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have been partially successful, as there is much in duration and secondary in importance; and so more feeling and interest taken in our district long as they retain such a character and are held schools. The inhabitants of school districts are in such estimation, the object for which they beginning to see the importance of procuring were established, will of necessity, be only teachers qualified for the business; they see partially accomplished. But by reducing the that it is not economy to employ teachers whose number of departments to four, and increasing only recommendation is that they will keep the the annual appropriation to each from $300 to school cheap. The situation of their schools is $1200, their relation to the academies in which more frequently the topic of conversation, and they are established, will be reversed, as they they appear to realize the necessity of bestow. will then, instead of being as now secondary, be. ing upon them a greater amount of their per come primary objects of attention and regard: sonal care and attention, in order to raise the the principals of such academies, in consideration character and elevate the standard of their com- of such endowment, will, it is reasonable to pre. mon schools.
sume, be selected with special reference to their NATHAN TIDD, qualifications to conduct such departments, and Dep. Sup. of Chemung Co. the students who attend them without being sub.
ject to any additional charges, will have greatly REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY-NORMAL
increased advantages for improvement.
The committee therelore propose that an ordi. SCHOOLS.
nance be adopted to carry out the plan proposed
in the communication above referred to, and they The following ordinance of the Regents is one have accordingly prepared the draft of an ordiof the most important measures yet adopted for the pance, whieh is herewith submitted : improvement of our common schools. We confi
ORDINANCE, &c. dently anticipate from it, the establishment of in-| Be it ordained by the Regents of the University of the stitutions for the education of teachers, which shall state of New York, that the Departments for the educa.
tion of Teachers of Common Schools heretofore estabaccomplish the object of their creation and merit the lished by this Board, be reduced to four: to be
ed as follows: One in the Southern, one in the Eastern, generous patronage of the state; and we hope
one in the Northern, and one in the Western section of from their influence a rapid and general diffu- the state. That the following named academies be and
they are hereby designated for the establishment of said sion of those thorough methods of culture, which
departments, that is to say: shall give new dignity to the profession of teach
For the southern section of the state,
- Academy. ing, and greater usefulness and popularity to our For the northern section of the state,
Academy. For the eastern section of the state,
- Academy. district schools.
For the western section of the state,
Academy. We trust that the plan now adopted will be care.. But inasmuch as such departments when established
by the Regents of the University, are by law placed unfully matured and immediately carried out; and that
der the direction of the Secretary of State as Superintenno academy will be deemed worthy of holding this dent of Common Schools, the designation of the acade.
mies above named, for the purposes above stated, is sacred trust for the people, that will not make the
made on condition that the trustees of the said acadeeducation of teachers for common schools, its mies, so designated, on receiving notice thereof, shall,
in consideration of the appropriation to be made to them prominent and leading object.
as hereinafter stated, and so long as such appropriation We shall return to this important subject in a shall continue to be made to them, consent and agree by
resolution under their corporate seal, to establish and future number.-ED.
conduct said departments, on such a foundation, and in April 11, 1843.
such manner as shall be prescribed and required by the
said Superintendent of Common Schools, to whom it is The following report and ordinance were una hereby referred, to correspond with auid academies, in
relation to such consent and agreement, and to report pimously adopted, and ordered to be published: thereon to this Board at some future meeting. The committee to whom was referred the
And be it further ordained, that all future appropria.
I tions of that part of the income of the literature fund, communication from the Secretary of State, as
intended for the support of departments for the educa. Superinlendent of Common Schools, recommend. tion of common school teachers, shall be made exclu. inz a reduction in the number of academies in sively to such academies as are or shall be designated
under the preceding section of this ordinance, and the which departments for the education of Common
whole amount authorized to be so appropriated, shall be School teachers are established, respectfully re either equally divided among such academies, or in proport:
portion to the number of teachers instructed by them, as That they concur with the Superintendent, in shall be hereafter determined. Nothing in this ordinance the opinion expressed in his communication, that
shall be deemed to extend to, or in any manner affect,
any department for the education of teachers of common the appropriation of that part of the income or schools, which the Regents of the University are requir. the Literature Fund intended for the support of ed by law to have established in every academy which departments for the education of teachers, oughl receives a share of $700 in the general distribution of to be limited to four acatlemies, to be designated visitation,
$40,000, annually made among academies subject to their by the Regents of the University, in the manner The Regents reserve to themselves the right of alterproposed by the Superintendent. The number of ing, modifying or rescinding the preceding ordinance, or academies in which such departments are now es- any part thereof. tablished being sixteen, and the amount of public
(A copy,) T. ROMEIN BECK, Sec'y.
