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ficated, ignorance so gross, disqualification so fund like a rain drop in the ocean, then might glaring, immorality so shameless ?
we safely dispense with our deputy system, for The system of county superintendents was then might we hope to see parents once more established to correct these and other kindred the faithful inspectors and supervisors of their evils; to make reports on the conditions of the children's schools. But if with no equivalent schools, school houses; the best method of im. substitute, we abandon the present and relapse parting instruction, bringing before one district back into the past, shall we not be faithless to the successful experiments of other districts; our trust, false to the true interests of the state, exposing the defeats and evils that existed; false to the sacred cause of popular education awakening the dormant interests of parents; in in all time to come! short. diffusing generally the better means of Your committee. after a full and delihar education now enjoyed in the more advanced investigation, have unanimously concurred in sections of the state. The principal provisions recommending the preservation of the deputy of the system were many years ago recommend. system; believing it to be, with the additional ed in the counties of Herkimer and Otsego ; its power now conferred, not only the most econovalue has been tested for more than a quarter mical and efficient, but the most important proof a century in Holland, and with equal success visiop in our complex and extensive organiza
as been introduced into every siate of Eution of public instruction, and anticipating from rope, in which schools have received the perma. its continuance the rapid and thorough refornent attention of government.
mation of the schools. Some may deem these It has been recommended in New Jersey, expectations visionary, but the results of one Ohio and Kentucky. When in 1839, Connecticut year, and that the first, lead us confidently to awoke from her long apathy on the subject of look forward, in the more perfect working of schools, she passed an act enlarging the powers the system, for greater and more widely dir. and stimulating the efficiency of her common fused physical, moral and intellectual good, school visiters, a class of officers which answer than from any of the numerous measures of soto our deputy superintendents. In 1842, when cial amelioration that claim the thoughts and this renovated system had been little over two the aid of the statesman or the philanthropist. years in operation, the able Secretary of the Nor are these anticipations of coming good Board of Commissioners of Common Schools, vague and unsubstantial visions from the dream in his report says, “no adequate substitute land of the theorist; but simple, practical im. can be provided for frequent, faithful, and in-provements-necessary reforms affecting the telligent visitation of schools, carrying along economical and sound administration of the with it wise counsel for the future to teach schools—the prosperity and happiness of the ers and pupils, encouragement for past success, people—the honor and safety of the State. To and rebuke for neglect, defective discipline and the labor of these superintendents, aided by the methods of instruction. The mode of visi. suggestions of the distinguished head of the de.
should be such as to make known to all the partment, we look for an increasing and en. schools the superior methods of any one, and lightened interest in the people; for greater to awaken a generous rivalry between the teach. I faithfulness and efficiency in trustees; for a ers and scholars of the several schools."
wiser expenditure of the public money on teach. The committee can but think those who are ers qualified to educate the youth of a free napetitioning that the office of the county deputies tion; for greater regularity of attendance, and may be abolished, on the ground that it is a use. the consequent lessening of the rate bills; for uniless expense, are looking too soon for results. formity of text books, thus saving thousands These officers have but entered upon the dis. annually to the schools; for improvements in charge of duties, when, in this state, they had our school houses, rendering them all fitcer no light of past experience to guide them; the places for the education of children than for the territory was new and unexplored, they have herding of cattle; for a more judicious adminishardly been able to survey the extent, and much tration of local school interests, preventing and less to examine the nature of it. If here and healing those petty dissensions which so often there they have found a kindly soil, capable of divide districts and destroy schools; for greater receiving at once and producing, the greater por. zeal and competency in teachers, encouraging tion must be regarded as “ fallow ground," to them by å juster remuneration and a higher be broken up and cultivated, ere the expected estimation, to enter the school-room as a life fruit matures. It would not be surprising if all occupation; for a better and more general ap. the deputies had not come up to the expecta. preciation of that noblest of all systems of state tion formed; that when all the duties were
| deposite district libraries; and for that general some should have erred, should have been reformation of the schools, so vitally essential indiscreet, inefficient, incapable; but these are to the perpetuity of our institutions, and the evils and defects which every succeeding year welfare of the great body politic, that shall will diminish.
