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in our drilling: many of these portions altogether. to prevent its too frequent, and oftentimes imWe make up minds as we make up goods, not proper use. But we also most sincerely believe according to their really intrinsic qualities, but that there are instances in hich the highest according to what they are likely at the moment good of a school, as well as the good of an offend. to bring in the market-the style of thing" er, demands a severe application of the rod. Its actually in demand. But fashion, no more in use, however, should never be resorted to, hastily this, than in any other of its caprices, is to be or passionately. There are teachers, and there relied on ; the fashion passes, even while pre. are parents, who for every slight offence of a paring for it; and the “single power” man, child, fly to the rod, and with passionate violence sike the “single speech” man, cannot work in use it. This we regard as extremely unwise and the new machinery, and is necessarily thrown by wrong. We would not advocate the use of the when most needed, as altogether worthless—of no rod on etery occasion--for every offence, but practical use."—Wyse, p. 74.
would endeavor to have the infrequency of its
use contribute in no small degree, to its efficacy. A CONTRAST.
When resorted to, it should be with calmness
and seriousness, and the whole case with all its Fletcher, of Saltoun, gives a dreadful picture circumstances, should be son represented and exof the state of Scotland, at the close of the plained that the whole school and the offender seventeenth century :
himself, shall see and fecl that the teacher is “ There are, at this day” he says, (1698) “ in about to perform an unpleasant and painful Scotland, besides a great many poor families, duty-a duty from the discharge of which he very meanly provided for by the Church-boxes: shall never shrink when called upon by circum(with others who by living upon bad food fall stances to act. into various diseases,) two hundred thousand
After suitably commenting upon the circum. people begging from door to door. And though stances and the nature of the case, let the rod be the number of these be, perhaps, double to what applied with such a degree of severity as shall it was formerly, by reason of this present great subdue the guilty one and strongly impress upon distress, yet in all times there hare been about one
him that “the way of the transgressor is" and hundred ihousand of these ragabonds, who have always will be " hard." This, Tollowed by a lived without any regard or subjection, either kindness on the part of the teacher, which shall to the laws of the land or eren those of God and show that nought has been done "in malice." Nature. No magistrate could ever discover or
will, almost invariably, produce the desired
result. be informed, which way one in a hundred of
Good order and submission to wholesome regu. these wretches died, nor that ever they were baptized. Many murders have been discovered school and family. These should be obtained
lations must be insisted upon in every good among them, and they are not only a most un mild and kind means if possible, but should not speakable oppression to poor tenants, (if they in any case be sacrificed
to a frequently conceivgive not bread or some kind of provision to pero ed, though we think erroneous idea, that the use haps forty such villians on one day, are sure to be insulted by them,) but they rob many poor
of the rod savors too much of cruelty and bru. people who live in houses distant from any neigh. tality. If boys so far depart from a proper borhood. In years of plenty many thousand of course, as to allow brutal passions to gain the them meet together in the mountains, where ascendency, under whose control they" set at they feast and riot for many days; and at coun. nought” all good requirements and salutary re. try weddings, markets, burials, and other the gulations of parents or teachers, they should be like public occasions, they are to be seen, both promptly met and conquered by arguments well men and women perpetually drunk, cursing, adapted to the ground they have presumed to blaspheming and fighting together."
A. A system of parochial education was shortly afterwards established in Scotland, and the re.
A GREAT ERROR.-READ. sult was, that Scotland, then one of the most barbarous countries in Christendom, became
HEAR some remarks from an address of Horace and has for a century and a half remained the most orderly. Is not here a lesson for statesmen Greely, Esq. of New York, on the “ Formation and political economists, no less than for phi of Character.” The prevailing evil spoken of lanthropists and social reformers ?
needs to be seen and done away.
