« PreviousContinue »
same principles as the Barre school, in the during the year 1842 was about 45: that was the month of September, 1840.
number in attendance at the close of the year The Lexington school received no pupils for 1843; at the preceding term 72 were admiited. less than one year; each of the other institu. On the day when this school was recently visited tions admitted scholars for a less period. The by one of your committee, there were 42 pupils unterms of admission were, that applicants, if | der instruction, of which number 31 or 32 were fe. males, must have attained seventeen years of males. On examining the register of the school, age, and sixteen, if females - must on examina. 233 persons were found to have been enrolled as tion appear well versed in orthography, reading, members since its organization in September, 1840. writing, English grammar, geography and arith- This number includes several who did not remain metic - must be in the enjoyment of good health, through even one term. Ofthe whole number, 131 and must furnish satisfactory evidence of good were known to have taught, after leaving school; intellectual capacity, and of high moral charac. 42 were attending school; 8 only (which includes ter and principles. The pupils were in addition iwo or three who were dead,) are known not to required to " declare it to be their intention to have taught; 5 others had never taught by reason become school teachers after having finished a of ill-health; 3 had married; 1 came from and course of study at the normal school." *
returned to New-York; of the history of the reThe following course of study was arranged mainder the principal knew nothing. and recommended for each institution ; fully to The day spent by the chairman of your com complete it required three years :
mittee at this seminary, was occupied in attend. 1. Orthography, reading, grammar, composi ing upon the regular exercises and examinations . tion and logic.
of the classes, and in a brief visit to the model 2. Writing, drawing.
school-room. The normal school was opened 3. Arithmetic, mental and written, algebra, in the morning by reading a portion of Scripture,
geometry, book-keeping, navigation, sur singing and prayer. The recitations, the ex. veying.
planations, the comments, &c., were all analyti. 4. Geography, ancient and modern, with curo. cal and practical-and as far as practicable
nology, statistics and general history. subjected to the test of black-board demonstra. 5. Physiology:
tion. All seemed arranged and designed to make 6. Mental Philosophy.
every scholar thoroughly acquainted with the 7. Music.
subject and with the best method of elucidating 8. Constitution and history of Massachusetts, and communicating it. and of the United States.
The rules of the institution require the pupils 9. Natural philosophy and astronomy.
to teach in the model school-room in rotation, 10. Natural history.
under the supervision of the principal. This 11. The principles of piety and morality com. part of the school exhibited the effects of the mon to all sects of Christians.
too constant confinement of the principal in the 12. The science and art of teaching, with refer. general recitation room. ence to all the above named studies.
The usefulness of this seminary is greatly im. The first term, the Barre school, with one
| paired by the want of more teachers, and by the teacher and one assistant, received thirty-nine
short and uncertain periods for which students pupils ; the fourth term it numbered forty |
are received. A term of 14 weeks is hardly suf. seven-twenty-six males and twenty-one fe.
fiicent for one man and his assistant to eradicate males ; in December, 1841, the number of both
bad habits of thinking and feeling, and implant sexes had reached seventy. In the year 1842
new ones in fifty or sixty minds, reducing the this school was suspended by the death of its
whole to demonstration and to practice, in the principal, Prof. Newman.
model school. After this school had been in operation about
The normal school at Lexington, designed ex. eighteen months, it was officially said by the
clusively for ladies, closed its first year in August, Board of Education: "The scholars who have
1840, with 25 pupils; the second year numbered left this school have sustained a high reputation
40; the third year about the same number. Dur. in their professions as teachers. They appear
ing the last year there were the first term 31; to be decidedly better qualified for their task,
the second term 39; the third 42; the fourth 55; both by their thorough acavaintance with the at the close of the year the applications for the elementary branches of learning, and their fa.
next term were 60; this was the number in atmiliarity with the principles and practice of the
tendance the day the school was visited. art of teaching, than the majority of those gen.