make them, in the words of Washington, It is not expected that the appointment of de "schools of virtue as well as of knowledge;" puties will at once create qualified teachers, common, not in the Hebrew sense, as degraded, build suitable school houses, infuse into parents
unwholesome, and unclean, but even as the an interest in their district schools; but who blessings of Heaven, light and air, common to that reads their reports can doubt but that they | all, because essential and beneficent to all! have already done something, and are capable
The demagogue opposes all tax to support comof doing much more in renovating our school
mon schools. He wishes to have the public and system? If there is a probability that their all around him ignorant, that he may be of the efforts will greatly abate, if not eradicate the more consequence. most prominent evils and abuses existing, can Select schools are little nurseries in which to rear we hesitate as to our duty ? Were our school 'proud aristocrats.
year, in an accelerating ratio. It began from “SCHOOLS FOR SMALL CHILDREN." à conviction of its reasonableness and expedien. cy; it is extending as the light of experience more and more clearly reveals its advantages.
It is supposed that a meagre supply of literary All those differences of organization and tem
attainments will suffice for the education of perament which individualize the sexes, point to young children, as though errors were not far the female as the guide and guardian of young
more baneful at the beginning than at any sub. children. She holds her commission from na.
saquent stage of their progress. If earliest imture. In the well developed female character
pressions are most lasting, we shall be most there is always a preponderance of affection
solicitous to have them correct. Over every over intellect. However powerful and brilliant
thing which grows, those who exert the first inher reflective faculties may be, they are con
fluences have the greatest power. In pointing sidered a deformity in her character unless our course towards distant objects, a slight deover-balanced and tempered by womanly affec.viation at the outset will
viation at the outset will leat to a wide diver. tions. The dispositions of young children of gency in the result; and the earlier the point of both sexes correspond with this ordination of departure occurs, the wider shall we wander Providence. Their feelings are developed ear from the point of destination. An unskilful lier than their judgment, and they aspire after bend given to the young germ or shoot, though the sympathy of a nature kindred to their own. so slight as scarcely to be detected by the line They need kindness and not force, and their and plummet, will enlarge in the full-grown better instincts are to be fostered by a congenial tree, into a deformity visible as far as the eye warmth, rather than their reason to be addressed can reach. Such being the nature of educa. by a cold and severe logic. They can feel a tion, it is pre-eminently important to gaard thing to be right or wrong before they can un-against erroneous impressions at first, for when derstand the rigorous demonstrations of the these become ingrained in the solid substance of moralist; and hence, appeals should be addressed character, it will be too late ever wholly to rec. to their sentiments rather than to their reflective tify the error. And hence, if any difference is powers. They are to be gently withdrawn, allowed, the first teachers of children should be rather than rudely driven, from whatever is the best-the most critically accurate in what wrong; to be won towards whatever is right they are to teach, the most scrupulously exemmore by a perception of its inherent loveliness plary in conduct, the most religiously faithful and beauty, which they can appreciate, than by in the discharge of duty. its general utility, which they cannot yet com- One of the concomitant evils of providing prehend. Their conscience can be awakened teachers of limited attainments for small chil. to a sense of honesty and justice, before they dren is, that very young persons are selected for can understand the commercial value and neces. the office. This adds inexperience in governsity of those qualities, or their conformity to the ment to deficiency in knowledge and immaturity great law on which the moral universe has in character. The mind of childhood, at its been constructed. The spontaneous impulses | most susceptible period, is subjected to the acof love towards parents and family and friends, cumulated evils of ignorance in regard to incan be cultivated to an invincible strength, long struction and inaptitude in forming dispositions. before they can understand, that love must be It has been well said, that“ the primary school, a grand element of all happiness, both in this so far from being the least, is the most importworld and the next. In the correction of chil. ant feature in our system of public instruction; dren, too, the stern justice of a man thinks more
for mistakes made there, are seldom if ever corof the abstract enormity of the offence, and of the broad mischief which it would work in society, schools. is apt to continue alive and active until
ce, and on the rected afterwards. A blunder born in these and he therefore rebukes or chastises it with a lit graduates from the high school, and goes forth severity proportioned rather to the nature of the into the world on its mission of disorder." transgression, than to the moral weakness of the transgressor. Hence, in rooting out an evil
2:1! Now as females are almost universally em. he may extirpate much that is benevolent and ployed to teach our summer schools, and to generous; or, in subduing one propensity, may some extent, also, even our winter schools, rouse into violent activity a brood of others. I ought not their compensation to be so increased more pernicious than itself. It requires a genth
ni that they can afford to expend more money and tler, a less hasty, a more forbearing nature, and !!
od time in qualifying themselves for the better dis.
