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E. F. Y Justices of the
secured by requiring a bond of the collector-a a majority of their number) for the present practice which is too often neglected—the Town year, on the first day of June next. Superintendent should require a valid and satis. We the undersigned, Supervisor and Justices factory reason for any renewal after the first, of the Peace of the town of in pursuance before consenting to it.
of section eighteen of the act entitled “ An act 6. The annual report of the Town Superin- amendatory of the several statutes relating to tendent will be made at the same time, trans. Common Schools." do hereby designate and ap. mitted to the same officer, contain the same in- point A. B. one of the electors of said town, to formation, and be in the same form, with the perform the duties of Town Superintendent of requisite verbal modifications as now prescribed Common Schools, under and by virtue of the by law and the instructions contained in the di. second section of said act, until the next an. rections to Commissioners in the volume of nual town meeting in said town. Dated this laws relating to Common Schools. The neces. first day of June. 1843. sary forms may be procured from the Commis.
C. D. Supervisor. sioners or County Superintendent, or from this Department, on application through the latter.
G. H. 7. At the expiration of his official term, the Town Superintendent is required to render an accurate account to his successor, of all his re. ceipts and disbursements; to pay over any bal. Form of Bond to be given by the Town Superin. ances remaining in his hands, and to deliver up tendent to the Supervisor, within ten days after all books, papers and records appertaining to his election or appointment. his office.
Know all men by these presents, that we A. Having thus recapitulated the principal du. B., C. D. and E. F., of the town of - in the ties devolved by the existing laws upon the Town county of — are held and firmly bound to J. Superintendeni, it remains only to add that the K. Esq. Supervisor of said town, in the penal obvious intention of the Legislature in substitu- sum of [double the amonnt of school money re. ting this officer in the place of the three Com. ceived in said town from all sources during the missioners and two Inspectors, previously preceding year,] to be paid to the said J. K. or charged with the performance of these duties his successor in office; to the which payment, was to place the general supervision of the well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves School districts of each town under his imme. and our legal representatives, jointly and seve. diate charge; to hold him strictly responsible as rally firmly by these presents. Witness our well for the faithful administration or their fi. hands and seals this day of June, 1843. nancial affairs, as for the character, efficiency Whereas the said A. B. has been duly elected and progress of their schools; to invest him with (or appointed] Town Superintendent of Com. all the necessary powers and authority for the mon Schools in s and authority for the mon Schools for the said town of
Now satisfactory accomplishment of the duties thus therefore, the condition of this obligation is devolved upon him; and through his agency to such, that if the said A. B. shall faithfully ap. give an additional and effective impulse to ihat ply and legally disburse, all the school money system of Common School education, to which which may come into his hands during his term their sanction had been so decisively given. of office as such Town Superintendent, then this Acting in conjunction with the Trustees and in. obligation to be null and void; otherwise to rehabitants of the several districts on the one hand. main in full force and virtue. and the County and State Superintendent on the Signed, sealed and deli. ) A. B. (L. S.) other, the Town Superintendent has it in his vered in presence of } power to exercise a most important and saluta.
E. F. (L. s.] ry influence upon the great interests of public (Endorsement.) “I hereby approve of C. D. instruction. It is earnestly to be hoped that the and E. F. as sureties to the within bond." J. K. appointing power for the present year, and the electors of the several towns, in each succeed.
TRUSTEES OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS. ing year, will properly appreciate the high func. tions cast upon this officer; that they will avail The Trustees of each of the several school themselves, irrespective of all personal or par. districts next hereafter to be chosen, are requi. tizan considerations, of the highest attainable / red to be divided by lot into three classes; the mental and moral qualifications in their selec- term of office of the first class to be one year; tion of the individual to be charged with these of the second, two, and of the third, three; and responsible duties; and that the subject of their one Trustee only is to be annually chosen there. choice will devote himself assiduously and faith. after, who is to hold his office for three years. fully to the discharge of the obligations which In case of a vacancy occurring at any time duhe assumes-keeping always in view that the ring the term for which any Trustee shall have consequences of his actions are to extend far in been elected, such vacancy is to be filled only to futurity, to leave their durable impress upon for the unexpired term for which such Trustee the fortunes and character, temporal and eter was originally elected. nal, of future generations to aid in the perpet. This extension of the official term of Trustees uation of our glorious institutions, in the ad. to three years, combined with the annual choice vancement of civilization and christianity, and of one of their number, is regarded as a very in the general diffusion and indefinite expansion important improvement of the system, securing of knowledge and virtue.
