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DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL. fine model for imitation-a noble specimen of

intellectual and moral qualities of the highest ALBANY, JULY, 1814.

order, exerted exclusively for the benefit of his DEATH OF JAMES WADSWORTH. race--for the present advancement-the future

welfare, and the permanent advantage of hu. We discharge a most melancholy duty in an.

manity-an encouraging pattern of unobtrusive nouncing the decease of the venerable JAMES

benevolence, kindly affections, enlightened and WADSWORTH, at his residence in Geneseo. MR.

comprehensive philanthropy, and practical WADSWORTH was eminently a great and good

christian philosophy. “ Like a shock of corn man. During a long and eventful life his ener

Isener fully ripe," this great and good man has been gies, mental and physical, his wealth and his in.

“ gathered to his fathers," but over him and fluence were uniformly exerted for the promotion

such as him, death itself has no power ; and of the great interests of humanity-for the ad.

while we shall no longer be permitted to look vancement of civilization-the diffusion of know.

upon his countenance beaming with benignity, ledge and the amelioration of the civil and so.

and venerable from the reflection of all the vircial system in all its departments. His philan.

tues which can adorn humanity, we and our thropy comprehended within its expanded circle,

children and children's children shall long enjoy all of every faith, every grade, every nation,

the priceless treasures of intellect and wisdom who needed the aid, assistance or encourage.

and knowledge, which his exertions and his inment which were at his command. His efforts

fluence have bequeathed us. So long as our ad.

, for the extension, the elevation and improve.

mirable system of COMMON SchooL EDUCATION ment of popular education, and especially of

-our noble institution of School District Li. the common schools, were unremitted and sy's. BRARIES—and our thousands of TEMPLES OF tematic. To his exertions, his influence, and KxOWLEDGE AND VIRTUE. remain as monuhis efficient aid, are we mainly indebted for the

ments of a superior and progressive civilization establishment and organization of our invalua

—so long will the name and memory of JAMES ble district libraries : and each successive mea. WADSWORTH, be familiar as household words" sure undertaken or proposed for the advance to every citizen of our commonwealth. ment of our elementary institutions of learning, found in him an able and earnest coadjutor-a

MR. FOWLE'S LECTURE. liberal supporter--and an enlightened advocate. Deeming the improvement of the means of popular! LET no reader be deterred by the length of this education as the greatest blessing which can be excellent lecture. Once begun it will not be conferred upon an enlightened community, he, at voluntarily laid aside unfinished. It may be, that an early period, concentrated his energies upon some will agree with us, in dissenting from Mr. this great object. But in this, as in every other Fowle's opinions on the best method of teaching channel where " the wilderness and the solitary the alphabet, but all will unite in commending places” of ignorance, of error, or of destitution, his admirable exposure of the absurdities of the mental or physical, were made "to bud and rote system,” in the various branches of edu. blossom as the rose," through his timely and ju. cation, and the sad perversion by its professors, dicious beneficence, the noiseless course of the who are legion, of that noble faculty, memory. current was indicated only by the verdure and luxuriance of the surrounding soil. His bene- ' TO TOWN SUPERINTENDENTS AND factions were studiously and systematically THE FRIENDS OF THE JOURNAL. averted from the public gaze : and nothing pain. ed him more than their exposure, however IS THE JOURNAL will continue, as hereto-honorable to himself, or grateful to the objects fore, to be sent gratuitously, to the several of his bounty. His alms were “in secret ;" Town Superintendents of Common Schools and He • who seeth in secret" will "reward eight hundred and forty in number-although no him openly."

