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whole form, features, countenance, expression, thus, from parent to child, the race may go on 'e are so debased and brutified by want and fear generating in body and soul, and casting off, one and ignorance and superstition, that the natura- after another, the lineaments and properties of list would almost doubt where, among living races humanity, until the human fades away and is lost of animals, to class them. Únder governments in the brutal, or demoniac nature. While the where superstition, and ignorance have borne vicious have pecuniary means, they have a choice most sway, the altered aspect of humanity is as- of vices in which they can indulge ; but though similating to that of the brute ; but where resist- stripped of means to the last farthing, their abil. less power has been trampling, for centuries, up- ity to be vicious, and all the fatal consequences on a sterner nature and a stronger will, the like to society of that viciousness, still remain. Nay, ness of the once human face is approximating to it is then that their vices become most virulent and that of a fiend. In certain districts of large cities, fatal. However houseless or homeless, however -those of London, Manchester, Glasgow, for diseased or beggarly, a wretch who is governed instance,-such are the influences that surround only by his instincts may be, marriage is still open children from the day they are brought into the to him ; or, so far as the condition and character world, and such the fatal education of circum- of the next generation are concerned, the same stances and example to which they are subjected, consequences may happen without marriage. that we may say they are born, in order to be This also, the statesman and the moralist should imprisoned, transported or hung, with as exact heed, that however adverse to the welfare of huand literal truth as we can say, that corn is grown man society may be the circumstances under which to be eaten,
a fore-doomed class of children are born, yet the Not in a single generation could either the cru. doctrine of the sanctity of human life protects elties of the oppressor, or the sufferings of his vic- their existence. Public hospitals, private chari. tim, have effected these physical and mental trans. ties, step in and rescue them from the hand of formations. It has taken ages and centuries of death. Hence they swarm into life by myriads, wrongs to bend the body into abjectness, to dwarf and crowd upwards into the ranks of society. But the stature, to extinguish the light of the eye, and in society, there are no vacant places to receive to incorporate into body and soul, the air and them, nor unclaimed bread for their sustenance. movements of a slave. And the weight and full. Though uninstructed in the arts of industry, ness of the curse is this, that it will require other though wholly untaught in the restraints and the ages and centuries to efface these brands of de obligations of duty, still the great primal law of gradation,—to re-edify the frame, to rekindle in self-preservation works in their blood as vig the eye the quenched beam of intelligence, to reously as in the blood of kings. It urges them on store height and amplitude to the shrunken brow, to procure the means of gratification ; but, having and to reduce the over-grown propensities of the no resources in labor or in frugality, they betake animal nature within a manageable compass. themselves to fraud, violence, incendiarism, and Not only is a new spirit to be created, but a new the destruction of human life, as naturally as an physical apparatus through which it can work. honest man engages in an honest employment. This is the worst,—the scorpion sting, in the lash Such, literally, is the present condition of large of despotism. There is a moral and a physical | portions of the human race in some countries of entailment, as well as a civil. Posterity is curs. | Europe. In wide rural districts, in moral ed in the debasement inflicted upon its ancestors. I jungles, hidden from public view within the reIn many parts of Europe, the laws both of the ma- cesses of great cities, those who are next to be terial and of the moral nature, have been so long born, and to come upon the stage of action, will outraged, that neither the third nor the fourth come, fifty to one, from the lowest orders of the generation will outlive the iniquities done to their people, lowest in intellect and morals and in the fathers.
qualities of prudence, foresight, judgment, tem. Again, the population of a country may be so perance ; lowest in health and vigor, and in divided into the extremes of high and low, and all elements of a good mental and physical organ.