as it does, uniformity, stability and harmony in
the councils of the district, and preventing that FORMS OF BLANKS.
ignorance of its previous arrangements and af. Form of designation of Town Superintendent by fairs, which has so frequently been found not
the Supervisor and Justices of the Peace, (or I only to paraiyze the exertions of new Trustees,
but to involve them in pecuniary embarrass. by his misconduct. In case of such removal, or ment and subject them to personal liability. Iof a vacancy occurring from any cause, they are On the accession of a new Trustee, under the to supply such vacancy by appointment. until present arrangement, he will find two experi. the next annual meeting of the district. They enced colleagues already in office, conversant are personally liable to their successors for any with all the affairs of the district, and able and neglect or omission in relation to the care and willing to aid and co-operate with him in the superintendence of the Library, by which any discharge of his duties. All the deliberations books therein are lost or injured, to the full and actions of the Board under this arrange amount of such loss or injury, and their action ment, will partake of a greater uniformity, and in reference to its management, may be at any become more systematic. Teachers will be time controlled by this Department on appeal. likely to be retained for a longer period; con- Their duties, with reference to the District Li. tracts will be likely to be more promptly fulfill. brary, are specifically pointed out in the regula. ed and taxes and rate bills to be more accurate. tions of the Department, made in pursuance of ly made out and more speedily collected; and law, and still in force; and they should endea. order and harmony will gradually succeed to the vor strictly and punctually to conform to the spi. chaotic confusion and irregularity which now rit of these regulations. too generally characterize the records, the coun. The application of the Library money to the cils and the proceedings of Trustees ignorant purchase of suitable books, has been directed by and careless of their duty, and anxious only to the Legislature to be continued subject to this transfer the inextricable embarrassments of single mollification, viz: that “whenever the their district, unexplained and inexplicable, to number of volumes in the district Library of any their successors.
district numbering over fifty children between One important operation of the provision in the ages of five and sixteen years, shall exceed question, will be to prevent the district from one hundred and twenty-five; or of any district changing the time of its annual meeting, there. numbering fifty children or less, between the by avoiding those frequent misunderstandings said ages shall exceed one hundred volumes, the as to the period when officers of the district are inhabitants of the district qualified to vote there. to be chosen, from which so many profitless and in, may, at a special meeting, duly notified for vexatious controversies have arisen.
that purpose, by a majority of votes, appropri. The respective terms of office of the Trustees ate the whole or any part of Library money be. first hereafter to be chosen, are to be designa. longing to the district for the current year, to ted by lot. For this purpose, three paper tick the purchase of maps, globes, black-boards, or ets may be prepared and numbered 1, 2 and 3. other scientific apparatus, for the use of the The Trustees will then respectively draw, and school." the result of the drawing will be entered upon The object of this enactment is two-fold. It the records of the district. At this meeting a is designed in the first instance to secure to every faithful and strict account of all the affairs of district, at least one hundred volumes of suita. the district, and particularly of its pecuniary ble books for a district Library; and to districts engagements and liabilities, should be required numbering over fifty children, one hundred and of the out going Trustees and other officers, ac- twenty-five; and in the second, to authorize the cording to the requisition on page 153 of the in. inhabitants of any district so supplied, when du. structions of the late Superintendent. Immedi. ly convened for that special purpose, to appro. ately, or as soon as may be practicable after priate so much of the Library Fund for the cur. their election, the new Trustees should meet to. rent year, as they may think proper, to the purgether, and make all necessary and suitable ar. chase of maps, globes, black-boards or scien. rangements for the future and permanent admi.tific apparatus, for the use of the school. In the nistration of the district; the employment and absence of any such appropriation, or whenever compensation of teachers, both for the summer any balance remains unappropriated, the Libra. and winter school; the necessary repairs of the ry money or such unappropriated balance, must school house, for which the district should be be applied to the purchase of books; and in any requested to provide the requisite funds; the ap. i event, the money must be cxpended for the one plication of the teacher's money to the respect. or the other of these purposes, on or before the ive terms; the suitable expenditure of the Li. first day of October in each year. It is respectbrary money; the condition of the Library and fully recommended