provision exists in the law for defraying the To particularize instances of his unwearied heavy additional charge thus incurred- the State and discriminating benevolence, in every de subscription including only a number sufficient to partment of social life, would be to write his supply one copy to each school district. The enbiography: and that, however grateful the task, largement of the paper and the consequent in. we are compelled to leave to abler hands. Increased expenses incident to its publication, Deall the relations of life his example afforded a cessarily throws the entire burthep of this addi. tional charge, upon the editor and proprietor. ing it for their own benefit or that of their fami. Appreciating as he does, in common with the lies, but who conceive themselves unable to incur Department, the value and importance of the the expense of subscription. But if this is ex. services which the Town Superintendents are pecting too much, may we not confidently call Tendering to the great cause of popular educa. upon every Town Superintendent to obtain at tion, he does not hesitate cheerfully to encounter least FOUR SUBSCRIBERS, for if even this is done, the risk, whatever it may be, involved in the the Journal can be maintained in its present adoption of this course, on his part; confidently re- form, and its pages enriched by contributions lying upon the ability and the disposition of these from the best writers of our country. officers to promote and extend the circulation of We should not make this urgent appeal, were the Journal, if in their judgment it is worthy of not an effort absolutely necessary to prevent a a more general diffusion. It is earnestly to be heavy loss consequent upon our undertaking to hoped that in this reasonable expectation he will supply the districts with nearly double tbe not be disappointed. If the work is in any de amount of information heretofore diffused through gree worthy of the high confidence which has the columns of the Journal. been reposed in it by the State, its circulation ought not to be limited to one or two individuals

DISTRICT LIBRARIES. in each school district, who are required to keep it principally in their own possession, in order The institution of district libraries is one of that it may be safely preserved for binding at the the most valuable improvements which the friends end of the year. It should be in the possC&sion of the common school system have engrafted of every family in the district.

upon it. That a scheme so beneficial in its na. A very little exertion on the part of each Townture, and so admirably calculated for permanent Superintendent to procure subscribers in each usefulness should so long have been neglected, district, would enable its conductors to furnish an is matter of surprise and astonishment. Its sucamount and a quality of reading matter unequal. cess thus far has corresponded to the most sanJed in interest and value by any periodical in the guine anticipations of its friends, and its con. Union : and this they, on their part, unhesita. tinuance will, beyond all doubt, infuse new life tingly engage to do, provided their exertions are and animation in the moral and intellectual purin any degree properly seconded by those for suits of our youth. The presence of these li. whore they labor. May we not appeal, noi braries, and the facilities which are afforded for merely to Town and County Superintendents, access to them at all times, not only gratifies but but to the trustees and other officers, and to the creates a lively relish and taste for the cultiva. inhabitants of districts generally, for substantial tion of the mind, which as it expands and maaid and encouragement to enable us to

tures, will open the way to the most extended the best talents of the country to procure the development of the higher faculties of thought greatest possible amount of valuable and useful and reason. It is of the utmost importance that information—to avail ourselves of the richest this refined taste should receive an early and ef. fruits of literature, science and the arts—to call ficient encouragement. The innate acuvy forth native genius and latent talent-to diffuse the mental powers will not be satisfied, unless far and wide throughout the land, a knowledge constantly furnished with subjects upon which of the most sound and successful methods of de. their energies can be exerted ; and the readiness veloping the mental and moral faculties of our with which every first impression for good or for youth-and to supply the domestic and social evil is received and adopted, inculcates strongly circle with ample materials for thought, for re. the necessity of affording a proper direction to flection, for information and practical usefulness? those powers, and of guiding them by an allur

As an additional inducement to the exertions ing path, to the attainment of right views. of our friends and the friends of education to co. In connection, however, with the innumeraoperate with us in this undertaking, and with ble benefits which may reasonably be anticipatthe view of a more general diffusion of our ed, from bringing within the reach of the young work, we will engage to forward fifteen conies a constant supply of reading materials, it is easy of the Journal to the order of any districtor perto perceive, that most serious evils may spring son transmitting to us five dollars. In this way up, unless a judicious supervision is uniformly five copies of the Journal may be distributed maintained over the details of the system. The among such of the inhabitants of each district proper selection of a library, adapted to the readopting this plan, as may be desirous of perus. 'spective ages, and probable destination and pur.