The model school connected with this instituerally employed in the care of schools.” It was
| tion,consists generally of from 40 to 50 young chil. of this seminary that President Humphrey of
|dren, from the several school districts in the town, Amherst College, on visiting it, in December, 1
This school, under the general superintend1841, said, “I was exceedingly pleased with
pleased with ence of the principal of the institution, is taught the elementary and analytical processes in ou mainly by the pupils of the normal school. The the branches taught in the school. Every thing!
principal visits this school daily as a listener and had a direct bearing upon the great business of
observer, sometimes as teacher. Here, under teaching, for which the pupils were preparing."
; the eye of a master, is a real apprenticeship served The Bridgewater school opened in September,
op in the noble art of teaching-here theory is com 1840, with 28 pupils, of whom 21 were females;
bined with practice here principles are illusthe second term was attended by 35, of whom 26
trated by veritable examples. The model school were females; the last term of the year 1841 closed
sustained in the vicinity a reputation so high, with 52 pupils. The average number of pupils
that for the two or three first years a much
larger number of children could be obtained for * Mass. Common School Journal, Vol. 1, pages 96, 309. it, if it had been desirable to increase the num.
ber, and this too when the sending a child to
COMMUNICATIONS. that school was attended with a very considerable extra expense to the parent.
EXCHANGES. As pupils from the normal schools have gone out into the town to teach, parents have of late Mr. HOLBROOK has devoted a life of labor to been enabled to supply their children in their the cause of education. His leading object has own district schools with the same kind of superior education taught in the model school; and I been to establish a system of exchanges, by in consequence, the number of pupils in the lat. which the minerals, fossils, shells, plants, &c., ler school has been reduced to some 25 or 30. A of different counties, states and countries could fact which shows the practical effect of the education and training of teachers at the normal
i be obtained with but little more expense than the school, that they acquire and that they can com- cost of transportation, each region supplying municate.
what is interesting and useful to that which exThe day spent at the Lexington seminary,
FX: changes with it. there were in the model school about 30 children,
The following letter was not of ages and capacities as various as the same intended for publication, but its facts are intenumber exhibit in a common district school. An resting, and its suggestions sensible, and Mr. H. experienced and highly qualified teacher spends will therefore excuse us for thus making his all her school hours in this school; the more ad vanced pupils in the normal school in rotation, plans partially known. are required to assist in classifying and arranging the children, hearing and explaining lessons, FRANCIS DWIGHT, Ese.." Seaching orally on the black board, &c. ALÍ
My DEAR SIR: I send you a circular, touch. passes under the eye of the teacher, aided by the ing a subject which I know you appreciate frequent watchful suggestions of the principal. School Apparatus. It is especially designed for Interesting as it would be to detail minutely con
tely common country schools, and with that view, the exercises in this room--the natural and suc-durability with simplicity and clearnega of il! cessful means used to make the stay in the school- lustration, has been aimed at. The globe is room pleasant, instead of irksome-learning a solid, fitted for being suspended, also for a stand, delight, instead of a drudgery-even to children as different illustrations may require. The first of four and five years of age-the committee
elementary ideas about our earth are certainly feel they must hasten to the normal school-room.
given in no way so correctly or clearly, to a young Here the morning exercises were quite similar
e quite similar mind, as by a globe suspended by a cord. Not to those of the Bridgewater institution, except
tion, except only the shape, motions, and general divisions that all, or nearly all of the pupils engaged in
s engaged in of ihe earth, but the elliptical form of its orbit singing; as it was review day" at the semi
can thus be shown by actual experiment, also nary, a very good opportunity was presented of the forces kee
inity was presented of the forces keeping the earth in its orbit, and how learning the exercise and manner of study pur. they give it an elliptical shape, may be shown. sued at the school. Great pains are taken in The universality of the subjects illustrated by teaching reading, accent, emphasis, grammar, the apparatus fit'it alike for all countries, the colloquial and written. Spelling and punctua- manual of explanations excepted: and these, in tion are taught at the black-board. A half hour;
ur missionary stations, where similar articles have spent by all the school in mental arithmetic, vul.
heretofore been used to great effect, will be used gar fractions, rule of three, practice, interest, in their own translations. For Spanish America &c., showed great quickness in mental compu.
mpu a translation is about to be made, indeed has tation. Several scholars described and demon.