to the inhabitants of those other property of the district; the provision of districts which are already supplied with the re. fuel for the winter, and all such other matters as quisite number of books, and of others, whenev. may be found expedient and advisable. They er they shall reach the specified number, to avail should also see that the district is regularly fur. themselves of the power thus conferred upon nished with the District School Journal, and them, to supply their school with those useful that it has all the necessary laws, decisions, articles of scientific apparatus which so materi. forms, blanks, account books, &c. &c. to enable ally conduce to the improvement of the pupils. them intelligently and systematically to dis. Independently of this appropriation, no district charge all their duties,
should dispense with a black board; and if suita. The Trustees of each school district are con. ble maps, globes and a few of the more simple stituted by law, the Trustees of the Library. means of illustrating the elementary truths of They are responsible for its preservation and science, can be superadded, the Library money care; and the Librarian is subject to their direc. for two or three years cannot perhaps be more tion, and may at any time be removed by them advantageously appropriated. In the mean from office for wilful disobedience of such di. time, the books on hand can be generally read; rections, or for any wilful neglect of duty, or and such additions to the Library as the grow. even when they have reason to apprehend the / ing wants and increased intelligence of the dis. loss of any books, or their injury or destruction | trict inay require, can then be from time to time 40
DISTRICT SCHOOL JOURNAL,
procured. The advice of the Town and County are to be found conscientious dissenters to the Superintendent may at all times be had as to most approved theological ienets of these com. the most proper and judicious appropriation of mentators on Christianity: individuals who the fund for the purposes provided for by the claim the right, either of rejecting Christi. section under consideration.
anity altogether, (as the Jews,) or of so inter. The selection of books for the District Libra- preting its fundamental doctrines, as to place ry, is devolved by law exclusively upon the them beyond the utmost verge of "evangelical Trustees, and when the importance of this most liberality: and this too, without, in any degree, beneficent and enlightened provision for the in. subjecting themselves to any well-founded imputellectual and moral improvement of the inhabi. tations upon their moral character as citizens tants of the several districts, of both sexes and all and as men. The State, in the dispensation of conditions, is duly estimated, the trust here con its bounty, has no right to trample upon the ho. fided is one of no ordinary responsibility. In nest convictions and settled belief of this or of reference to the action of this Department with any other class of its citizens against whose regard to such selections, but two prominent demeanor, in the various relations of society, no sources of embarrassment have been experien. accusation can be brought: nor can it rightfully eed. The one has arisen from the necessity of sanction the application of any portion of those excluding from the Libraries all works having funds to which they, in common with others, directly or remotely, a seetarian tendency, and bave contributed, to the enforcement of theolo the other, from that of recommending the exclu- gical tenets to which they cannot conscientious. sion of novels, romances and other fictitious cre- ly subscribe. Any work therefore, which, de. ations of the imagination, including a large pro. parting from the inculcation of those great, enportion of the lighter literature of the day. The during and cardinal elements of religion and propriety of a peremptory and uncompromising morality which are impressed upon humanity exclusion of those catch-penny, but revolting as a part of its birth-right-acknowledged by publications which cultivate the taste for the all upon whom its stamp is affixed, however demarvellous, the tragic, the horrible, and the sp. parted from in practice, and incorporated into the pernatural-the lives and exploits of pirates, very essence of Christianity as its pre-eminent banditti and desperadoes of every description and distinctive principle,- shall descend to a is too obvious to every reflecting mind, to re. controversy respecting the subordinate or col. quire the slightest argument. Unless parents lateral details of theology, however ably sus. desire that their children should pursue the tained and numerously sanctioned, has no legiti. shortest and surest road to ignominy, shame and mate claim to a place in the School District Li. destruction-should become the ready and apt brary: nor can its admission be countenanced imitators on a circumscribed scale, of the perni. consistently with sound policy or enlightened cious models which they are permitted and en- reason. couraged to study-they will frown indignantly With reference to the admission of novels, on every attempt to place before their immature romances and other works of the imagination, minds, works, whose invariable and only ten. usually comprehended under the term "light dency is disastrous, both to the intellect and the reading," the views of the department cannot heart.