each of these extremes may have diverged so wide- ization ; strong only in the fierce strength of the ^ly from a medium, or standard of nature, that animal nature, and in the absence of all reason - there are none, or but a very small intermediate and conscience to restrain its ferocity. Of such
body, or middle class of men, left in the nation. stock and lineage must the next generation be. In The high, from luxury and its enervations, will the mean time, while these calamities are devehave but small families, and will be able to rear loping and maturing, a few individuals,--some but few of the children that are born to them. I of whom have a deep stake in society, others,
The intermediate class, whom affluence has not moved by nobler considerations of benevolence corrupted, nor ignorance blinded to the perception and religion, are striving to discover or devise of consequences, will be too few in number, and the means for warding off these impending dan. too cautious about contracting those matrimonial gers. Some look for relief in a change of admin. alliances which they cannot reputably and com. I istration, and in the change of policy it will insure. fortably sustain, to contribute largely to the con. With others, compulsory emigration is a remedy
tinuation of the species. But the low, the aban. 1-a remedy by which a portion of the house is 'doned, the heedless, those whom no foresight or l is to be expelled from the paternal mansion by
apprehension of consequences, can restrain, the terrors of starvation. There are still ones these, obedient to appetite and passion, will be who think that the redundant population sous the fathers and mothers of the next generation. I be reduced to the existing means of subsisten: And no truth can be more certain than this:- and they hint darkly at pestilence and famine, that after the poor, the ignorant, the vicious, have agents for sweeping away the surplus poor, fallen below a certain point of degradation, they | famishing sailors upon a wreck hint darkly
become an increasing fund of pauperism and vice, casting of lots. Smaller in numbers than any --a pauper-engendering hive, a vital, self.enlarg: the preceding, is that class who see and kno
ing,reproductive mass ofignorance and crime. And that while the prolific causes of these evils a
suffered to exist, all the above schemes, though ocean, and the wintry rigors of the clime, and the executed to their fullest extent, can only be palli. privations of a houseless and provisionless coast, atives of the pain, and not remedies for the dis. had assailed in vain. In physical energy and ease ;—who see and know, how fallacious and nu. hardihood, such were the progenitors of New. gatory all such measures must be towards the re- | England. It was said above, that this settlement creation of national character, towards the laying of our country resembled, in some respects, the anew of the social foundations of strength and creation anew of the race; but had Adam and purity. They see and know, that no externalEve been created under circumstances so adverse appliances can restore soundness to a fabric, to life, we cannot suppose they would have surwhere the dry-rot of corruption has penetrated vived the day on which they were animated. Yet to the innermost fibres of its structure. The on these men and women were the first parents, the ly remedy,—this side of miracles,—which pre Adam and Eve of our Republic. Mighty as were sents itself to the clear vision of this class, is in their bodies, their spirits were mightier still. a laborious process of renovation, in a thorough Some of the former did yield to privation, and physical, mental, spiritual culture of the rising | peril, and disease ; but in that whole company, generation, reaching to its depths, extending to not a heart ever relented. Staunch, undaunted, its circumference, sustained by the power and re- | invincible, they held fast to what they believed sources of the government, and carried forward to be the dictates of conscience and the oracles of irrespective of party and of denomination. But a God ; and in the great moral epic which celebrates combination of vested interests has hitherto cut the story of their trials and their triumphs, the off this resource, and hence they stand, appalled word "apostate,” is nowhere written, and aghast, like one who finds too late that he is This transference of the fortunes of our race in the path of the descending avalanche. Under from the Old to the New World, was a gain to circumstances so adverse to the well-being of humanity of at least a thousand years ;-I mean, large portions of the race, the best that even hope if all the great and good men of Europe, from the dares to whisper, is, that in the course of long 22d of December, 1620, had united their energies periods yet to come, the degraded progeny of a to ameliorate the condition of the human family, degraded parentage may at length be reclaimed, and had encountered no hostility, either from ci. may be úplitted to the level whence their fearful vil or religious despotism, it would have taken ten descent began. But if this restoration is ever centuries to bring the institutions and the popu. effected, it can only be by such almost superhu. | lation of Europe, to a point where the great ex. man exertions as will overcome the momentum periment of improving the condition of the race, they have acquired in the fall, and by vast ex. by means of intellectual, moral, and religious penditures and sacrifices corresponding to the de. l culture, could be as favorably commenced as it was relictions of former times.