The price a nicer delicacy of touch, so to remove the evil charge of their responsible duties? as not to extirpate the good.
I paid to the great majority of female teachers is How difficult to unclinch a habit of deception,
less than is paid to the better class of female of falsehood, of profaneness, of quarrelsomeness, op
| operatives in factories. But how can the guar. or of any other dissocial propensity, which, by
dians of the intelligence and virtue of the rising being associated, during all the vears of early generation expect successfully to compete with life, with some idea of pleasure, has been manufacturers of wool and cotton, for the best rivetting its fetters closer and closer upon the skill and knowledge in the community, unless soul. But, on the other hand, if early habits they also compete with them in the remunera. have been made the antagonists of these vices, it tion offered for their services ? There are now wili be almost impossible in alter life, to connect many districts in the state which would be glad the idea of pleasure with them. Guided by the to add dollars to the pay of a teacher, could they light of this principle, all on whom the care
find one who would supply the deficiencies and of children may be devolved, can do much to
obliterate the errors occasioned by employing a promote their futu:e well-being: but the naturalcheap one in the beginning, in order to save sympathy, the sagacity, the maternal instincts shillings.-Report of Mass. Board of Ed. of the female, pre-eminently qualify her for this! sphere of noble usefulness.
* Report of Newburyport School Committee
ing on the mind of the successive letters and sylla
bles, and associating them with the true pronunIt is matter for regret that so much of the time in ciation, so that either one will have the power of our schools, which is appropriated to spelling, calling up the other, nothing is done. All the should be lost, in consequence of the unskilful time spent is lost, and worse than lost, for a bad manner in which the exercise is conducted on the habit is formed. part of the teacher.
Why does it not occur to all teachers, as it cer. We propose at present to point out only one de- tainly does to all good ones, that it is no object to iect, but it is a serious and a prevalent one. It is have all the words in the dictionary spelled right, that of mispronouncing the word to be spelled, in at the recitation, if the power of spelling them order to give the speller a clew to its orthography. right, a month, a year, or many years afterwards,
If scholars are sent to school to learn, among is not gained? other things, how to spell the words of the En. Another practice, hardly less pernicious, into glish language, then it is clear that English words, which some teachers fall, consists in alternately with the true English pronunciation, should be put checking and prompting the pupil; that is, in out to them. It is of no use to put out such words checking him, if he is going wrong, in prompting to them as they never hear spoken or read, be- him, if he hesitates. The pupil, being about to canse to learn to spell any number of the latter spell a word, fastens his eye upon the teacher: if does not inform them how to spell the former. doubtful whether to use an i, an e or a y, he utters
Take the word fidelity, for instance, in which the one of these letters hesitatingly, and if the wrong sound of the vowel i, in the first syllable, is ob- one, he is instantly apprized of his mistake by scure, and, therefore, that syllable has almost or some wink, or shrug, or nod, or gesture of the quite the identical sound of phy, in the word geo- teacher. Availing himself of the hint, he retracts graphy, or philosophy; suppose this word is put out the letter first used, and takes up one of the other with the correct pronunciation, and the scholar candidates for the post; and then watches again, begins to spell it with the letters fe, when the to learn if that will do. If mistaken the second teacher arrests him, and puts out a new-coined time, he tries a third, :
by the word, fi-delity,-giving to the vowel i the long the process of exhausting errors; as the quack sound, -then the scholar may follow him, and call dentist succeeded at last in extracting the aching the letters right, but he has learned nothing, for tooth, after having pulled out all the sound ones. there is no such word in the English language as The only proper way for a teacher to conduct fi-delity. Hence the scholar is in danger of ac- the spelling exercise is to put out each word disquiring a false pronunciation, fi-delity instead of tinctly, giving to it its true English pronunciation, fidelity, and of not being able to spell the word cor. announcing it, just as a good reader or speaker rectly when he shall have occasion to write it. In would do in reading or speaking it, without any some schools, and with some teachers, this depar- special fulness of emphasis on any particular sylture from correctness becomes very gross, solable, or bringing any difficult letter into improper much so, as to indicate a distinction between the relief; and without, in fine, giving the slightest terminations, tion, sion, cion, &c., as ti-on, si on, hint, intimation or token, by wink, look or gesture, ci-on, not s, &c.