| It is expected that the Regents will designato money annually appropriated to them being only $4800, the money allolled to each ($300) is so
the above academies at an early period in the eninadequate to accomplish the object of the appro
suing autumn. priation, that the departments, under their pre
The parent that visits the school most, is sure sent organization, are generally considered and treated by the several academies in which they to get the most of the teacher's services. are established, as mere appendages, lemporaryl Advise your teacher, but do not slander him,
DISTRIOT SCHOOL JOURNAL. $50,000, and creates in their stead eight hundred
and thirty-two town superintendents, possessing FRANCIS DWIGHT, EDITOR.
the same powers, but under increased responsibili
ties to the people for the right application of the OFFICIAL-TO SCHOOL OFFICERS.
public money. The next No. of the Journal will be issued by
It provides for the faithful discharge of duty by the 15th inst., and will contain the official exposi
county superintendents;—by giving the state supertion of the new school act, and the form of the
intendent power in certain cases, to withhold the bond to be given by Town Superintendents, togeth
state's moiety of their salary; and also to remove er with such explanations as may be necessary.
from office, should neglect or violation of duty The county superintendents, are directed to call
make it necessary. the attention of the proper town officers, to the ! It gives the right of appeal, in the first instance, provision requiring the appointment of a town su- to the county superintendent;-that district difficulperintendent on the first day of June. It is an im
ties may be settled at home, where they are best portant office, and its incumbent should be selected understood, and the expense and delay prewith much care.
vented of carrying up every petty question to the
Yened or carrying up every
state superintendent for adjudication.
It establishes three grades of certificates for THE NEW COMMON SCHOOL ACT. teachers;-that a generous emulation may be awa
kened among the educators of our youth, to secure By the strong vote in the Assembly of 79 ayes the highest evidence of qualification from the to 24 noes, and the UNANIMOUS assent of the Sen- hands of the state superintendent. ate, this most important bill of the session has be- It prolongs the term of office of trustees to three come a law; thus making many beneficent reforms years, one trustee going out each year ;-to secure a in the administration of the schools, and recogni- more systematic administration of the affairs of the zing and sustaining as the settled policy of the districts, and prevent thos numerous difficulties state the admirable system of supervision by coun- arising from the ignorance of the trustees of the ty superintendents.
arrangements of their predecessors. We congratulate our fellow citizens on this tri- It directs that the teacher's money shall remain umph of the great cause of education. Though in the hands of the town superintendents, until the uncalled for and unheeded by those who are lost in written order of a majority of the trustees of any the hurly burly of party politics, still there are district is presented, when it shall be paid to the many, who looking indifferently on the scramble teacher entitled to receive the same. This provifor office, will rejoice at the success of these sion was called for by many trustees, who found the great measures of educational reform, in which custom of drawing the public money and dividing alone lies the hope of our country. For they feel it among themselves, a cause of frequent embarthat the heart of the people must be reinforced by a rassment. It was called or by public policy, as in higher and sterner morality; that the common mind many cases the school money has been lost by must be enlightened by a wiser and better culture; 1 passing into the hands of insolvents. It was that our schools must teach virtue as well as know-called for by justice to the teacher, who ledge, must develop and cherish principles to con- has often been compelled to wait month after troland habits to protect the life, or universal cor- month for his hard earned pay, and sometimes ruption and dishonesty will make the name of forced to compound by taking anything but the American a scorn throughout all coming time. money so justly his own. This provision was not And it is in view of these considerations that we objected to by any member of the legislature. rejoice in this new and great measure of social It perpetuates our admirable library system; auamelioration. It is a giant stride forward in the thorizing, however, the districts in certain cases, path of true civilization.
to purchase maps, globes, and other school appaThe Act, which will be found on the first page ratus. of this Journal, embodies the principal amend- IT DOES NOT ADD to the powers of the county ments recommended and vindicated by the State superintendent except in the matter of appeals, Superintendent in his annual report; and is not leaving that officer as now, to accomplish the great only a great measure of educational, but also of objects of his mission by an earnest and zealous economical reform. Its leading provisions are devotion to the cause of the schools; his powers powerfully advocated in the extract from Mr. being advisory, and appeals lying from all his acts Hulburd's Report, which we give in this number, to the department. and which makes any general remarks of our own! It authorizes the continuance of the subscription unnecessary. We shall therefore merely indi. Ito a School Journal on grounds of economy and util cate its prominent features.
ity ;-inasmuch as through its columns those laws, It abolishes forty-one hundred and sixty petty offi- decisions, and regulations of the common schools ces, whose annual charge on the people exceeded are sent to every district, which would otherwise at a greatly increased expense,need to be published and forwarded in pamphlet form, as their general diffusion is essential to the constant and harmonious progress of the system.