commenced on the day when the Pilgrims first set It was from a condition of society like this, foot upon the rock of Plymouth. What mighty obor from one, where principles and agencies were structions and hindrance to human progress did at work tending to produce a condition of society they leave behind them! What dynasties of power. like this,-that our ancestors fled. They came ful men, and the more firmly-seated dynasties of here, as to a newly-formed world. In many re. false opinions! But in the world to which they spects, the colonization of New England was like came, there were no classes upheld by law in feua new creation of the race. History cannot deny dal privilege and prerogative. There were no laws that the founders of that colony had faults. In of hereditary descent upholding one class in opudeed, the almost incredible fact, that as soon as lence and power, irrespective of merit or vigor; and they escaped from persecution, they became per. degrading other classes to perpetualindigence and secutors themselves that while the wounds servility, without demerit or imbecility. Here was were still unhealed which the iron fetters of op. no cramped territory whose resources were insuffi. pression had made in their souls, they began to cient to furnish a healthful competence to all ; nor forge fetters for the souls of others, this fact any crowded population, struggling so earnestly to would seem mysterious and inexplicable, did we supply their cravings for daily necessities, that not see in it so vivid an illustration of the esta. all the nobler wants of the soul were silenced by blished order of nature and providence, signalizing the clamor of the appetites. No predatory barons to the world the power of a vicious education over had conquered the whole land, and monopolized virtuous men ;-exemplifying the effect of tyranni. it, and, by a course of legislation as iniquitous cal institutions upon human character, by an in. as the original robbery itself, had predestined its stance so conspicuous and flagrant, that it should descent in the line of particular families, through be remembered to the end of time, and should for. | all coming time, so that not one in hundreds of all ever supersede the necessity of another warning. who should be born into the state, could own a But, on the other hand, history must concede to rood of ground, which he might till for subsisthe founders of this colony the possession of ex.tence while living, or beneath which he could alted, far-shining, immortal virtues. Not the least have a right of burial when dead." among the blessings which they brought, were Our Pilgrim Fathers also possessed intelli. health and a robustness of constitution, that no gence, not merely common learning, and inforluxury had enervated, or vicious indulgences ever mation on common affairs, --but most of them corrupted. In all that company, there was not were men of accomplished education, conversant a drop of blood which had been tainted by vice, with the world's history, profoundly thoughtful, not an act of life that had been stained by crime. I and as well qualified as any equally numerous comArriving here at a period when winter had con munity that had ever existed, to discuss the verted the land into one broad desert, the inclem- deepest questions of State or Church, of time or ency of the season and the extremity of their toils swept away all the less heathful and vigorous,
*The population of England is 16,000,000. The num
ber of land-holders in fee, is estimated by the Radicals and left not man nor woman, save those whose at 30.000, and by the Tories at 36,000. A mean of 33,000 hardy and powerful frames, the perils of the would give one land-owner to 484 non-land-owners.
eternity. Hence we are not the descendants of made, and of the Creator who accepted their an ignorant horde, or pauper colony, driven out vows,-we, their descendants, were devoted to from the parent country in quest of food, and the cause of human freedom, to duty, to justice, leaving all metropolitan art, intelligence and re. to charity, to intelligence, to religion, by those finement behind them. Besides, almost coeval holy men. with the settlement of the colony, they founded It is in no boastful or vain-glorious spirit that I a college, and established cominon schools. In refer to this heroic period of our country's histo. the first clearings of the forest, by the side of the ry. It is in no invidious mood that I contrast the first dwellings which they erected for a shelter, leading features of our civil polity and our social they built the schoolhouse; and of the produce condition, with those of the trans-Atlantic nations of the first crops planted for their precarious sub of Christendom. Rather must I confess that the sistence, they apportioned a share for the main contemplation of these historic events, brings tenance of teachers and professors. This they more humiliation than pride. It demands of us, did, that the altar-lights of knowledge and piety whether we have retained our vantage-ground of which they had here kindled, might never go a thousand years. It forces upon the conscience out. This they did, hoping that each generation the solemn question, whether we have been faith. would feed the flame to illumine the path of its ful to duty. Stewards of a more precious treassuccessors,-a flame which should not be suffer. ure than was ever before committed to mortal ed to expire, bat should shine on forever to en. hands, are we prepared to exhibit our lives and lighten and gladden every soul that should here our history as the record of our stewardship? On be called into existence.