whether the scholar is or is not spelling it right, Such a practice as this obviously supercedes all until he has done until the sounds have gone irnecessity for studying the lesson. It supercedes revocably forth. This throws the responsibility even the exercise of the memory, at the time of the upon the pupil. He must then study in order to recitation. If the pupil foreknows, from custom, know how each word is spelled. He must attend that the word will be substantially spelt for him, in order to understand what word is put out. He he will take no pains to prepare himself for the must carry the word in his mind, without consurecitation; and if it is substantially spelled for him, sion or transposition of syllables, until he has at the recitation, he will forget it in a minute. spelled it.
To make this more plain, let us take some words "If the scholar cannot retain the true orthograwhose orthography differs widely from the simple phy in his mind, from the time when he studies powers of the letters of which they are composed. I his leason to the time wht
pell For this purpose we have no occasion to search it, he will not be likely to retain it, and carry it for long and difficult worils. Almost any simple table into life, from having the order and succession of at which we open in the spelling-book, will fur- the letters intimated or communicate to him, dunish illustrations. If we admit that a word is ever ring the period of recitation.-Com. School Jour. to be so pronounced as to give the speller and indication of its orthography, we may say de-ad for dead, he-ad for head, thre-ad for thread, law-su-it
HOW TO DO GOOD. for lawsuit, re-cru-it for recruit, be-ef-ste-ak for beefsteak, &c.
The duties of life are not all of the great and Something precisely analogous to this is often exciting sort. There are many duties in every done in regard to the imperfect and past tenses, and day; but there are few days in which one is past participles of the regular verbs, where the ed
called to mighly efforts or heroic sacrifices. I is sounded as though it were an additional syllable
am persuaded that most of us are better prepared -row-ed for vowed, sow-ed for sowed, &c. Why not, on the same principle, in putting out
for great emergencies, than for the exigencies the table of abbreviations enunciate the very word of the passing hour. Paradox as this is, it is or words, abbreviated? Why not say, A. B. tenable, and may be illustrated by palpable inBachelor of Arts, to inform the pupil that he is stances. There are many men who would, expected to echo back, Bachelor of Arts ?
without the hesitation of an instant, plunge into The true process of learning to spell consists in the sea to rescue a drowning child, but who, the pupil's looking intently at the word, and taking the very next hour would break an engagement, the image of it into his mind-that is, noting each
or sneer at an awkward servant, or frown unletter in it, the order of their succession, and the
I justly on an amiable wife. manner in which its syllables, if it is not a mono
Life is made up of these little things. Acsyllable, are divided. The whole is to be pictured in his memory, and the picture associated with the cording to the character of household words, English pronunciation, so that when called upon looks, and trivial actions, is the true temper of to spell, he may, as it were, read from the tablets our virtue. Hence there are many men reputed of his memory, just as he had before read from the good, and, as the world goes, really so, who printed pages of the book. Without this imprint.l belie in domestic life the promise of their holiday and Sunday demeanor. Great in the large as. | IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL ACTION. sembly, they are little at the fireside. Leaders, perhaps of public benevolence, they plead for! It is stated in the Cincinnati Chronicle, that at an universal love as the saving principle of the
cinle of the education meeting lately held in that city, the Rev. social compact; yet when they are among their 25
Dr. Beecher related the following “dream," being
u met a beautiful illustration of the importance of indidependents, they are peevish, morose, severe, vidual action and showing that in our republican or in some other way constantly sinning against country, although it is only the mass which acts the law of kindness.
through the laws, it is the individual which moves Why do you begin to do good so far off ? the mass. This is a ruling error. Begin at the centre and “He said he had a dream, which, like other work outwards. If you do not love your wife, dreams, did not wholly express itself, and in which do not pretend to such love for the people some of the natural objects had the power of speech. do not pretend to such love for the peopre w os travelling near the sources of the Monon. of the antipodes. If you let some family grudge. He was traveinng near the s some peccadillo, some undesirable gesture, sour
gahela, and, in passing over a rough country, at
every short distance met a little stream, which he your visage towards a sister or daughter, pray
could step over; but all of them were going the cease to preach beneficence on the large scale.