been made in part, in the city of Mexico, where strated problems in the various books of Euclid,
4, the articles have already been ordered. stated and worked complex propositions in Alge
The exchanges already put forward by it bra on the black-board with a readiness and have brought interesting specimens from differclearness that evinced a perfect familiarity with
biliarity with ent countries, and will certainly, when carried those branches of mathematics.
out, bring them in such quantities, as to be disAs there had been some change of principals
als tributed, not only to the interior of this state, since the organization of the school, no statisti
but to all the states. The following experiment cal information, to any extent, could be obtained
is a specimen of the extent to which it may be as to the number of pupils who had taught or
carried. Several months since, crowds of bare. were now engaged in common schools. The in
; footed girls and boys were collected from the stitution is now under the care of a principal and
streets of New York, by and for scientific lec. two assistant-teachers. Its usefulness, like that at Bridgewater, is somewhat circumscribed by
tures, given weekly, especially for them. After
y entertaining them for an hour, outline prints of the want of more spacious buildings; each being animals
animals, plants, or other objects of nature, geoat some seasons of the year crowded to its utmost
Os metrical figures, geologicals, &c. &c., were discapacity-a most creditable fact, when it is remembered that hitherto individual liberality, aid.
tributed to employ their hands and minds at their
i homes. Among the fruits of these, were draw. ed by the bounty of the state, has only furnished
ings, greatly varied, literally covering the sidetuition and rooms free of charge to the students.
mne students.walks in the region of "Five Points," near We shall continue our extracts from this able which the lectures were given; also, cabinets of document in our next number, commencing with minerals, shells, &c., made by many newspaper an examination into the effects produced upon
dneed a boys, and others, in that and in various parts of
the city. the cause of education in the state of Massachu- Among the specimens thus produced, many setts, by the establishment of normal schools. were of so much interest as to be sent, at the re. quest of various strangers seeing them, to dif
SCHOOLS IN HOLLAND. ferent parts of the world. Rev. Dr. Thomson, First part of the report on the establishments for ten years agent of the British and Foreign for public instruction in Holland by M. Cuvier. Bible Society, acting in Mexico and South Ame. It would be difficult to describe the effect rica, when he arrived at the city of Mexico, produced upon us by the first primary school from a visit to this city, ordered a considera- we entered, on our arrival in Holland. I was ble quantity of specimens of different kinds, at one of those maintained at the public expense, produced in part by those street scholars. A for the children of the poorest classes. Two large few days since, I received from him the third or rooms, well lighted and well ventilated, confourth package, containing some Indian curiosi. tained three hundred of those children, all ties. Ir the street boys and girls in New York cleanly dressed, arranging themselves without city can enter into exchanges with the Mexican any confusion, without noise, without rudeness, Indians, and in a manner to benefit schools doing all they were desired, in obedience to through our country, (for the specimens re- signals, without the necessity of the master ceived from Mexico have gone out to many parts saying a word. They learn by sure and ready of the country,) it will perhaps be difficult to methods, to read fluently, to write a good and propose any limits to the system of exchanges. correct hand, to understand such arithmetic as Hurely New-York, with its admirable system of is required for ordinary life, both mental and county and town superintendents, can enter upon written, and to express their thoughts clearly it, and carry it out more completely, perhaps, in short written exercises. The books put into than in any other part of the Union.
their hands, and the examples they get to write, An exchange in county maps, simply, between advance by such judicious gradations, and the the schools of this state, would, as it seems to precepts and examples are intermingled so skil. me, be a great and good enterprise. These maps fully, that the children imbibe, at one and the might embrace, not only the geography, but the same time, the truths of religion, the maxims topography, geology, botany, and other depart. of morality, and that knowledge which will be ments of Natural History; also agriculture, useful to them, and afford them consolation in manufactories, internal improvements, educa. their unhappy lot. By means of frequent ques. tion, &c. &c., forming together, materials for tions, and by enconraging them to state their a "New-York Book," good for every school and difficulties, it is fully ascertained that they un. every citizen of the state. Please, my dear sir, derstand what they read. Prayers, and hymns to give that subject a thought.