Such are the main provisions of the ACT AMENDATORY OF THE SEVERAL ACTS IN RELATION TO COMMON SCHOOLS, and we feel encouraged to believe that the time is near, when our schools shall under this efficient system, become the means of more widely diffused blessings than ever before alleviated the lot of man.
It will be noticed that the laro takes effect on the first day of June next.
metic mar Names of Age. Parents' Reading. Spelling. Arith-Gram.Gogra - Algebra His-Physi
Since our last notice of these meetings, numerous common school conventions have been held throughout the state.
In Orange, a thorough county organization has recently been established, which will, if efficiently carried out, make reform easy, rapid and safe.
In Yates, successive conventions met, in January, February and March, and their proceedings show a constantly increasing interest. We see with gratification, that the reports and discussions are published at length in the Yates County Whig. Its columns could not be devoted to a better object, than the diffusion of sound views on this neglected but paramount interest of society.
We regret that we have been unable to republish proceed to call your pupils fer examination in the proceedings of Yates and Orange, instead of
alphabetical order ; i. e., say to all those whose
surnames begin with the letter A, (or, if you giving so meagre a notice of such important and
please, you can take two or three letters, A, B, encouraging movements.
C,)-arrange yourselves upon this seat, (or in
any convenient part of the room, as the teacher (From the Common School Journal.)
may choose.) Then proceed to take their
names and ages, and their parents' names.SCHOOL ORDER.
Then examine them, each one in order, in read.
ing, spelling, or in any two or three of the va. First, the classification of a school. This is rious branches ; but do not examine them in all a point which, at the opening of a school, de. the branches at this sitting. It would make the mands immediate attention. I have known a exerrise too long; and the other pupils would school kept in confusion all winter from the grow vneasy. It would be beiter, after getting want of an early and good classification of the through a part of the branches, to dismiss this pupils. Young teacher, let me call your atten. division, and call the next in rotation, D, E, F, tion a moment to this point. It is a matter of and so on through the alphabet. After going no little importance. It has more to do with once round, call the first division again ; exa. your comfort and your success in school than i mine them in the remaining branches, or in two you may imagine. 'Suppose you found yourself or three of them ; then the second, and so on to-morrow morning in the school-room for the until the whole examination is finished. And first time, with from fifty to eighty scholars,- all this, especially with the skilful and expewhat would be your first business? To classifyrienced practitioner, may be a much shorter your school. This, in towns where the system process than most would imagine. A half do. of a gradation of schools has been adopted, zen lines, for instance, in reading, and a few will be comparatively an easy task. When words of common use, of marked character, scholars are nearly of the same age and attain. and not among our most difficult combinations, ment, two or three divisions will comprise all selected for spelling, such as believe, receive, sethe varieties. But I will suppose you are in a paration, supersede, infallible, grammar, wouldcommon grammar-school,-such as most of our give the discerning teacher a good, yea, almost winter schools in the country are,-of from for a certain clue to the scholars' real knowledge in ty to eighty scholars; and all the varieties of these branches ; and so of the rest. As you age and attainment which may be found be examine, on your paper and under the proper tween four years and twenty. Here the pro. head put down the degree of excellence from cess for classification may be something like the one up to four, five, or six, according as you following, viz:
please to extend the scale of gradation. Having previously prepared a sheet of paper When you have got through; what have you after the form here given,
as a reward for your labor? You have before
you an alphabetical list of your scholars, and the scholars were allowed to move along in a of their parents,-a very convenient matter for confused, noisy and boisterous manner, when reference, and you have formed, by means of entering or retiring from the room at the comthis examination, some acquaintance, you have mencement and close of school, or when pasg. obtained some valuable insight into the charac.ing to and from recitation seats. It is an indi. ter of every member of your school ; all this at cation of the want of order, which I have ne. the outset, almost before you have commenced ver known to fail in a single instance. And it operations. What an immense advantage it is not only an indication of the want of order, gives you! It is like chart and compass to the but an absolute hindrance tn it. The boy who mariner, about to launch into an unexplored is allowed to enter the school-room blustering. sea. It is a knowledge whose value you will ly, will, almost imperceptibly to himself, feel feel all your journey through ; and which may that he has permission to bluster through the save you from many a school disaster, and pos- / whole day. Some teachers, on the contrary, sibly your character as a teacher from utter exercise a needless restraint on this point, and ruin. There are other methods in which the make the scholars go about singly and on tip. classification may be made. If the school has toe. There is a happy medium more favorable been long in existence, and under pretty judi. to good order than either extreme. Let every cious discipline, you may venture to tell the teacher aim to secure this. When school is scholars to arrange themselves in classes in dismissed, or classes are called, let the scholars their usual manner. But even then I would advance with a light step,-not all in a bodyproceed to take names in alphabetical order, but by seats, or in small companies. and examine just as before. The particular! I have now said what I have to offer, on mode of getting at this preliminary acquaintance school order,-its importance and the mode of with your school is not essential ; it is the thing | preserving it. At some future period I may itself. This I insist upon. Without it, a week, give my views on the proper mode of teaching month, or even half the term, may slip away, some of the common branches. before you have the school arranged, before you know what each scholar can do, and where he
REPORT. can work to most advantage. After this gene.