the contrary, do we not rather cling to the trust, I repeat, that the transference of the fortunes and vaunt the confidence wherewith we have of the race to the New World, under such au. been honored, without inquiring whether the spices, was a gain to humanity of at least a value of the deposit is not daily diminishing in thousand years. By that removal, we were at our hands? Subtract the superiority which, un. once placed at a distance of three thousand miles der our more propitious circumstances, we ought from any spot where the Inquisition had ever tor. to possess, how much will remain as the aliment tured, or the fagot of persecution had ever blaz.of pride? It is not enough for us to say, that we ed. By that removal, the chains of feudalism are exempt from the wretchedness of the masses, were shaken off. The false principle of artifi. and from the corruptions of the courts, of other cial orders and castes in society, was annulled. lands. With our institutions and resources, these The monopolies of chartered companies and should have been incommunicable evils --evils, guilds, were abolished. Proscriptions by men which it would have been alike unmeritorious to who knew but one thing, of all knowledge they avoid, and unpardonable to permit. It is no jus. did not themselves possess, no longer bound the tification for us, to adduce the vast, the unexamfree soulin its quest of truth. Rapacious hordes pled increase of our population. The question is of vicious and impoverished classes no longer not, how many millions we have, but what are prowled through society, plundering its wealth their character, conduct, and attributes? We can and jeoparding the life of its members. There claim neither reward nor approval for the exu. ' were no besotted races, occupying the vanishing berance of our natural resources, or the magnifi. point of humanity, to be reclaimed. A free, un cence of our civil power. The true inquiry is, in bounded career for the development of the facul. what manner that power has been used,-how ties, and the pursuit of knowledge and happiness, have those resources been expended ? they were was opened for all. Ample and open as was the convertible into universal elevation and happi. territory around them, their spiritual domain was ness,-have they been so converted ? Neither a more ample and open still. On the earth there righteous posterity nor a righteous heaven will was no arbitrary power to forbid the establish. I adjudicate upon our innocence or guilt, on the ment of righteous and humane institutions and same principles or according to the same standlaws ; and, as they looked upward, the air was ards, as those by which other nations shall be not filled with demon shapes of superstition and judged. A necessity for defence convicts us of fear, interdicting their access to heaven. Oppor. delinquency ;-for, had our deeds corresponded tunity was given to discard whatever old errors with our privileges, had duty equalled opportu. should remain; and to adopt whatever new truths. Inity, we should have stood as a shining mark and either the course of nature or the providence of exemplar before the world,-visible as an in. God might reveal. Whatever of degeneracy was scription written in stars upon the blue arch of the to come upon themselves or upon their descend firmanent. The question is not whether we have ants in later times, was to come,--not from he-ruled others, but whether we have ruled ourselves. reditary transmission, not from nature or neces. The accusations which we must answer before sity,--but from the culpable dereliction or allow the impartial tribunals of earth and heaven, are ance of themselves or their posterity.
such as these :-Have we, by self.denial, by ab Surely, never were the circumstances of a nastinence from pernicious luxuries, by beneficent tion's birth so propitious to all that is pure in mo. labor, by obedience to the physical and organic tive, and great in achievement, and redundant in laws of our nature, retained that measure of health the means of universal happiness, Never before and longevity to which, but for our own acts of was a land so consecrated to knowledge and vir disinherison, we had been rightful heirs ? Where tue. Never were children and children's children temptations are few, vice should be so rare as to so dedicated to God and to humanity, as in those become monstrous ; where art and nature lavish forest-solitudes,-that temple of the wide earth wealth, a pauper should be a prodigy ;-but have and the o'erarching heavens, girt round with the we prevented the growth of vice and pauperism terrors of ocean and wilderness, afar from the amongst us, by seeking out every abandoned child pomp of cathedral and court, in the presence on within our borders, as the good shepherd seeks ly of the conscious spirits of the creatures who after the lambs lost from his flock; and by trains ing all to habits of industry, frugality, temper increases with its prosperity, and whose virtues ance, and an exemplary life? Have we remem. are equal to its power. For these ends, they bered that, if every citizen has a right to vote enjoin upon us a more earnest, a more universal, when he becomes a man, then the right of every a more religious devotion of our exertions and child to that degree of knowledge which shall resources, to the culture of the youthful mind and qualify him to vote, is a thousand times as strong? heart of the nation. Their gathered voices assert Have the more fortunate classes amongst us, the eternal truth, that, IN A REPUBLIC, IGNORthe men of greater wealth, of superior knowledge, ANCE IS A CRIME ; AND THAT PRIVATE IMMOR, of more commanding influence,-have they peri- ALITY IS NOT LESS AN OPPROBRIUM TO THE STATE odically arrested their own onward march of im- THAN IT IS GUILT IN THE PERPETRATOR. provement, and sounded the trumpet, and sent back guides and succors to bring up the rear of MODE OF TEACHING THE DEAF AND society? Have we insulated ourselves, as by a DUMB TO SPEAK, BY THE UTTERANCE wall of fire, from the corruptions and follies en
OF ARTICULATE SOUNDS. gendered in European courts, and practised only by those who abhor the name of Republic ? Have Extract from the last report of HORACE MANN. we caused the light of our institutions so to shine An uninstructed deaf and dumb child must before the world, that the advocates of liberty in arrive at a considerable age before he would be all parts of the earth can boldly point to our frame
conscious of the fact of breathing,—that is, be. of government, as the model of those which are fore his mind would propose to itself, as a disyet to bless mankind? Can we answer these tinct idea. that he actually inhales and exhales Questions as the myriad sufferers under oppres. Jair. Having no ear, it would be still later be. sion, in other lands, would have us answer them? fore he would recognize any distinction between If not, then we have not done to others as we such inhalations and expulsions of the air as would that others, were circumstances reversed, would be accompanied by sound, and such as should do uato us.