be better illustrated than by the following ex. The exclusion of works imbued to any per. tracts from a recent report of the majority of a ceptible extent with sectarianism, rests upon committee appointed by the Board of Commisthe great conservative principles which are at sioners of Common Schools of the city of Utica, the foundation of our free institutions. Its pro to examine the books in the School District Li. priety is readily conceded when applied to pub. brary of the city, and to report, among other lications, setting forth, defending or illustrating things, as to the character and tendency of any the peculiar tenets which distinguish any one of objectionable works they might discover therein: the numerous religious denominations of the “The importance of applying the funds proday from the others. On this ground no controver. vided by the State, with rigid regard to their apsy exists as to the line of duty. But it has been propriate object, is so weighty-and the tempstrongly urged that those "standard” theologi. tations to misapply them, in consequence of a cal publications which, avoiding all controverted present prevailing fondness for light and equivoground, contain general expositions of Chris. cal literature, are so strong, that your commit. tianity—which assume only those doctrines and tee deem it proper to enter somewhat into an principles upon which all * evangelical" deno. examination of the principles which should minations of Christians are agreed, are not ob govern those to whom is entrusted the responsi. noxious to any reasonable censure, and ought ble duty of making selections for School District not, upon any just principles, to be excluded Libraries from the School District Library. There are “A library for instruction is a very different two answers to this argument, either of which thing from a library for amusement. The cir. in the judgment of the Superintendent, is con. culating library of a place of public resort for clusive. The one is, that the works in question, invalids or persons in pursuit of ease and plea. however exalted may be their merit, and how sure, is essentially of a trifling character: the ever free from just censure, on the ground of library of a college or eminent public institution sectarianism, are strictly theological, doctrinalis composed of graver and more elevated proor metaphysical; and therefore no more entitled ductions. While the book shelves of a light to a place in the District Library than works de. young man are filled with frivolous and amusing voted to the professional elucidation of law, works, those of a student display the treasures medicine, or any of the other learned profes. of standard literature. School District Libra. sions. Their appropriate place is in the family, ries should not fall below the dignity of useful. church or Sunday School Library. The other ness: in proportion as they do, they fail of fulanswer is, that in every portion of our country filling the true design of their institution.
"A consideration of the object of instituting The convenience and accommodation of many, these libraries will enable us to judge pretty if not of most of the inhabitants of the several correctly of the general character of the books districts, would be essentially promoted by pla. which should compose them. It is obviously cing the charge of the library, temporarily, with the information and improvement of the body of the teacher, during the terın of his or her emthe people who can read, without reference to ployment, and depositing it in some convenient parties, secis, classes, callings, or professions. and safe place in the School house. This ar. 'The primary object of their institution,' says rangement can only be carried into effect, by the the Superintendent who recommended it,' was concurrence of the Trustees and Librarian, and to disseminate works suited to the intellectual under their supervision. Generally, the teacher improvement of the great body of the people, not being an inhabitant of the district cannot be rather than to throw into School Districts for chosen Librarian. But where the Trustees and the use of young persons, works of a merely Librarian have sufficient confidence in the teach. juvenile character.' It was, in the language of er and in the safety of the books, when lest at a succeeding Superintendent, ' to diffuse intor- the school house, they will find this arrangement mation not only, or even chiefly, among chil. in many respects conducive to the convenience dren or minors—but among adults and those of the district. who have finished their Common School educa. Trustees will bear in mind that their annual tion. It was, in short, to provide a supplemen- reports are hereafter to be made and transmit. tal source of instruction to those on whom the ted to the Town Superintendent, between the first Common School has exhausted its more limited and fifteenth days of January: and that in addi. means.