sung by the whole school, both composed ex. I remain, as ever, with great respect,
pressly for these children, and all breathing a Your friend,
spirit of duty and of gratitude, give a charm to J. HOLBROOK. the business of teaching, while at the same time
they impress upon it a religious and benevolent EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATION. character, calculated to produce lasting effects.
| One master, and two assistants, who might (By the author of Popular Lessons, School Friend, &c.] themselves be taken for pupils, maintain com.
plete order among this large number of children, To Dr. Chalmers' treatise on Political Eco- without any speaking, or angry words, or nomy, is appended a note, from the communica corporal punishment; but by interesting them tion of a gentleman residing in Holland to un. in what they are about, and keeping their at. other in Scotland, setting forth the favorable tention constantly alive. change that bad taken place of late years in the The first sight of the school gave us an agree. general tone of manners and morals. The wri. able feeling of surprise ; but when we entered ter affirms that though the country had, during into an examination of the details, it was im. the last half century sustained many revolu. posible not to be sensibly affected, when one tions, and had suffered the decay of its com considered what these children would have come merce, and all the external evils incident to politi- to, had they been left unnoticed, and what they cal changes, yet the people were steadily advanc. then were. But we said to ourselves, this is ing in decorum, industry, intelligence, and com. perhaps a solitary case, the results of the exer. fort; and he attributed this manifest improvement, tions of a wealthy town, or of the zeal of some in their character and condition to their schools. citizens of unusual liberality; we were assured,
A full exposition of the state of education in however, that the more we travelled through Holland has been made by Cousin, formerly the country the more we should see reason to minister of public instruction in France. alter that opinion; and so it turned out, for
Cousin's report was made in 1836, and has since wherever we went, we found primary schools been translated into our language by Leonard on the same plan, with the exception of some Horner, Esq. His translation was published in few instances, in which superannuated teachers London, and has not been reprinted in this could not shake off their old habits of routine. country; but its subject matter, and undoubted Nor was it in the towns that we found them the authenticity, render it of great importance to best ; even on the frontiers of the country, in those who are seeking for all the lights of ex. Groningen, and many leagues from the great perience in practical education. A former com. lines of communication, we saw.primary schools mission in 1811, had been entrusted by the in villages as numerously attended, and compoFrench government to the celebrated Baron sed or a better class of children, and altogether Cuvier, and the results of his statements are fully of a better description, than those in the great corroborated by the later report.
towns : in the latter, the children of the opulent The account given in brief by Cuvier of the classes are educated at home, whereas in the schools he visiced in Holland may be eminently villages they go to school like other children. instructive in this country, and on that account! Wherever we went, we witnessed the same extracts from it are furnished to the Journal. Igaiety, the same propriely, the same neatness,
both in the pupils and the master, and every the immediate and pervading presence of the where the same kind of instruction.
great Fountain of life, and light, and happiness. The most remarkable thing of all is, that they To us the moral is one full of interest and inhave arrived at this state of excellence in a few struction. The gardens of Paradise are open to years; by means simple in themselves. A short all; the " tree of knowledge of good and evil" account of this important operation is essential is still standing in the midst ; and the solemn in. to the right fulfilment of our object.
junction of the Creator of our spirits, warning Thirty years ago, the inferior schools of us to beware lest we put forth our hands and Holland resembled those of the same class in take and eat of its forbidden fruit, is ever sound. other countries. Masters, nearly as ignoranting in our ears. Shall this voice continue to be as the children they had to teach, succeeded unheeded, and the arts of the tempter still prevail, with difficulty to impart, in several years, a until the flaming sword of the angel of retributive slender amount of instruction in reading and justice debars us forever from the Eden of our writing to a small number of scholars. There existence? Shall we not rather listen to the voice was no general superintendence of the schools; of God, speaking through nature and revelation; the most of them were set up on private specu- learn to know ourselves, and our whole duty ; lation: the different religious sects maintained and cheerfully and intelligently fulfil the purposes several for their poor, under the supervision of and the end of our being, while we daily and their deacons ; but these schools were exclusive hourly reap the rich rewards of wisdom and ly for the children of the parish ; those whose experience ? parents did not belong to some particular church
To the YOUNG," the innocent in heart and were not provided for ; the Catholics bad nosoul," for whom life still blooms in all the schools of the sort, although so numerous in the freshness and beauty of hope and truth, who country. The result of all these circumstances bask in the bright sunshine of moral purity and was, that a large proportion of the young were peace, little dreaming of the countless perils sunk in ignorance and immorality.