would not. The first step, therefore, in the inIn the mines of Siberia, at Olmutz, at Spiel: Istruction of a deaf and dumb child. is to make berg.in all the dungeons of the Old World, him conscious of these facts. To give him'a where the strong champions of freedom are now knowledge of the fact that he breathes, the pining in captivity beneath the remorseless power teacher, seating himself exactly opposite to the of the tyrant,--the morning sun does not send a light, takes the pupil upon his lap or between glimmering ray into their cells, nor does night his knees, so that the pupil's eye shall be on a draw a thicker veil of darkness between them and level with his own, and so that they can look the world, but the lone prisoner lifts his iron-la- l each other directly in the face. The teacher den arms to heaven in prayer, that we, the de.
now takes the pupil's right hand in his left, and positaries of freedom and of human hopes, may be the pupil's left hand in his right. He places faithful to our sacred trust ;-while, on the other one of the pupil's hands immediately before his hand, the pensioned advocates of despotism, stand own lips and breathes upon it. He then with listening ear, to catch the first sound of law. brings the pupil's other hand into the same pos less violence that is wasted from our shores, tosition before his (the pupil's) lips, and, through note the first breach of faith or act of perfidy the faculty of imitation, leads him to breathe amongst us, and to convert them into arguments anon that
ents upon that, just as his first hand had been against liberty end the rights of man. There is 'n
breathed upon by the teacher. This exercise is not a shout sent up by an insane mob, on this varied indefinitely as to stress or intensity of side of the Atlantic, but it is echoed by a thous. breathing ; and the lessons are repeated again and presses and by ten thousand tongues, along and again, if necessary, until, in each case, the every mountain and valley on the other. There
feeling caused by the expulsion of air from the is not a conflagration kindled here by the ruthless pupil's mouth on the back of one hand, becomes hand of violence, but its flame glares over all Eu-l identical with the feeling on the back of the rope, from horizon to zenith. On each occurrence other hand, caused by the expulsion of air from of a flagitious scene, whether it be an act of tur- the teacher's mouth. Sometimes a little play bulence and devastation, or a deed of perfidy or mingles with the instruction ; and a light ob. breach of faith, monarchs point them outas fruits ject, as a feather or a bit of paper, is blown by of the growth and omens of the fate of Republics, I the breath.. and claim for themselves and their heirs a further Another accompaniment of simple breathing extension of the lease of despotism.
is the expansion and subsidence of the chest, as The experience of the ages that are past, the the air is alternately drawn into it and expelled hopes of the ages that are yet to come, unite from it. To make the pupil acquainted with their voices in an appeal to us,--they implore us this fact, one of his hands is held before the to think more of the character of our people than teacher's mouth, as above described, while the of its numbers; to look upon our vast natural other is laid closely upon his breast. The pupil resources, notas tempters to ostentation and pride, readily perceives the falling motion of the chest but as means to be converted by the refining al when the air is emitted from the lungs, and the chemy of education, inte mental and spiritual rising motion when it is inhaled. His hands treasures; they supplicate us to seek for what are then transferred to his own mouth and eyer complacency or self-satisfaction we are dis- chest, where the same acts, performed by him. posed to indulge, not in the extent of our territory, self, produce corresponding motions and sensa. or in the products of our soil, but in the expan. tions. These processes must, of course, be con. sion and perpetuation of the means of human hap-tinued for a greater or less length of time ao piness; they beseech us to exchange the luxuries cording to the aptitude of the scholar, of sense for the joys of charity, and thus give to the The next step is to teach the fact of sounds, world the example of a nation, whose wisdom and their effect or value. For this purpose, & third person should be present, standing with semble those which had been produced by the the back towards the teacher and pupil. The utterance of the teacher. At this stage of the teacher and pupil being placed as before, and instruction the pupil understands perfectly what the teacher holding the back of one of the pu- is desired ; and, therefore, he perseveres with pil's hands before his (the teacher's) mouth, and effort after effort, until, at last, perhaps after a placing the other upon his breast, breathes as hundred or five hundred trials, he hits the exbefore. The only effect of this is the mere act sound, when, conscious of the same vibra. physical sensations produced upon the pupil's tion in his own organs which he had before felt hands. But now the teacher speaks with a loud in those of the teacher, at the same moment that voice, and the person present turns round to an. the teacher recognizes the utterance of the true swer. The same effect would be produced by sound, their countenances glow into each other calling upon a dog or other domestic animal. with the original light of joy, and not only is a Here the pupil perceives an entire new state of point gained in the instruction which will never facts. The speaking is accompanied by a new be lost, but the pupil is animated to renewed position of the organs of speech, and by a exertions. greatly increased action of the chest ; and it is The sound of the German vowels being so immediately followed by a movement or recog. different from our own, it is difficult to eluci. nition on the part of the third person. The pu. date this subject to one not acquainted with the pil's hands are then transferred to his own German language. But let any one lay his finmouth and chest, and he is led to shape his or ger upon the middle of the upper side of the pogans of speech in imitation of the teacher's, and mum adami, and press it against the wind pipe, to make those strong emissions of breath which and then enunciate successively the sounds of produce sound. When this sound has been pro. the letters a and e, and he will instantaneously duced by the pupil, both the teacher and the perceive how much higher that part of the third person intimate, by their attention and throat is raised, and how much more it is their approval, that a new thing has been done ; brought forward in the latter case than in the and from that moment, the peculiar effort and former. And not only is there a striking differ. the vibrations, necessary to the utterance ofence in the motions of the wind-pipe, when these sounds, are new facts added to the pupil's store two vowels are sounded, but in sounding the letof knowledge.