suits of those for whoin it is intended, is, in the most remote parts of our country towns, and first instance, an object which cannot receive too some central village or settlement; and each inmuch attention. Devolving, as it too often must, habitant or family being provided with a printed upon those who are not possessed of the requi. catalogue of the library, books may be sent for, site qualifications to discharge this responsible and returned with little more difficulty or emduty in the best manner, an irreparable injury barrassment than is experienced under the premay unconsciously be inflicted on the tender and sent system. By a judicious and discriminating susceptible minds of youth. The kind and investment of the funds thus united, a sufficient quality of reading or study, too, which might number of volumes would soon be procured to be proper and beneficial at one age, or to one meet all the exigencies of the population; and person, will be found entirely unsuited to the so exhaustless and abundant would the supply wants and capacities of another; and an early soon become, that no questions need arise rerepugnance, or a wrong bias, may thus insensi. specting the proportion of the fund annually con. bly be communicated. The only practicable tributed by the respective districts. Each district remedy for this evil, where it may be appre-would, moreover, retain the library it now has, hended to exist, would it is believed be, for the thereby providing a source of constant supply trustees to commit the selection and arrangement, whenever for any reason resort could not be had of the library, to such individuals, whether ofii. | to the town library. cially connected with the schools or otherwise, There may be objections to the plan here sugas from their education, judgment and pursuits, gested, which have failed to present themselves would be best adapted to execute the trust with to our notice, and if so, we should be happy to fidelity and ability.

be reminded of them from any source. But it It has been suggested, and the suggestion has seemed to us, that such a combination and strikes us as well worthy of consideration and concentration of our library fund, as we have discussion, that the several school districts of briefly attempted to sketch, would have the efthe respective towns, unite the library funds fect of removing many of the impediments which which they may hereafter receive and which they arise from the necessarily meagre stock of books, may determine to apply to the purchase of books, which a large proportion of our country district and place the same in the hands of the town su libraries present; and that, instead of ten, firperintendent or some other competent and re-teen or twenty adjoining libraries, with substansponsible person, to be expended in the purchase tially the same collection of books, often friro. and annual augmentation of a Towx SCHOOL Lr lous, common place and uninteresting, we might BRARY, to be centrally and conveniently located secure for each of our eight hundred and forty and placed under the supervision of a librarian, towns, a noble, extensive and valuable library, to be appointed by the trustees of the several to which all classes of cominunity might resort districts, or designated by the town superintee with the certainty of a high degree of intellecdent. The adoption of some such plan as this tual and moral gratification and instruction. world, it is evident, add very materially to the II due attention is given to the advantages value of our libraries ; would place from ten to which such libraries are capable, under proper twenty, and in some instances, thirty times the management, of affording, and judicious and present amount and variety of reading matter, seasonable efforts made to divest them of an un. within the reach of the inhabitants of the seve favorable and injurious influence, they may beral districts, and would ensure to each town, come a more effectual instrument for creating a within the compass of a few years, a library sound and wholesome literary taste, than has fully equal, if not superior, to the best now in vet been devised in our systems of popular eduthe state. There may be some towns, where cation. They will be found to minister not only from the great extent of surfaee which they oc. to the intellectual, but to the moral requirements cupy, or from the absence of the necessary of those within the sphere of their benefits; thoroughfares connecting together different por- and while they assist in rendering the course of tions of the territory, such an arrangement might early instruction interesting and pleasant, they be objectionable ; but in these, two or more li will insensibly divert the mind from improper braries might be established, and as near an ap- and pernicious aspirations, strengthen and keep proximation as practicable made to the principle in constant and healthy exercise its reflecting in view. Ordinarily, it is believed, facilities powers, and prepare it for those nobler and more for communication at least as often as once in daring flights, to which its high ambition points, cach month, will be found to exist between the 'The hill of science is, indeed. but a barren

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heath, until it is adorned with the perennial fruits querors---call them philosophers-call them paof christian morality, and the rich flowers of triots-put on what golden seeming you may

when the mask falls off', as it always does in due on, taste and refinenient; and it is im.

season, we see behind it the worsi combination that we should contemplate its steep which can disgust or afflict humanity. Such CUBBERLEY LIBRARY th pleasure, until we can indistinctly, men-deliverers and enlighteners, as their sycodiscern its expanding beauties, and

phants hail them----such men are the true master

10 workers of the vices and calamities of their age WESTERN CIVILIZATION :nd, in some measure, the rich variety and country. But who made them? They who TWO HOUR CHARGE extent of view which it presents on taught them. Education left out its very essence. le. The munificent liberality of the It gave them knowledge, but it left them im

morality. provided us with the most ample means What is true of individuals is still truer of plishing this desirable result, and it societies. A reading and writing community lins for us so to appropriate and apply may be a very vicious community, if morality

-not merely its theory, but its practice--be not ins, as to secure the utmost attainable

made as much a portion of education as reading d moral advantages.

and writing. Knowledge is only a branch of

education, but it has too often been taken for LECTUAL AND MORAL EDU

the whole. Hence the innumerable contests on CATION.

the advantages and disadvantages of Education.

