetic, and having had a fair opportuai. great recommendations. I hope it will soon be intro- !y to compare it with other works upon the same sub duced into all our schools, and take the place of ill. ject, I cheerfully, certify, that I consider it decidedly digested treatises, to which our instructors have hith the best Arithmetic which has fallen under my notice. erto been compelled to resort. Respectfully,

I confidently recomiend it as a work of rare merit, BENJAMIN PIERCY.

and well deserving the extensive use and great popu.

larity which it bas hitherto enjoyed. Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy,

LUTHER ROBINSON, Harvard University.

Sub-Master of the Boston English High School.


And for sale by the Booksellers generally throughout the United States.


Designed as a reading book for classes using the In a series; adapted to the progressively developing School Geoprapby, or pupils farther advanced. capacities of youth.


TO THE STUDY OF THE Maps; comprising his Atlas, in Containing 120 Engravings, and 14 colored Maps, de la series of lessons for beginners in Geopraphy. signed as a first book of Geography for children.


With an Atlas, will contain about 600 pages, and com. Accompanied with an Allas, containing 18 Maps, en. prise a complete system of Mathematical, Physical, Po. graved from original drawings, and executed in a clear litical, Statistical and Descriptive Modern Geographsi and distinct manner.

together with a Compendium of Ancient Grography; il MITCHELL'S ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY.

lustrated by Engravings, executed by the first artists of

the country. The Atlas to accompany the above will Consisting of a part of the High School Geography, contain not less than thirty Maps, constructed particu. and accompanied with an Atlas, containing 19 Maps, larly for the work, and designed to correspond with, expressly designed for this work, and illustrated by 25 and illustrate il, in the most precise manner. This Engravings, representing some of the most interesting work is progressing, and will be issued at the earliest events of Scriptural and Ancient History.

day consistent witb ihe importance of the undertaking. MITCHELL'S ATLAS OF OUTLINE MAPS,

Numerous recommendations from the highest autbo. (An Accompaniment to the School Allas,)

rity, in favor of the above series, are in the possession

or the poblishers; but as they prefer that any works Possessing all the advantages to be derived from map published by them should stand upon their merits alone, drawing, with a great saving of time.

they deem ít nanecesaury to insert them here.




OLNEY'S PRACTICAL SYSTEM OF MODERN GEO countries, that it bas been republished in Edinburgh, GRAPHY, or a View of the Present State of the and translated for the use of the schools in Prussia. World, simplified and adapted to the capacity of Higher proof of its merits could not well be given. New youth.' Embellished with numerous engravings of discoveries are occasionally added to it, without dig. manners, customs, &c. Revised editiou, accompanied turbing the body of the work. The o:ber books of Dr. by an entirely new and elegant Atlas.

COMStock's Series are probably well known to teachAlibough averse to the practice of altering school ers, viz: books, and thereby creating confusion in classes, the

ELEMENTS OF CHEMISTRY, including recent disauthor of this work has been induced by the


coveries. of recent, full and authentic inaterials, containing more

OUTLINES OF PHYSIOLOGY, both Comparative definite and correct information than could before be and Human, a work of immense importance 10 the obtained, to revise the Geography according to the young; present state of the science.

THE YOUNG BOTANIST, being a treatise on the The plan of the book has not been changed, the author science, prepared for the use of persons just comnever having had any intimation that change was de mencing the study of plants. sirable. Teachers therefore who have been in the

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF BOTANY, habit of using it, will still find it familiar. It is be including a Treatise on Vegetable Physiology. Keved that the Allas will be found superior to any other.

OUTLINES OF GEOLOGY, intended as a popular It is engraved in the best style, and all the endeavors treatise on the most interesting parts of the science. which experience and care could exert, have been used

AN INTRODUCTION TO MINERALOGY, illustrato make it aocurate and clear. The object being to

ted by nearly two hundred wood cuts. teach geograpby to young persons, care has been used

BULLIONS' SERIES OF GRAMMARS-ENGLISH, to exhibit the various portions of the world in the LATIN AND GREEK. These books bave met with plainest manner, and so as to lead the pupil on with a degree of favor truly remarkable; spontaneous recom. as few obstructions as possible. The Atlas contains mendations have been received from a large number of some new features, among which are a more convenient the best scholars and most celebrated teachers in the arrangement of the United States, and a set of charac. country. A small volume of Practical Lessons in Engters indicating Government, Religion, State of Society, lish Grammar and Composition has been added to the &c., differing somewhat from the charts heretofore series, wbich is admirably adapted to its purposes. used. It is impossible to devise any emblems absolutely The same author is preparing a LATIN READER. significant which can be used on so small a scale; but COOPER'S VIRGIL, with English Notes. la very those employed will be easily remembered, and will fix / general use. the idea intended to be conveyed. The sale of nearly

THE PICTORIAL SPELLING-BOOK. By R. Bept. a million copies of Olney's Geography and Atlas, in the ley. Containing more than 160 beautiful cuts, well face of the most strenuous competition, may be said to printed on fine paper. Those who regard it important bave established its reputation as a work of real merit. that the first book should be pleasing to children, will If the publishers can rely upon the perfectly cre- find this suited to their purpose; and it is not only dible testimony which they receive, it has no equal in attractive but excellent for teaching. In proportion to the school-room, and the practice of exchanging new its cost, it is one of the cheapest school books pubcopies of other works for old copies of this, has enabled lished many teachers to establish the fact. It now comes THE FAMILY AND SCHOOL DICTIONARY. By before the public with new claims upon its favor, and Rev. T. H. Gallaudet and Rev. H. Hooker. This book all persons interested in education are invited to ex. does ot contain the names of common objects, as chair ainine it.

or book, neuther does it contain words which young OLNEY'S INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY is a persons have no occasion to use, but its object is to beat, cheap and perspicuous work, for those who wish irain pupils to the habit of giving a definite meaning a smaller book on the subject.

to every word. It fully sustains the reputation of Rev. OLNEY'S NATIONAL PRECEPTOR, a popular dir. Gallaudet, as all will find who test its merits. reading book for the middle classes in schools.

ROBINSON'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND, used in the COMSTOCK'S NATURAL PHILOSOPHY for schools Rutgers' Female Institute and many other seminaries. and academies. In addition to the general testimony It is the intention of the publishers, that in point of in favor of this work, the publishers can state that execution, durability and price, the above books shall the plan and style are so highly approved in foreign compare favorably with any others.


PUBLISHED BY HARPER & BROTHERS, 82 CLIFF-STREET, NEW-YORK. Embracing Voyages, and Travels, Biography, Natural History, the Physical

Sciences, Agriculture, Manufactures, Arts, Commerce, Belles Lettres, the

History and Philosophy of Education, &c. FIRST SERIES Price twenty dollars, including a FIFTH SERIES-In preparation deal case, or nineteen dollars without the case--fifty volomos.

The publishers give notice, that any of the one SECOND SERIES--Price I wenty dollars, including hundred and ninety-five volumes now published of the a neat case, or nineteen dollars without a case--forty. District School Library may be purchased separately, five volg.

at thirty.eight cenis per volume, with the exception of THIRD SERIES-Price (wenty dollers, including a Nos. 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, which volumes, being of double neat case, or pineleen dollars without a case-ilty vo the size or she others, may be had at seven p-six cents lumre.

each. Every rolume is substantially and neatly bound POURTH SERIES-Price twenty dollars, inclæding a with lcaiber back, the whole forming the richest and weat case. or nineteen dullars without a comforty chen pees collection of choice popular works ever offervolomet

ed to the publis.

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