ter e, almost all the vocal organs are changed These exercises having been pursued for a from the position which is necessary for enun. sufficient length of time, the teacher begins to ciating the letter a. The tongue is brought instruct in the elementary sounds. The letter much nearer to the roof of the mouth, the lips h is the first taught, being only a hard breath. I are partially drawn together, and the whole uning, and therefore forming the connecting link der jaw is raised nearer to the upper. Thus between simple breathing and the utterance of every different sound in the language, requires the vowel sounds.
a different position and different motions of the Here it is obvious that the teacher must be a vocal organs. Hence the work of teaching the perfect master of the various sounds of the lag.deaf and dumb to speak, consists in training guage, and of the positions into which all the them to arrange the organs of speech into all vocal organs must be brought in order to enun. these positions, and to practice at will all this ciate them. All the combined and diversified variety of motions. When the pupil looks at motions and positions of lips, teeth, tongue, the organs of the teacher, and feels of them, uvula, glottis, windpipe, and so forth, must be then their positions and motions become to him as familiar to him as the position of keys or a visible and tangible alphabet, just as our spochords to the performer on the most complicated ken alphabet is an audible one. For the guttu. musical instrument. For this purpose, all the ral sounds, the hand must be placed upon the sounds of the language,mand of course all the throat. For the nasal, the teacher holds one of motions and positions of the organs necessary to the pupil's fingers lightly against one side of the produce them,-are reduced to a regular series lower or membranous part of the nose, and af. or gradation.' The variations requisite for the ter the vibration there has been felt, places ano. vowel sounds are formed into a regular sequence, ther of his fingers against the same part of his and a large table is prepared in which the con own nose. sonant sounds are arranged in a scientific order. During all these processes, the eye is most To indicate the difference between a long and a actively employed. The teacher arranges his short sound, a long sound is uttered, accompa. own organs in the manner necessary for the pronied by a slow motion of the hand, and then a duction of a given sound, and holds them in that short sound of the same vowel, accompanied by position until the pupil can arrange his own in a quick motion.
the same way. Sometimes the pupil is furnishAs the pupil has no ear, he cannot, strictly ed with a mirror, that he may see that his own speaking, be said to learn sounds; he only organs are conformed to those of the teacher. learns motions and vibrations, the former by the If any part of the pupil's tongue is unmanageeye, the latter by the touch. The parties being able, the teacher takes his spatula, (an instru. seated as I have before described, so that the ment of ivory or horn, in the shape of a spoon light shines full upon the teacher's tace, one of handle,) and raises or depresses it, as the case the pupil's hands is placed upon the teacher's may require. throat, while he is required at the same time to But some of the elementary sounds are begun look steadfastly at the teacher's mouth. The or completed with closed lips, and, in such simplest sound of the vowel a is now uttered case,-the cheeks not being made of glass, the and repeated by the teacher. He then applies pupil cannot see the position or motions of the the pupil's other hand to his, (the pupil's) tongue. To obviate this difficulty, Mr. Reich, throat, and leads him to enunciate sounds until of Leipsic, uses a tongue made of Indian rubthe vibrations produced in his own throat, re-ber, which he can bend or twist at pleasure, till