We shall return again and again for further ex. ral arrangement, or classification, in the pro. gress of the school, it will, no doubt, be neces. tracts from this admirable report. It is written sary to make sundry changes and transfers, with much power, exhibiting untiring industry from time to time, as further acquaintance and more minute examination reveal to you more
| in collecting important educational statistics, and clearly the true position of every pupil. But | using them with great effect in enforcing and i!. this is very different from attempting to go on lustrating the arguments of the committee in be. without any classification. It is all the diffe.
half of a system of thorough and judicious surence between a plan somewhat short of persection, and no plan at all,-utter confusion.
pervision. We ask attention to the following It may be asked, on what principle should exposition of the proposed amendment of the the classification proceed? Should it be found.
system, as more immediately interesting in con. ed on age, or attainment, or both ? I reply,
nection with the action of the Legislature.—ED.] chiefly on attainments ; but let some respect be paid to age. On this point, I have somewhat The committee on colleges, academies and com. modified my views in later years. I would not mon schools, on petitions for, and remonstrances put a large boy of sixteen into a class with a against, the repeal of so much of the act rela. little girl of six or eight, because he can read ting to common schools as directs the appoint. no better than she. His backwardness, it may ment of deputy superintendents. Mr. Hulburd, be, is his misfortune, and not his fault. Hisi from the committee on colleges, &c. respectful. position would be mortifying to his self-esteem. ly asks leave to make the following UNANIMOUS It would make him uncomfortable, and he Report: would not learn so much. We do not like, any The committee have looked through the nuof us, to have our own self-esteem disturbed. merous petitions presented asking the abolition Let us have some regard to that of others. He of the office of deputy superintendent, to find will thank you in his heart for thus regarding some method proposed to remove these existing his feelings,-will be a better scholar, and you evils. To cure acknowledged defects, no substi. and all the school will be the happier for it.- stute is offered other than to fall back upon the Let him go in with those who are more his old dispensation of town inspection. The equals in years, even though they should be theory of that system was, in itself good; but somewhat further removed from him in attain in the lapse of time it has become effete; its ment. Again, in making your classification, practical operation, or rather its want of practi. should you pay any respect to existing preju- cal operation, is a hindrance to the advance of dices and peculiarities prevailing in the school common schools. The addition of the county or neighborhood ; or to the customs and ways of system renders the whole machinery complica. former teachers? I think you may, when you ted and burdensome. There are now about can so do without compromising principle. And 33,000 district trustees, about 11,000 district you would, doubtless, arrive at your own pur. clerks, about the same number of district libra. poses, by so doing, easier and quicker than in rians; 4,160 commissioners and inspectors. The any other way.
services of the three first classes are gratuitous, It is easier and safer, and often more expedi. I the two latter may receive one dollar for every tious, to ascend an inclined plane than to go up day necessarily "devoted in their official capa. at once a perpendicular steep.