If the terms of the proposition had been clearly e the following beautiful extract from stated at the beginning, these differences could not

have arisen. The advocates of education ap able work on education, by Thomas

sq. M. P.; published in London. It is resulting from the extension of reading and Print Name Com istruction, and replete with the most writing only. These effects are by no means :

favorable as it is assumed. The opponents of ws of educational philosophy.

education, taking advantage of this circumstance, lectual and moral education may rank maintain that education in general is injurious. ysical; but they are not more essential. If both parties had determined that by education ical powers are the hewers of wood should be understood, not only knowledge, but "awers of water for the spiritual. The morality, there could not have been a question e column is in the earth ; but without between them of the advantages of its diffusion. could the shaft stand firin above it, nor Both, therefore, to a certain degree are right, Lascend to the sky.

and both are wrong. That the extension of true "The education which confines to the desk or education of complete education is a blessing, ehapel is a very partial education ; it is only a cannot be doubtid; but that the extension of inchapter in the sysiem. It is pernicious; it is a tellectual education, without moral--the extenportion only of the blessings of education. Ifsion of the half-education, or the false edrcesnch be the result of separating physical and tion now in use--is such, is a very different intellectual education, how much more so of di:! question. viding intellectual and moral! It is laboriously! " But is mcral education possible, without inproviding for the community dangers and crimes. I fellectual? There are those who think they can It entrusts power with the perfect certainty of! and ought to separate them. But they judge erits being abused. It brings into the very heart roneously, and, thank God, attempt impossiof our social existence the two hostile principles bilities. Half of our being cannot thus be torn of Manicheism ; it sets up the glory and Beauty ! from the other. They are intertwisted : it is of civilization, to be dashed to pieces by the evil difficult to say where one begins and the other spirit to whom it gives authority over it. Itenus " * * * "Intellectual education teaches disciplines the bad passions of our nature against I first to observe ånd enquire, and then to conthe good, making men wicked by rule, render- clude. Just conclusions lead to just actions-ing vice system, intrusting to the clever head, just actions are virtue. A community so formed the strong hand, and setting both loose by the will not fall into those national prejudices which impulse of the bad heart below. The omission not only strike with astonishment other times of physical education renders the other two in. and nations, but, when the fit is over, surprise effective or precarious ; but the neglect of moral and humble themselves. The wise king asked education converts physical and intellectual into for understanding, above all treasures. To positive evils. The pestilence of a high-taught him it was inorality-virtue-religion. He was but corrupt mind---' blowing where it listeth'- right. Without it norality is mere passionscathes and sears the sonl of men: it is feit for virtue an accident or a name---religion gropes miles and years almost interminable. By the blindly into fanaticism, or fionts off from disappress, (the steam of the intellectual world,) it pointmeat into incredulity. A faith which is touches distant ages and other hemispheres. It merely the echo of an echo--which is thought, corrupts the species in mass. It is not only in but not believed--which is custom, but not conthe actual generation, but in the rickety offspring viction--gests passively, but not firmly in the which follow late and long, that its deep.cating mind of the professor. It is not thrown oft, poison-its Mephistophiles breath-is strongly neither is it kept. It remains there, if no storm detected. Late ages wonder at the waste of threaten : but the first blast which disturbs, des. great ineans, at the perversion of high oppor- troys. No one would willingly trust the charactunities and noble powers, at the dereliction of ter of a child to the decision of such chances-solemn duties, which every where characterize much less the character of a community. Bow these strong, but evil beings. Call them con much wiser to build upon the base which Cod

has given; to build upon that which may sus. of conscience ; to carry forward its civilization, tain, and in the order in which the removal of promote its welfare and prosperity, and contri. no one stone may endanger the entire structure. (bute to the happiness and well-being of its citi. That base is intellectual education.