tion to the matters now required by law to en. "Improvement and information, then, form title them to their distributive share of teachthe main object of these libraries. It is only ers' money, they are to report that no school has thus that they become the proper subjects of been taught for more than one month in their public munificence. Entertainment, simply as district during the past year by any other than entertainment, is not to be regarded in making a duly qualified teacher. This portion of the selections for the School District Library. It is report can easily be interlined in the appropri. no part of our public policy to provide amuse- ate place in the printed form. This reservation ments for the people. In this particular we have of one month is merely nominal: as it is scarce. improved not only on antiquity, but on many ly to be supposed that a teacher not duly quali. modern governments, by substituting, in the fied, will be employed in any district for that place of vain and wasteful public shows and fri. length of time. It was designed to meet those volities, those more substantial and elevating cases where, notwithstanding the utmost dili. subjects of public bounty, which consist in pergence on the part of Trustees, an examination manent and wise institutions, designed to fit our of the teacher employed by them, cannot be citizens for the proper discharge of their duties immediately procured; or where for any reason, as members of a great community, whose dura. it has been found necessary or expedient for the tion and prosperity depend upon the knowledge teacher to commence and continue his term for a and virtue of the people.
few weeks without obtaining such certificate.-“We first teach the children of the republic The term of four months must, however, be to read, and to appreciate instruction. We lead completed after obtaining such certificate, in them to thirst for information, and then seek to order to entitle the district to its share of teach. open the fountains which may satisfy that thirst. ers' money. The Common School is the first step in their ad. It is of great importance to the department, with vancement-the School District Library is par a view to the statistical information to be laid be. tially designed to be the second. It supplies in fore the legislature and the people, to be accu. formation of a more varied and extensive sort rately apprised of the comparative attendance -and if that informaticn comes clothed in al- upon the schools, on the part of the children resi. lurements of a virtuous, or entertainment of an ding in the district. For this purpose, earnest ef. innocent character, it is the more welcome on forts have hitherto been made to procure from the that account. These are mere incidents howev. Trustees of the several districts, a statement of er—when they appear alone, they want that the length of time each pupil has attended, and substantial recommendation which is necessary the number who have attended for one, two, to secure their introduction into the School Dis. &c. up to ten and twelve months. But not. trict Library Books designed for amusement withstanding every practicable facility to com. simply-to while away a vacant hour, and be municate this very desirable information on the forgotten like ephemera--are evidently no wor. part of teachers and Trustees, the department thy occupants of the shelves of such a Library. has, as yet, found it impossible to procure it There is enough which is instructive and substan. with any approximation to accuracy. Unwil. tial to exhaust the public liberality, without ling to resort to the harsh measure of depriving squandering the well meant beneficence of the the districts of their proportion of public m State in transient and trivial publications which ney in consequence of this deficiency in their amuse to-day, and to-morrow are rubbish. 'The annual reports, the Superintendent has hitherto books, therefore,' says one of the Superinten listened to every excuse, for the omission to dents before quoted, should be such as will be comply with this requisition, in the reports made useful among the inhabitants generally. They the present year. Hereafter it is hoped no should not be children's books, or of a juvenile cause of complaint will be permitted to exist in character, or light and frivolous tales and ro. this respect: as the share of public teachers' mances; but works conveying solid information money will rigidly be withheld where the report which will excite a thirst for knowledge, and is not in all respects in accordance with law, and also gratify it, as far as such a library can.'" the requisitions of the department in pursuance
of law, unless in cases where the most satisfac. necessity; and occasional abuses of the privilege tory excuse for the omission can be rendered.-so accorded, are productive of less disastrous The teacher should, in all cases, be required by results than a prevailing impression among the the Trustees to keep the necessary register and indigent inhabitants of a district, that their chil. to furnish it, together with his list at the end of dren can partake of the advantages of common each term.