same way. At last, he asked one where he was " On the best portion of a good man's life, going? Why,' replied the little rill, 'I am going His little nameless, unremembered acts
to New Orleans. I heard the people there want a of kindness and of love."
great' canal, a thousand miles long, and fifteeri In a scene of great reverses and real suffering hundred feet wide, and I am going to help make in a mercantile and manufacturing world, there it.'- And pray what can you do ? I can step over is occasion for the luxury of doing good. The you. What can you do ?- I don't know what I happiest mechanic I ever knew was a hatter
can do, but I shall be there. And so saying, it who had grown rich, and who felt himself
hurried on. He came to another, and asked the
same question, and received the same answer. All therehy exalted only in this sense, that his re
were hurrying on to make the great canal, in sponsibility as a steward was increased. It
which the steamships of the West, with their heavy was sacred wealth.
burdens, were to be transported. On the heads of " For God, who gave the riches, gave the heart the Alleghany, the Sciota, and the Mississippi, he To sanctify the whole by giving part.”
found thousands more of little streams, hurried on The poorest man may lessen his neighbor's by the same impulses, and which, while he yet load. He who has no gold may give what gold spoke to them, passed out of sight. None knew cannot purchase. If religion does not make
what he could do, but all were determined to do
something. He passed on until he came to the men who profess it more ready to render others
* mighty Mississippi, and there he found the canal happy, it is a pretence. We are to be judged was made. The noble steamships rode proudly on of at last by this rule. The inquiry is to be es- its surface; and as its waters diminished, they were pecially concerning our conduct toward the again replenished to the brim by every mountain sick, the prisoner, the pauper and the foreigner. spring and every stream. Thus do the little rills The neighbor whom we are to love is our next make the stream, the stream the river, till the united door neighbor; that is the man who falls in our waters of the whole pour on their way, rejoicing, way. The Samaritan knew this. It was but to the glorious ocean. So is man to the mass, and a small pittance he gave; the poorest among us
the mass to the grand tide of human affairs. Each may go and do likewise. Do not allow a towns.
little mortal, weak and weary though he be, can
I do something in making up the mighty stream of man, a stranger, or even an emigrant to suffer for lack of your endeavors.
human events, as it rolls on to the ocean of eter
It will cost you nity._Temp. Ad. little, but it will be much to him.
'Tis a little thing To give a cup of water; yet its draught
STATE CONVENTION OF COUNTY of cool refreshment, drained by severed lips,
In accordance with the discretion vested in us, by It is a little thing to speak a phrase
the State Convention held at Utica in May last, and in Of common comfort, which by daily use
compliance with the suggestion of several of the DeHas almost lost its sense; yet on the ear
puties, the undersigned hereby give notice, that a Con. or him who thought to die unmourned, 'twill fall vention of COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS of Common Schols, Like choicest music."
will be held at thc CAPITOL in the City of ALBANT, on
WEDNESDAY, the 17th day of May, inst., at 10 o'clock, Help others and you relieve yourself. Go
A. M.; for the purpose of adopting such measures as out and drive away the cloud from your dis. may lead to promote Sound Education, elevate the tressed neighbor's brow, and you will return character and qualifications of teachers, improve the with a lighter heart. Take heed to the little
means of instruction, and advance the interests of the
schools committed to their charge." things-the trifling, unobserved language or
| The important changes, which the law of the last action-passing in a moment. A syllable may session has introduced into our Common School Syg.
el tem, renders it especially desirable that a full attend. dying. A frown may crush a gentle heart; the
ance should be had; as it is intended to be strictly &
business Convention. smile of forgiveness may relieve from torture.
THEODORE F. KING, He that is faithful in that which is least, is
DAVID G. WOODEN, faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in
ALEXANDER FONDA, the least, is unjust also in much.
SAMUEL S. RANDALL,
FRANCIS DWIGHT, CHARLES QUILL.
Committee to call State Conventions. TO THE TEACHER.-A blow is much more easily given than a reason.
Wistrict School Journal. The blow should be withheld and the reason given.
Is published on the Ist of each month-Office New Never strike a scholar when in a passion.