“There remains one other monstrous error of (For the District School Journal.} our fireside education which I cannot refrain CORPORAL PUNISHMENT.
from exposing, though I am aware that it is
less elemental than those I have already repre. WIThin a few years, probably, no subject has hended, and in fact is but an off-shoot from them 'been discussed more frequently, or with more in. -a branch of that great Upas of false forma. terest, by the friends of popular education, than tion of character, whereof I have endeavored to the practice of inflicting corporal punishment in expose the gnarled and writhing roots to genera! our schools. These discussions have, unques. scrutiny and abhorrence. I allude to the fatal tionably, done good, and will do still more, if practice of paying for virtue, or rewarding with conducted with a proper spirit; but while en. adventitious indulgence acts of integrity and of deavoring to turn the public attention to the cor duty. As in its nature and origin this is a comrection of any evil or abused privilege, there is pound of most of the errors I have enumerated, great danger of tending to opposite extremes. so is it in its consequences more pernicious than We believe the rod has been used too freely in any one of them. The child which for perform. our schools, and think something should be done ing a task nimbly and faithfully, for acquiring a
lesson rapidly and thoroughly, is rewarded with nurturing it. Worse even than this is the delu. some dainty confectionary or glittering toy, you sion implanted, that daintier food and gaudier have doubly corrupted ; first, in making that a toys are of more value than elevating knowledge task, which, being a duty, should also be a and habits of healthful industry-in fact, that pleasure in itself; secondly, in pampering an they are of any value at all. But time would appetite or a craving, which, being fictitious, tail me to trace out all the evil consequences of cannot fail to be evil. If that task were not that one wofül folly, by which you have pollut properly his--if that lesson were not of itself ed all the springs of action, clouded the moral worth acquiring-you should, not have imposed vision, and corrupted the very soul of the victim it. If it were, you have blinded him to its true of your fatally mistaken policy. Let us banish worth and meaning ; you have taught him to forever the idea of' reward for well-doing extra. look astray for the reward of well doing ; you neous from and unrelated to itself. There is have made that which was a simple and true ac. nothing like it in nature-in the vast aniverse. tion, no longer such, but a finesse-a dexterous God never promised it reward thus detached feat—a sinister calculation. The child thus paid from and alien to the obedience it would recom. to do right will soon have learned not to do right pense ; the Devil promises, but never pays. It without payment. It will not accept the harvest is ignorance to desire, madness to expect any. as the proper recompense of its toil and culture, thing like it." but will clamor. to be paid beside for sowing and
TIIE ROMAN FORUM. [These engravings are taken froin "The Youth's / ed in the midst of the square, and with their Plutarch,” (by the author of Popular Lessons, eyes fixed on the capitol, which immediately &c.,) a selection from Plutarch's Lives, of a minds with patriotism, whilst the Tarpeian rock
faced them, and which was suited to fill their few of those individuals who were the friends of reminded them of the fate reserved for treason peace, of law, and civil order in the better days or corruption,--the noblest of orators" wielded of Greece and Rome. The writer has adapted of gathered thousands with one object, one wish,
at will the fierce democracy,” or filled the souls these histories especially to the youth of our one passion--the freedom and glory of the Roman country, giving them a modern form of language, race ;- a freedom which would have been more in strict conformity to the facts of the original. enduring had the glory been less. The moral value of the writings of the " Chero.
6 Yea; in yon firld below,
A thousand years of silenced lactions sleep nean sage,” has been acknowledged for eighteen
The Forum, iphere the immortal accents glow,
And still the eloquen' air breathes, burns with Cicero!" centuries, and they are as instructive in the pre
“The feld of freedoni, faction, faine, and blood: sent day as they were in the first century, when
Here a proud people's passions were exhaled,
Froin the first hour of empire in the bod, they were presented to the world.]