which surround them, breathing the ethereal
odors of a Paradise they have not as yet forTHE SPRING TIME OF LIFE. feited, -to such, how earnest, how unwearied,
should be our constant and most impressive (From S. S. RandaLL'3 "Mental and Moral Culture.") admonition-Avoid the first approaches of the
tempter ; heed not for a wavering moment his Whence is it that, in the advanced stages of subtle and fatal voice ; wrap yourselves in the existence, the ''sere and yellow leat of our being: sacred mantle of your innocence, and repose in the mind so loves to linger upon the scenes and trustful assurance upon the promises of the associations of life's opening dawn? that the heart | Author of your being, the Dispenser of the rich forgets its withering sorrows and its bitter expe blessings by which you are surrounded-blessings rience, and often and fondly recurs to the elastic you cannot now appreciate, but which once lost energies which prompted the glowing anticipa. can never be recalled. The conditions of prestions and bright hopes of childhood and inno-lent enioyment and continued happiness, are cence? The memories thus invoked, come to us clearly unfolded to your mental and moral perceploaded with freshness and fragrance; with a tion by Him who called you into existence, and vivid impression of happiness and enjoyment, long curiously moulded the constitution of your being. unknown; with the distant echoes of a harmony, / While those conditions are faithfully observed, which has ceased to vibrate upon our blunted that existence will prove a constant source of senses; with a soul-sabduing gentleness, which pleasure, an unfailing well-spring of improve. has power to unseal the deep sources of feelings, ment, a perpetual concord of sweet and harmo. whose destined current the cares and the passions, nious influences. Around and about you, on the anxieties and the sufferings, of worldly expe. Levery hand, are withered hopes, blasted expec. rience have choked and suppressed. None aretations, irremediable sorrow, fruitless remorse, so far beyond the pale of humanity, as to be in. pain, anguish, disease, premature decay, and accessible at times to these soothing and benig. death. Hope 'not to disobey the voice of God nant influences of our mysterious nature. The within your souls, and to escape these dire and conqueror, in his mad career of crime, borne bitter consequences of transgression. The rece onward by the impetuous waves of passion, and lords of human experience, from the creation of revelling in severish dreams of ambition, power, the world to the present hour, furnish not a and fame; the miser, surrounded by his wealth; solitary instance of such an exemption from the the sensualist, by his luxurious appliances; and penalty denounced by the voice of the Almighty, even the doomed criminal, darkly brooding over Venture not, then, upon the fearful and most his career of guilt, and its fearful retribution ;- presumptous experiment. Walk while you may to each and all, the visions of early life, of unsul. in the placid shades of innocence and virtue ; lied innocence and undimmed purity of soul, commune with the Being whose presence will throng upon the mind, insensible though it may surround you at all times, and whose blessing, be to every other impression of goodness, of "even length of days and life forevernare, beauty, or of truth. It is the feeling which we will consecrate and reward your obedience to may imagine our first parents to have experienced his perfect laws. in all its intensity, when, after long years of wandering over the arid waste of a world no
So live, that wben the summons comes to join
The innumerable caravan that moves longer clothed, to their eyes, in its primeval
To the pale realms of shade, where each sball take freshness and verdure, they recalled the bright His chamber in the silent halls of death, image of the Paradise they had forfeited, -ils| Thou go not, like the quarry-slave at night, ever-present delights, its ballowed scenes of quiet
Chained, to his dungeon; but, sustained and soothed
By an unfaltering Crust, approach thy grave bliss, its unceasing strains of celestial harmony,
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch and all the pure and holy influences lowing from About him, and lies down to pleasing dreams."