zens. His intellectual and moral faculties must "When I speak of moral education, I imply be so cultivated and developed as to enable him, religion ; and when I speak of religion, I speak in the right exercise of his judgment and disof christianity. It is morality-it is conscience crimination, to arrive at just conclusions upon par ercellence. Even in the most worldly sense, the various questions of individual, social, or it could easily be shown that no other morality public concernment, in relation to which he may so truly binds, no other education so effectually be called to act. In his researches into the hissecures even the coarse and material interests of tory of the past, as well as in his investigations society. The economist himself would find his of the varying phenomena and results of science gain in such a system. It works his most san. and the arts; in his study of the universe, as guine speculations of good into far surer and well of matter as of mind,-he should be ena. more rapid conclusions, than any system he bled to proceed upon enlarged and comprehen: could attempt to set up in its place. No system sive principles, to separate the essential and the of philosophy has better consulted the mechanism permanent from the transitory and the accidental, of society, or jointed it together with a closer and to deduce those conclusions which alone can adaptation of all its parts, than christianity. No strengthen and invigorate the intellectual powers, legislator who is truly wise-no christian-will, and carry forward the whole mind in its pursuit for a moment think-for the interests of society of truth. and religion, which indeed are one-of separat. | Let the teacher, then, ponder well the deep ing christianity from moral education. It would responsibilities which his office involves. Let be quite as absurd as to separate moral education him reflect that to him is committed the direcfrom intellectual. But this is very different from tion, in a great degree, of the future destines of sectarianism.”

immortal beings, fresh from the hands of their

Creator, and entering upon a career of existence EDUCATION

which is to know no termination. Above all,

let him be deeply and seriously impressed with We take the following extracts from a work the reflection that, during the rapidly fleeting on "Mental and Moral Culture and Popular

years of childhood, the great work of education

is going on with an impulse which cannot be re. Education," by S. S. RANDALL, recently pub- strained; that, while the body is progressing to lished by C. S. Francis & Co. New.York, and maturity, the intellectual and moral faculties are J. H. Francis, Boston,

constantly participating in all the influences daily

and hourly presented by the external world ; that "The great end and aim of all education | the wonderful elements of mind are incessantly should be to conter upon the pupil an enligh

engaged in the solution of the great problem of tened knowledge of the fundamental laws and

existence; and that, with or without the instrucconstitution of his nature, and a clear perception which it is his duty to communicate, results tion of his duties and obligations as an intelli

of infinite moment to the future welfare and gent, moral, and social being. He should be prosperity of the beings confided to his care wild made to comprehend, so far as it is possible for

be attained. him to do so, his wonderful and mysterious exis. tence; the great purposes for which he was created ; the high duties and responsibilities de. · HARMONIOUS CULTURE. volved upon him; the various physical and men. tal faculties which he possesses ; their adapta. " PROPORTION-symmetry-are the first great tion to each other, and to the external world of rules of all education. No single chord of our matter as well as mind ; their limitations and complicated being should be left untouched or restrictions ; their capacities for action and en- unstrung. They are placed in us in order to be joyment ; the consequences resulting from their sounded ; sounded separately, they produce mo. proper and harmonious action, in the elevation, notony-sounded without a knowledge of their expansion, and happiness of his nature ; and combinations, discord. The very wants which the inevitable retributions and sufferings flowing we experience are permitted by a wise Provi. from the discordant play of the passions and the dence to rouse and stimulate us to action. There violation of the laws of his being. He should would be no gradation-no activity-no constant early be taught to recognize the supremacy oftending to perfection, without them. They are the moral sentiments, the dictates of duty, the calculated with the nicest wisdom not only to voice of God within his soul; and that he may rouse but to expand. This feeling of unity of rightly understand and intelligently interpret the keeping in the intellectual and moral man, as will of his Creator, his intellect must be stored well as in the physical, was the beau ideal of with the rich treasures of knowledge ; his per. ancient education. Plato, Cicero, Quinctilian, ceptions of truth rendered clear and undisturbed; under one form or another, exhibit this modelhis faculties of analysis, discrimination, com: inimitable perhaps, but not unapproachable—as parason, and reason, kept in constant, regular, the visible and tangible of their philosophy and healthy exercise ; and every admixture of But already in their day the "division of labor" error carefully removed. He must be taught to system had crept into education. There was a regard himself as a portion of the community in master for virtue, and a master for knowledge, which he resides, bound to consult its paramount a teacher of arguments and a teacher of persua interests, to obey cheerfully all its laws, and sion. In like manner, we not only have different conform to its institutions, in so far as they do drillers for different portions of the same man, not clearly subvert the obligations of duty and but what is a great deal worse, we often omit,

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