To that when further worlds to conquer fail'd;
But long before had Freedom's face been veilid, Here, as long as the Romans were a free peo- And Anarchy assumed her attributes: ple, all the affairs of the state were debated in a Till every lawless soldier who assail'd most public manner, and from the rostra, elevat. Or raised che venal voice of baser pros:itates."*
Trod on ibe trembling senate's slitvish mutcs,
Here the orators of the people brought their potism ; and the Romans experienced, what all accusations against public men, or pronounced nations will feel, that in forging chains for others the eulogies of such as had died for their coun. they mahe rivets for their own pecks,-that try, and here also were exhibited the bleeding those who enslave to-day are on the road to be heads or lifeless bodies of traitors, (or as it but enslaved to-morrow,---that the spoils of unjust too often happened,) of men unjustly deemed so aggression, and the gains wrung from a vanquisbby an overbearing faction.
ed but once free people, are like clothes stolen The Forum was the court of justice, and in from the back of a man that has died of the the homely days of the early Republic, civil and plague, which carry a curse and death to the fool criminal causes were tried and decided by simple who puts them on. The wooden sheds where laws, in the open air, or in very plain sheds built Virginia repaired to school, and where her father in this square. The humble schools for the re: seized the butcher's knife, were succeeded by publican children (for these old Romans had marble porticoes and colonnades; and it is even places of public instruction for even the poor said that, by night, the Forum was illuminated people) stood round the Forum, and seem to all round with lamps. On one occasion, Julius have been intermixed with shops, shambles, Carsar nearly covered it all over with tents or stalls, lowly temples, and altars. It was as she awnings, for the purpose of commodiously celeused to cross the Forum, day by day, in her way brating certain games; and Octavia, the sister to and from school, that the innocent young Vir- l of the Emperor Augustus, furnished it with an ginia, a maiden of plebeian rank but extraordi. immense quantity of velaria, or canvass awanary beauty, unhappily attracted the notice of ings, to shade the portions of it where causes the lustful and tyrannical Decemvir, Appius were tried. In the immediate neighborhood Claudius, who sat there on the tribunal, sur. of the Forum--on the Palatine Hill, which stands rounded by lictors to administer the laws which at one end of it-Augustus himself built a librahe himself outraged. It was here, as she was ry, wherein he placed a large collection of law on her way to school, that Appius bad her seiz. books, as well as the works of all the famous ed. Livy says, " As Virginia came into the Roman authors. Pliny gives an almost incrediForum, (for the schools of learning were held ble notion of the number of statues and busts of there in sheds,) a dependent and minister of the gods, heroes and emperors, which a few years Decemvir's lust laid his hands on her, and affirm. later were arranged in the midst or around the ing that she was a slave, and born of a woman Forum Romanum. Here the adjective sounds who was his slave,' ordered her to follow him, like an absurdity or a reproach. threatening, in case of refusal, to drag her away oy force."
SPARTAN FESTIVAL. This fearful tragedy, with a sort of dramatic unity, was ended where it began. When the
It was a beautiful idea of the ancients to achonest centurion Virginius, informed of the dis. knowledge children as citizens. Both among the grace hanging over the hearl of his daughter, Greeks and Romans, at an appointed time in quitted the army with which he was fighting for his country, and came to Rome, he appeared in every year, the boys of about seven years of the Forum to plead for his child; and when he their names were enrolled as belonging do the
age were brought into a public assembly, and and Icilius, a young man to whom Virginia was betrothed, 'had both pleaded in vain, it was here take part in the public festivals. At a later age
state, and thenceforward they were allowed to he slew her. To narrate all the great events of which this they assumed the apparel of maturity and took
the oath of citizenship. spacious area was the scene would be in a man. ner to write the history of Rome. Virgil, in citizens classed according to their respective ages.
In the Spartan festivals one exhibited all the speaking of this site in the days of Evander, who On that occasion they formed a procession conis supposed to have flourished some centuries be- sisting of the old men, the middle aged, and the fore Romulus, says that then the flocks of sheep children. The old men, as they marched along used to wander and cows low on the Roman Foruin.
sung one portion of a popular song, the younger During the Republic, in the absence of those men continued, and the boys concluded it. The vast and splendid thentres and amphitheatres song from Plutarch's Greek, has been paraphras
ed as follows by Mr. Bryant. where the emperors afterwards amused that peo. ple whom they enslaved, the players and gladia.