city;' the aggregate amount paid yearly for this I never knew good order in a school where" devotion, exceeds $50,000; add to this the
entire expense of the county deputies, say $28,- elevate and improve their schools is abandoned. 000, and it gives $78,000 as the annual cost of It was the remark of M. Van den Ende, who is the local administration of our schools. The said to have done more than any other man in all committee propose instead of this expensive and Europe to promote the education of the people, inefficient system, to abolish the offices of com-1" take care whom you choose for inspectors; missioner and inspector, and devolve upon a new they are a class of men who ought to be searchofficer to be designated "Town Superintendented for with a lantern in one's hand.” (Cousin's of Schools, "all the duties now imposed upon those Ed. in Holland, page 31.) Let us see how we Iwo classes of officers. This subtracts from the have made this selection. A visiter in Catta. number of town officers under pay, thirty-three raugus county, says, “our commissioners and hundred and twenty-eight; reduces the amount of inspectors are elected so much in view of party, taxation in all the counties for school officers, that many can be found among them who know more than ten times that number of dollars. It not the first rudiments of an English education. is also proposed to authorize and require the (Ass. Doc. 1840, No. 307, p. 25.) In relation to county superintendent to hear and determine all | Oneida county, a visiter reports. “ in very maappeals from the decisions and acts of the town ny of the towns the inspectors are elected withsuperintendent, and from his decision to allow out the necessary qualifications; the consequan appeal to be taken to the state superinten-ence is the employment of incompetent teachers. dent. This system will be more in consonance A teacher who had taught six or seven years, with our legal proceedings; every person feeling informed the visiter that never in his recollection himself aggrieved by the act of his district, of was his school visited by an inspector.” (Ass. his trustee, or of his town school officer, will Doc. 1841, No. 153.) A visiter in Putnam counhave the right to one examination at least, ty remarks, “many of the inspectors, and I in his own town and county and in the presence might say a large majority of them, are either of his peers.
wholly incompetent to perform properly the duIt is further proposed that this sole school of-ties of that office, or pay little or no regard ficer shall give adequate security for the faithful to the requirements enjoined by the statute." accounting of the public money with which he Similar extracts might be made from the reports is intrusted. The general policy of the law has from almost every county in the state. Is it to been to require bonds whenever public money be wondered at that the Legislature of 1841, was to be received and disbursed; town collec- should in the view of such a state of facts, be tors and constables are required to give this in- disposed to look with favor upon a system, the demnity to the public, and even the collectors of main features of which had worked so well in school district moneys may be compelled to give Holland and Prussia ? satisfactory bonds; yet the school commissioner, The official reports of the deputies are filled often receiving five or ten times the amount as- I with the im nerfections of t
So with the imperfections of the present system of sessed in the school district, has by law been inspecting teachers. In the county of Schoha. permitted to receive the public funds on his per- rie, the deputy found that inspectors had "given sonal integrity. This safeguard has not always
certificates to teachers, who could not do a sum protected the town from loss. In 1836, the su
in simple substraction;" in Chenango, the depuperintendent, in his report, says, “ during the
ty says “the number of teachers employed in last three years it has repeatedly happened that this
this county, whose qualifications are adequate a commissioner has absconded with school mo. for their important station, is very small, many neys to a considerable amount in his hands, and
of the teachers do not understand arithmetic, the entire loss has fallen upon the school dis
in one town of Cortland county the deputy found tricts.” These incidents are becoming more and
it necessary to reject every candidate as unqua. ient. The committee have been able to dis: lified to teach; in Fulton county," a few teachcover no good reason why the fidelity of a schoolers had been found who had been guilty of imofficer is more trustworthy than the fidelity of moral conduct, profanity, drunkenness, &c.: an other town officers; they therefore recommend, inspector of that county, granted in one instance, that this dangerous anomaly in our fiduciary la certificate to a man who was known to be system be abolished.
intemperate, and the same day he obtained his Nineteen counties have, by their boards or certificate became beastly intoxicated; and soon supervisors, passed upon the deputy system; after the inhabitants elected that teacher an insixteen remonstrating against its abolition; three spector of schools: a deputy of Jefferson county petitioning for it, either on the ground of ex. Vroun
found some experienced teachers, holding two or pense, or of unfitness in the person appointed, three town certificates, who did not know one Many who have signed petitions for the repeal half +
half the marks ana pauses used in writing; in of the law creating the office, seem to labor un- orleans county. the deputy met with many der the mistake that the state moiety of these teacher
teachers who were very young boys, sixteen and officers' salaries, is paid from the Common
seventeen years of age, hired for twelve dollars School Fund, and diminishes, pro tanto, the
per month-girls, fifteen and sixteen, who were amount appropriated to the several districts.
hired for one dollar per week—in three instanThis is an error: half of their salaries is paid ces he found young men engaged in school, who out of the surplus of the school fund, from
were of abandoned characters, addicted to pro. which appropriations have heretofore been made ! fanity, gambling, and other dissipation, and not to colleges hospitals, &c. There only remains
only setting a fearful example before their puthe expense of the other half, about $14,000, Ipils, but using every art to entice them into the chargeable upon the counties; can this be saved
same immoralities. to the people without impairing the efficiency of the school system? It cannot, unless the
Can any one after reading such revolting, yet system of inspection—that impelling power so not
not isolated items, desire to return to a system ch relied woon in Germany and Prussin toof inspection that not only tolerated but cerli.