school education only at a burdensome charge By the thirteenth section of the new act, it is to themselves, and by a sacrifice of the ordinary provided that “whenever the Trustees of any necessities and comforts of their families. school district shall discover any error in a tax list or rate bill made out by them prior to the ex- | APPEALS TO CO. SUPERINTENDENTS. penditure of the amount therein directed to be Any inhabitant of a school district conceiving raised, they may refund any amount improperly himself aggrieved, in consequence of any pro. collected on such tax list or rate bill, and amend ceeding or decision of any school district meet. and correct such lax list or rate bill, in confor. ling, or of the Town Superintendent, either sepa. mity to law; and whenever more than one re-rately or in conjunction with the Supervisor and newal of a warrant for the collection of any | Town Clerk, relative to the formation or altera. tax list or rate bill, may become necessary intion of any school district, or of the Trustees or any district, the Trustees may make such für Librarian, in the discharge of any of the duties ther renewal, with the written approbation of devolved upon them,or concerning any other mat. the Town Superintendent of the town in which ter arising under the school law of whatever de. the school house of said district shall be located, scription, is now required to bring his appeal, to be endorsed upon such warrant." These pro- in the manner and within the time now prescri. visions preclude the necessity of any application bed by the regulations of the department, to the to this department for either of the objects spe- County Superintendent, whose decision thereon cified in this section: and authorize one renew. is final, unless appealed from to this department al of a school district warrant, by the Trustees, within fifteen days after service of a copy there. on their own authority and in their discretion: of. The following regulations respecting the after which the written approbation of the mode of bringing such appeal from the decision of Town Superintendent must be obtained to any the County Šuperintendent, are hereby prescri. subsequent renewal.
bed in pursuance of the authority conferred by It is strongly recommended to Trustees to ex. the seventh section of the late act. act of the collector, the bond required to be
Whenever any party to an appeal shall be de. given by him, under the 106th section of sirous of appealing to the Superintendent of the school law, whenever any warrant is pla. Common Schools from the decision of any Coun. ced in his hands. This practice will be attend.ty Superintendent, such party shall, within filteen ed with very little trouble: and will secure the days after service of a copy of such decision, serve district from all loss, and the Trustees them a written notice upon such County Superinten. selves from personal liability, in many instan- dent either personally or by leaving the same at ces. It will also secure the prompt collection of his residence, of his or their intention to appeal taxes and rate-bills, and promote system and from such decision. Such County Superintenregularity in the financial affairs of the district. dent shall, within ten days thereafler, transmit
In their orders to the Town Superintendent for to the Superintendent of Common Schools, a the payment of public money to teachers em. statement, setting forth all the allegations and ployed by them, Trustees will specify that the proofs of the respective parties before him, or person in whose favor the order is drawn, was ihe originals or certified copies of such papers as so employed by them, and was duly qualified ac. were presented on such appeal, together with a cording to law.
| copy of his decision thereon, for which he shall In the exercise of the power conferred upon be entitled to receive the sum of one dollar, to the Trustees, of exempting indigent inhabitants be paid by the party appealing, on service of no. of their district from the payment of the whole or tice of his intention to bring said appeal. The of portions of their rate bills, the utmost liberality respective County Superintendents shall annual. compatible with justice to the district, should be ly render a correct account of the money so indulged. Nothing can be more at variance with received by them, verified by their oath, to the the benign spirit and intent of the school laws boards of supervisors of their counties; who, in than the compulsory distress and sale of articles their discretion may deduct the said amount of absolute necessity to an indigent family, for from the postage account of such Superintendent. the purpose of satisfying the rate bill for teach. The final decision of thesuperintendent in the preers' wages. And yet cases of this kind are fre. mises shall be communicated by the County Su. quently brought to the notice of the department. perintendent to the respective parties, on appli. Every reasonable facility should be afforded to cation by them, or either of them. The bringing the children of the poor, for the attainment of of such appeal from the decision of the County all the blessings and advantages of elementary Superintendent, shall not operate as a stay of instruction: and this should never be permitted proceedings, unless such stay shall be specially di. to become in any degree burdensome to their rected by such County Superintendent; in which parents. Where any inhabitant of the district case a copy of the order staying such proceed. in indigent circumstances cannot meet the rate ings shall be served upon the opposite party. bill for the payment of the teachers' wages with. out subjecting himself to serious embarrassment, Commissioners of Common Schools, whose or his family to sensible deprivation, he should offices are abolished on the first day of June promptly and cheerfully be exonerated. A just next, are hereby directed on or within fifteen feeling of pride may reasonably be expected to days after that day, to deliver over to the Town preclude any from availing themselves of this Superintendent of their respective towns, all exemption, unless under the pressure of absolute' school moneys, papers, vouchers, books and re