OLD MEN: tors exhibited in the Forum. In the later years We are old and feeble nowof the Commonwealth a great number of tem. Feeble hands to age belongples, military columns, and rostra dotted the But, when o'er our youthfui brow space; but these, for the most part, gave way to
Fell the dark hair, we were strong. more splendid edifices and objects which were To the strise we once could bring erected during the empire, when the soul of li. Limbs by toil and hardship steeled; berty that had animated the place and the virtues
Dreaded rivals in the ring,
Dreaded foes in battle-bield. which could cast a charm on lowly walls had for ever taken their departure. We do not eulogise
YOU'NG MEN : the factious spirit, ihe love of war and conquest,
Though your youthful strength departa, which were the immediate causes of their ruin,
With your children it endures;
In our arms and in our hearts but we need scarcely remind any of our readers Lives the valor that was yours. that the old Roman republicans had many pri.
CHILDREN: vate and public virtues,--that they were sober, honest, chaste and hospitable,--and that they
We shall yet that strength atlaia, loved their country with an unbounded passion.
Deeds like yours shall make us known,
And i be glory we sball gain, All these disappeared under an execrable des. Haply may surpass your own.
"All the triumphs of truth and genius over pre. SOUTH AFRICANS AND THE LETTER. judice and power, in every country and in every age, have been the triumphs of Athens.
Mr. MoreATT, the African missionary, speak. "Wherever a few great minds have made a ing at a public meeting of the schools which had stand against violence and fraud, in the cause of been establ shed in South Africa, said. "he had liberty and reason, there has been her spirit in been compelled to leave his family, and live a the midst of them; inspiring, encouraging, con semi-savage life one hundred miles from the mis. soling ;-by the lonely lamp of Erasmus; by the sionary station. He could not hear from them, restless bed of Pascal ; in the tribune of Úira for there were no mail.coaches in that country. beau ; in the cell of Galileo; on the scaffold of On one occasion, however, he received a letter Sjåney.
from Mrs. Moffatt; and a chief, sitting beside “But who shall estimate her influence on pri. him, wished to know what it was. He trans. vate happiness? Who shall say how many thou. lated to him a part of the contents. The indi. sands have been made wiser, happier, and bet vidual who brought it looked at him with utter ter, by those pursuits in which she has taught amazement, and at last exclaimed, 'Verily that mankind to engage ; to how many the studies letter speakis: if I had known it, I would not which took their risé froin her have been wealth have brought it. It has told every word that is in poverty,-liberty in bondage, -health in sick. true, and yet it has no mouth. Some time after ness,-society in solitude. Her power is indeed he wished to get an individual to convey a letier manifested at the bar ; in the senate ; in the field to Mrs. Moffai, but could not procure one, though of battle ; in the schools of philosophy. But he offered the most liberai remuneration. A these are not her glory. Wherever literature simpleton was at last obtained, who promised consoles sorrow, or assuages pain,-wherever it to take it ; but when he received it, he thought brings gladness to eyes which fail with wakeful. it was not worth carrying; he expected to reness and tears, and ache for the dark house and ceive something in a bag, and that they were the long sleep,—there is exhibited, in its noblest playing a trick with him. He was told that it form, the immortal influence of Athens." would convey all the news to Mrs. Moffatt;
.“ Such,” continues Mr. Macaulay, " is the gift upon which he threw it down, and nothing could of Athens to man. Her freedom and her power prevail on him to take it. He said, it would have for more than twenty centuries been anni. speak to him on the road, and make him go out hilated ; her people have degenerated into timid of his wits. slaves ; her language into a barbaroas jargon ; On another occasion, when he wished to for. her temples have been given up to the successive ward a letter, he asked a native to carry it; but depredations of Romans, Turks, and Scotch the man hesitated, though he did not like to remen; but her intellectual empire is imperisha. fuse, for he did not wish to disoblige him (Mr. ble. And when those who have rivalled her Moffait.) At last he inquired whether he could greatness, shall have shared her fate; when civi. not put his spear through it; to which he re. Jization and knowledge shall have fixed their plied he might is he thought that the most comabode in distant continents ; when the sceptre venient way of carrying it. The man answer. shall have passed away from England ;-her in. ed, No; but if he ran his spear through it it fuence and her glory will still survive ;-fresh in would not say a syllable to him all the way he eternal youth, exempt from mutability and de. went. Now, however, schools were estabcay, immortal as the intellectual principle from lished, churches were gathered, books were which they derived their origin, and over which read from one end of the land to the other, and they exercise their control.”
the cry wns, 'Give us more, more education.''
these flowers are succeeded by soft green berries or pods, containing each from one to three white seeds. The plant will grow in either low or elevated situations, but always thrives best and furnishes leaves of the finest quality when produced in light stony ground.
The leaves are gathered from one to four times during the year, according to the age of the trees. Most commonly there are three periods of ga. thering; the first commences about the middle of April; the second at midsummer; and the last is accomplished during August and September. The leaves that are earliest gathered are of the most delicate color and most aromaticfla. vor, with the least portion of either fibre or bit. terness. Leaves of the second gathering are of a dull green color, and have less valuable quali. ties than the former; while those which are last collected, are of a dark green, and possess an inferior value. The quality is farther influenced by the age of the wood on which the leaves are
borne, and by the degree of exposure to which
they have been accustomed ; leaves from young ΤΕΑ. .
wood, and those most exposed, being always the The history of commerce does not, perhaps,
best. present a parallel to the circumstances which have attended the introduction of tea into Great Britain. This leaf was first imported into Eu. rope by the Dutch East India Company, in the early part of the seventeenth century; but it was not until the year 1666, that a small quantity was brought over from Holland to this country, by the Lords Arlington and Ossory; and yet, from a period earlier than any to which the me mories of any of the existing generation can reach, tea has been one of the principal neces. saries of life among all classes of the community. To provide a sufficient supply of this aliment, many thousand tons of the finest mercan. tile navy in the world, are annually employed in trading with a people by whom all dealings with foreigners are merely tolerated ; and from this
Tea-gathering—from a Chinese drawing 1 recently acquired taste, a very large and easily collected revenue is obtained by the state. The leaves, as soon as gathered, are put into
The tea plant is a native of China or Japan, wide shallow baskets, and placed in the air or and probably of both. It has been used among wind, or sunshine, during some hours. They the natives of the former country from time im are then placed on a flat cast iron pan, over a memorial. It is only in a particular tract of the stove heated with charcoal, from a half to three Chinese empire that the plant is cultivated; and quarters of a pound of leaves being operated on this tract, which is situated on the eastern side, at one time. These leaves are stirred quicky between the 30th and 33d degrees of north lati- about with a kind of brush, and are then as tude, is distinguished by the natives as the " tea quickly swept off the pan into baskets. The country.” The more northern part of China next process is that of rolling, which is effected would be too cold; and farther south the heat by carefully rubbing them between men's hands; would be too great. There are, however, a few after which they are again put in larger quantismall plantations to be seen near to Canton. ties on the pan, and subjected anew to heat, but
The Chinese give to the plant the name of at this time to a lower degree than at first, and tcha or tha. It is propagated by them from just sufficient to dry them effectually without seeds, which are deposited in rows four or five risk of scorching. This effected, the tea is feet asunder; and so uncertain is their vegeta placed on a table and carefully picked over, eve. tion, even in their native climate, that it is found ry unsightly or imperfectly dried leaf that is denecessary to sow as many as seven or eight tected being removed from the rest, in order that seeds in every hole. The ground between each the sample may present
a more even and a betrow is always kept free from weeds, and the ter appearance when offered for sale. plants are not allowed to attain a higher growth The names by which some of the principal than admits of the leaves being conveniently ga. sorts of tea are known in China, are taken from thered. The first crop of leaves is not collected the places in which they are produced, while until the third year after sowing; and when the others are distinguished according to the periods trees are six or seven years old, the produse be of their gathering, the manner employed in cur. comes so inferior that they are removed to make ing, or other extrinsic circumstances, It is a room for a fresh succession.
commonly received opinion, that the distinctive The flowers of the tea tree are white, and color of green tea is imparted to it by sheets of somewhat resemble the wild rose of our hedges:'copper, upon which it is dried. For this belief,